AMERICANS HEAD WEST. In 1800 less than 400,000 settlers lived west of the Appalachian Mountains

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MANIFEST DESTINY AMERICANS HEAD WEST In 1800 less than 400,000 settlers lived west of the Appalachian Mountains Many moved for either religious reasons or to own farms MANIFEST DESTINY A magazine editor
MANIFEST DESTINY AMERICANS HEAD WEST In 1800 less than 400,000 settlers lived west of the Appalachian Mountains Many moved for either religious reasons or to own farms MANIFEST DESTINY A magazine editor named John Louis O Sullivan declared that the movement west was Manifest Destiny the idea that God had given the continent to Americans and wanted them to settle western lands The first settlers west of the Appalachians were squatters, because they settled on lands they did not own FARMING MADE EASIER New technologies included: Plow with an iron blade Mechanical reaper plow with sharp-edged steel blades that cut cleanly through the tough sod (Deere) SETTLING TO THE PACIFIC Great Plains land wasn t the best to farm on Oregon and California better options Natives and other nations already claimed areas there US and GB both wanted to own Oregon. Eastern religious peoples settled in southern Oregon SETTELING TO THE PACIFIC Mexico controlled California, but distance made it difficult to govern In 1839 the governor of California wanted to attract more settlers, so he granted 50,000 acres in Sacramento Valley to a German immigrant, John Sutter. Sutter built a trading post and cattle ranch on his land SETTLNG TO THE PACIFIC Mountain men, ex Kit Carson and Jim Bridger, made their living by trapping animals, selling the furs to traders Gained knowledge of the territory and the Native Americans who lived there By the 1840s, the mountain men had carved out several east-west passages (Oregon Trail) The trails were vital to settling the West SETTLING TO THE PACIFIC At first, wagon trains hired mountain men to guide them. After the trails became worn, most over landers those who traveled west in wagon trains used guidebooks written by earlier emigrants In 1846 the Donner Party a group of 87 over landers named after the brothers who led them were trapped by winter snows in the Sierra Nevada Almost half the party died of starvation TEXAS Texas was under Mexican control Tejanos the Spanish-speaking people of the area had established settlements in the southern part of the region. Because Tejanos refused to move to the northern part of the region where Native American groups lived, Mexico invited Americans and others to settle there TEXAS Most American emigrants to Texas came at the encouragement of empresarios a Spanish word for agents. Under the National Colonization Act, Mexico gave 26 empresarios large areas of Texas land in return for getting settlers for the land Stephen Austin, the first and most successful empresario, later the capital named after him TEXAS At first Americans agreed to Mexican citizenship as part of settlement The Americans did not adopt Mexican customs, however, nor did they think of Mexico as their country. In 1826 empresario Haden Edwards and his brother declared that the American settlements in Texas were the independent. Austin and some troops helped Mexico stop Edward s revolt TEXAS The Mexican government feared small revolt would lead to American attempt to take Texas In 1830 Mexico closed its borders to immigration by Americans, bans import of slave labor and discourages trade with the US These new laws angered settlers. TEXAS GOES TO WAR American settlers in Texas held a convention in 1832, and another, more aggressive in st - Americans asked Mexico to reopen Texas to American immigrants and to decrease the taxes on imports 2 nd - Members asked Mexico to separate Texas, making it its own state Austin to Mexico City to negotiate- Negotiations failed TEXAS GOES TO WAR Austin wrote a letter suggesting that Texas should organize its own state government(unknown to Mexican govt) Stephen Austin persuaded Mexican President Antonio López de Santa Anna to agree to lift the immigration ban and other demands Mexican officials intercept Austin s letter Jan 1834-Austin is jailed for treason REMEMBER THE ALAMO! April Santa Ana names himself dictator Austin released and urges Texans to form army Sam Houston- military experience, controls American army Santa Anna and his forces come to San Antonio 180+ Texan rebels at the Alamo- an abandoned mission William B Travis and the rebels fend off Santa Anna s army for 13 days TEXAS GOES TO WAR During this time, the new Texas government declared independence from Mexico. On March 6, 1836, Santa Anna s army defeated the Texans at the Alamo Two weeks later, a small army was forced to surrender to Santa Anna They killed 300 men Houston and his men surprise attack Mexican army and easily defeat them END OF TEXAS WAR They captured Santa Anna forced to sign a treaty recognizing independence for the Republic of Texas Sam Houston was elected president of the Republic of Texas. The citizens of Texas also voted for annexation to become part of the United States. Many northern members of Congress were against admitting Texas as a slave state. TEXAS ENTERS THE US? US claims Texas as part of Louisiana Purchase The idea of Manifest Destiny and of gaining Mexican territory had strong popular support. President John Tyler wanted to bring Texas into the Union. Texas, however, was certain to be a slave state- WHY? Antislavery leaders in Congress opposed the annexation of Texas Mexico did not recognize Texas s independence THE QUESTION OVER TEXAS Congress vetoes annexation of Texas Many Northerners thought that annexation was a pro-slavery plot. James K. Polk, a former Congressman and governor of Tennessee, was the Democratic candidate in the 1844 election. He promised to annex Texas and the Oregon territory and buy California from Mexico. He won the election. OREGON Polk says US has the right to Oregon In private, Polk agreed to split the territory with Great Britain. In June 1846, the GB and US agreed that the United States would acquire most of Oregon south of 49 north latitude. BACK TO TEXAS Before Polk took office, President Tyler had pushed a resolution through Congress that annexed Texas Mexico broke diplomatic relations with the United States & disputed Texas s southwestern border In November 1845, John Slidell was sent to Mexico City as a special envoy, or representative, to purchase California Mexico s President refused to meet with Slidell MEXICAN AMERICAN WAR After Mexico refused to discuss the U.S. purchase of California, President Polk ordered troops led by General Zachary Taylor to cross the Nueces River Mexicans saw this as an invasion of their country A Mexican force attacked Taylor s men. Polk declared war with Mexico. MAIN CAUSES OF WAR WITH MEXICO Annexation of Texas Boundary dispute Manifest Destiny and Expansionism MEXICAN AMERICAN WAR Before Polk signed the dec. of war, Taylor s troops defeated Mexican general Santa Anna and his troops Taylor and his troops continued south and defeated the Mexican army on two more occasions. In northern California, settlers led by General John C. Fremont had little trouble overcoming the Mexican presence there MEXICAN AMERICAN WAR On June 14, 1846, the settlers declared California independent from Mexico- named territory Bear Flag Republic A few weeks later, U.S. naval forces took possession of California for the United States. Despite many defeats, Mexico refused to surrender. MEXICAN AMERICAN WAR President Polk replaced Taylor with General Winfield Scott and sent him and his troops to capture Mexico City. The Mexico City was captured on September 14, On February 2, 1848, the leaders signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. TREATY OF GUADALUPE HIDALGO Gave up land to US which is now CA, UT, NV, NM, AZ, CO, WY Rio Grande as the southern border of Texas. The U.S. agreed to pay Mexico $15 million and take over $3.5 million of Mexico s debt EFFECTS OF MEXICAN AMERICAN WAR Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (peace treaty) Mexican Cession (lands given up) Gadsen Purchase- $10 million paid to Mexico for land that would later be used for railroads
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