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  DOCID: 3651558 REF ID:A525830 1i8 &IEIt , ttM Rl c The Technological Implications of Emerging Space Programs in Southeast Asian Countries (U) Withheld from public release Pub. L. 86-36 Editor'. Note: 1m nul paper won nlird Place in the 1993 CryptoJogic Literature Award contest. Because the a thor is cu.rrently OIl a field tour, the iDfonxuation could not be updated in time for publication. (U) Thia paper wiU highlight crucial global trends in the technological developments of aatellite. nd tAe application of this technology releuant· to developing Southeast A.ian countrie ã. Worldwide.pace .,.temB, regio1l4l .pace pro,ramB, as weU as qom.estic space progranu in certain cleueloJlinl Asian countries. wUl alao emmin.ed. Moreouer, emmIJl.es  of con.{iguraJion dui M and technological adaptations, which were carried out in several A.ian countries, their reieoon.ce, and future possible applications are discussed. 1.0. INTRODUCTION (U) (0) The potential for satellites to provide communications and scientific services is enormous, yet the use or space technology is still in its infancy in Asian countries. However, in the wake of the sudden evaporation of communism, Asia is adapting to a new world order by poising itseltto become the world's economic powerhouse towards the end of this decade. Therefore. there is no doubt that the Asian region ~ become a major satellite industry marketplace in the 1990 . Moreover. the diversity throughout Asia suggests that there is no single formula for satellite usage. Each nation has its own unique set otmarket factors, national priorities and indigenous capabilities that will come into play. With this in mind. the successful player will be one who is sensitive to the individual nuances of each Asian country and is able to fine-tune productS, tailor services and adopt new technologies to meet the specific demands ot each nation. 2.0. GLOBAL TRENDS IN THE TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT OF SATELLITES (U) (U) Space technology and its applications, especially in the areas ot communications, meteorology, education, and natural resources, h v~ had a significant impact on the development of nations. As nations continue to strive towards a greater reliance on space, global trends in the areas ttelecommunlcations~ remote sensing, and very small aperture terminals (VSAT) applications will continue to influence the life-styles of society as a whole. DECLASSIFIED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE INTERAGENCY SECURITY CLASSIFICATION APPEALS PANEL. E.O.13526, SECTION 5.3(b)(3) ISCAP No. Z. t.; \..:: -...:4) , document L. 85 .i ... M   U S.ONL'Y  DOClD: 3651558 REF lD:A525830 l P III.T MI JIt CRYPTOLOGIC Ql1ARTERL Y (U) Space technology has ~evolutionize the communication process. Telecommunications networks have increasingly become the primary highway for information nd data traffic transfer across the globe. Through the use o satellites, the internationalization of military. economic, and political issues is becoming a reality. (U) Communication satellites are being utilized increasingly for national requirements, because they are able t otTer a variety of services, including telephonic communication, television broadcasting, telex, and facsimiJe. Another added benefit is the ability t overcome land obstacles, such as mountains, to communicate with remote locations. J.J. Remote Sensing U) (U) One of the nuijor uses of space technology has been in the area of remote sensing. It is often considered to be the second most important space technology after telecommunications. Through international cooperation, countries have been able t use this technology to obtain unique solutions to issues ranging from resource management to drug traffteking interdiction. 2.2.1. Deft.ni . Remote Sensing V) (U) Remote sensing is the collection, via aircraft or satellites, of solar radiation reflected (rom land and water surfaces or of radiation artitlcially emitted and reflected from land surfaces. U) Remote sensing satellites are equipped with sensor devices capabJe of picking up different forms of radiation and using them t reconstruct images of the area being reflected. Various sensors are used to respond to different bands of electromagnetic radiation in order to construct different maps based on the conditions of locations. There are two basic types of sensors: optical and microwa ve. 1. (U) Optical sensors are passive systems. The systems are sensitive to various light conditions such as infrared and visible. Optical sensors include multispectral scanner (MSS) subsystems, the Return Beam Vidicon (RBV) camera, the Thematic Mapper (TM). and the High Resolution Visible (HRV) camera. . 2. eU) Microwave sensors can be either active or passive. Active systems transmit signals and then receive the reflected signals. Microwave sensors are found in synthetic aperture radar (SAR). the radar aJtimeter (RA), and the microwave scanning radiometer (MSR). The primary advantage of the radar systems is their ability to see through clouds and nighttime conditions. 2 2 2 IlItI lI4lional Cooperation U) (U) Remote sensing began in the United States with the introduction of an earth resouree satellite. Today. the development of remote sensing programs is considered to be lar IIIIIT IIMI .... 86 u.s. ONLY  DOCID: 3651558 REF ID :A525830 EMERGING SPACE PROGRAMS an important part of space programs in many countries, and the utilization and development of new remote sensing satellites have continued to expand. The primary remote sensing satellites utilized by Southeast Asian countries are owned and operated by the United States, France. Japan, the European Space Agency (ESA), and India. 2.2.2.1. United. States (U) (u) The United States launched the first remote sensing satellites during the 19608, eventually followed by the civilian. non· meteorological LANDSAT series. The vivid images produced by LANDSATs 1·3 were immediately put into practical use by aiding in the management of the world's food. energy and environment. Subsequently, many countries, including Thailand. built ground stations to receive data from LANDSAT . mages while a two-company consortium was formed in the U.S. to sell the images. Pi,. 1. USA's LANDSAT.' sldelllte(U) (U) LANDSAT-4 and LANDSAT-5 were launched in July 1982 and March 1984. respectively, and placed into a sun-synchronous orbit at an inclination of 98.2 degrees. Both satellites are equipped with a 30m resolution Thematic Mapper (TM) and an 80m resolution multispectral scanner (MSS). The satellites are capable of providing up to 100 images a day that are 185 km wide with a 14 percent side overlap at the equator, increasing with altitude. Real-time TM data are transmitted. at a rate of 84 9Mb1s on the X-band, while MSS data are transmitted at 15Mbls on the S-band. ~ mid-April 1993, LANDSAT·6 (fig. 1) was going through its rmal check-out phase before its shipment to a U.S. testing range, and its launch is expected to occur in July 1993. The satellite will be equipped with an Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) tor its primary sensor. The ETM allows for 15m-resolution panchromatic capability, with up to 900 images per day. Fic 2 lUtce's SPOT ·ll1ateUite ID 87 ,. ll eM T IfMlltA l. S OSI /  DOClD: 3651558 REF ID:A525830 la a   HMII CRYPTOLOGICQUARTERLY 2.2.2.2. France (U) (U) Franee initiated the SPOT (Experimental Satellite tor Earth Observation) program in 1978 and established the firm SPOT Image SA in 1982. The objective of the program is the sale of photographic imagery {or studies in the areas of agriculture, forestry, mineral and oil exploration, and mapping. (U) SPOT -I was launched on 22 February 1986 on an AriQM 1 rocket from Kourou, French Guiana. It was the first remote-sensing satelHte w~t potential' military applications launched outside of the U.S., USSR, or China. The satellite was launched into a circular, sun-synchronous orbit with a period of 101.4 minutes, and a 26-day/369 orbit repeat cycle. The payload consists of an HRV pushbroom-eharged coupledoilevice imaging system. The SPOT sensing system operates in the visible and near-infrared bands· providing black-and-white images wi~ a resolution of 10 meters. Color images are produced Crom input in three narrow spectral bands. SPOT·1 was intended to have a life-span of two years, but it was operable until the French deactivated it on 31 ecem~r 1990. after nearly five years in orbit (r'IUre 2). (U) SPOT-2 became France's primary remote sensing satellite in January 1990 with the deactivation of SPOT-I. SPOT-2, also launched from French Guiana, was boosted by an Ariane 4 rocket into essentially the same orbit as SPOT· I SPOT-2's design is similar to that of SPOT· 1 with the exception of four charge-coupled. device (CCD) arrays combined in each HRV detection unit. It is also equipped with an additional system. designated Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite (DORIS), for accurate orbit determination. France is developing another earth observation satellite, SPOT-S, which is scheduled to e launched. in 1993. 2.2.2.3. Japan (U) (U) The Japanese have three remote sensing programs, the Marine Observation Satellite (MOS-I), launched in February 1987, the Earth Resources -Satellite (JEllS-I), launched in February 1992. and the Advanced Earth Observation Satellite (ADEOS), projected to be launched in February 1996. (U) The MOS-I, Japan's first domestic earth resourees satellite. was launched in February 1987 by a two-stage N-II launch vehicle from Tanegashima Space Center. MOS-1 had a planned operational life span of two years, with MOS-lb providing eaverage fonowing its launch in February 1990. Both 740·kg satellites were placed into a sun-synchronous orbit at an altitude of approximately 909 km and an inclination of 99 degrees. Each satellite is equipped. with onboard sensors consisting of a multispectral electronic self-scanning radiometer (MESSR), a microwave scanning ~diometer (MSR), a visible and thermal infrared radiometer (VTIRl, and a data collection system transponder (DCST). Both satellites were developed primarily for monitoring ocean phenomena and ~t blishing common technology for polar-orbiting earth observation satellites. E.O. 13526, section 1.4(c) le IIl eIf HMII 88 .5. ONLY ........ -
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