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Bin Wang （王斌） Fudan University. WHAT COULD w BE?. Outline. Dark energy: Discords of Concordance Cosmology What is w? Could we imagine w<-1? Interaction between DE and DM Thermodynamics of the universe with DE Summary. Concordance Cosmology.

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Bin Wang （王斌）Fudan UniversityWHAT COULD w BE?OutlineDark energy: Discords of Concordance Cosmology What is w? Could we imagine w<-1? Interaction between DE and DM Thermodynamics of the universe with DE Summary Concordance CosmologyA Golden Age of cosmology: ever better data from CMB, LSS and SNe yield new insights into our Universe. Our Universe is WEIRD: about 70% dark energy, about 30% dark matter, spatially flat (with 1% precision), with a ‘whiff’ of baryons, and with a nearly flat spectrum of initial inhomogeneities. Emerging paradigm: ‘CONCORDANCE COSMOLOGY’: DE+DM. But: this means Universe is controlled by cosmic coincidences: nearly equal amounts of various ingredients today evolved very differently in the past. The Cosmic TriangleThe Friedmann equation The competition between the Decelerating effect of the mass density and the accelerating effect of the dark energydensityCOSMIC TRIANGLETightest Constraints:Low z: clusters(mass-to-light method, Baryon fraction, cluster abundance evolution)—low-densityIntermediate z: supernova—accelerationHigh z: CMB—flat universeBahcall, Ostriker, Perlmutter & Steinhardt, Science 284 (1999) 1481.Discords in The Garden of Cosmic Delights?We have ideas on explaining the coincidences of some relic abundances, ie photons, baryons, neutrinos and dark matter: Inflation→ thermal equilibrium in the Early Universe. However we do not understand the worst problem: DARK ENERGY - a smooth, non-clumping component contributing almost 70% of the critical energy density today, with negative equation of state w = p/r < 0. Usual suspects: 1) Cosmological constant: w = -1, r = (10-3 eV)4 2) Quintessence: ultra-light scalar, r=(f’)2/2 + V(f), w>-1 But: to model dark energy in this way we have to live with HEAVY FINE-TUNING! See, e.g. S. Weinberg, ’89.MORE DISCORDSIt is important to explore the nature of dark energy: we may gain insights into new physics from the IR! How does string theory explain the accelerating universe? We might learn to “tolerate” dark energy (?): a miracle sorts out the cosmological constant problem and sets the stage for cosmic structures (still: fine tunings extremely severe: 10-60-10-120 in the value of the vacuum energy, and for quintessence, 10-30 in the value of its mass, as well as sub-gravitational couplings!). But then this stage stays put… But how well do we know the nature of dark energy? Is it even there? Observationally the most interesting property is w. What is it? Could it even be that w<-1? The data, at least, does not preclude this possibility… WHAT COULD w BE?At present there is a lot of degeneracy in the data. We need priors to extract the information. SNe alone however are consistent with w in the range, roughly Hannestad et al-1.5 ≤ weff ≤ -0.7 Melchiorri et al Carroll et alw=-1.06{+0.13,-0.08} WMAP 3Y(06)One can try to model w<-1 with scalar fields like quintessence. But that requires GHOSTS: fields with negative kinetic energy, and so with a Hamiltonian not bounded from below: 3 M42 H2 = - (f’)2/2 + V(f)`Phantom field’ , Caldwell, 2002Ghost INSTABILITIES: no stable ground state, unstable perturbations! The instabilities are fast, and the Universe is OLD: t ~ 14 billion years. We should have seen the ‘damage’… SHOULD WE CARE ABOUT w<-1?The case for w<-1 from the data is strong! Theoretical prejudice against w<-1 is strong! Would we have to live with Phantoms and their ills: instabilities, negative energies…, giving up Effective Field Theory? MAYBE NOT!Conspiracies are more convincing if they DO NOT rely on supernatural elements! Ghostless explanations: 1) Change gravity in the IR, eg. scalar-tensor theory (`failed attempt’, Carroll et al) or DGP braneworlds (Sahni et al; Lue et al; RG et al ) or Dirac Cosmology (Su RK et al)In these approaches modifying gravity affect EVERYTHING in the same way (SNe, CMB, LSS), so the effects are limited to at most w ~ -1.1. 2) Another option: Interaction between DE and DM Super-acceleration (w<-1) as signature of dark sectors interactionExorcising w<-1Holographic Dark Energy ModelQFT: Short distance cutoff Long distance cutoff Cohen etal, PRL(99)Due to the limit set by formation of a black holeL – size of the current universe-- quantum zero-point energy density caused by a short distance cutoffThe largest allowed L to saturate this inequality isLi Miao et alInteraction between DE/DMThe total energy density energy density of matter fields dark energy conserved [Pavon PRD(04)] Interactionbetween DE/DMRatio of energy densities It changes with time.(EH better than the HH)Using Friedmann Eq, B. Wang, Y.G.Gong and E. Abdalla, hep-th/0506069, Phys.Lett.B624(2005)141B. Wang, C.Y.Lin and E. Abdalla, Phys.Lett.B637(2006)357.Evolution of the DEbigger, DE starts to play the role earlier, however at late stage, big DE approaches a small value Evolution of the qDeceleration Acceleration Evolution of the equation of state of DECrossing -1 behavior Is the interaction between DE & DM allowed by observations?Fitting to Golden SN dataResults of fitting to golden SN data:If we set c=1, we haveOur model is consistent with SN dataAge constraintsThe age of the Universe is a very important parameter in constraining different cosmological models Age of an expanding Universe > age of oldest objects Given a cosmological model, the age of the Universe is determined. Or alternatively if the age of the Universe is known, certain constraints can be placed on cosmological models. B.Wang et al, astro-ph/0607126 Age constraintsBut different models may give the same age of an expanding universe degeneration Age of objects at high redshift may distinguish between these degenerated models Expanding age of the Universe at high z > age of the oldest objects at the z Age constraintsSimple modelsInteracting DE&DM modelNUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF LOW ℓ CMB SPECTRUMSince we are lack of the knowledge of the perturbation theory in including the interactionbetween DE and DM, in fitting the WMAP data by using the CMBFAST we will first estimate the value of c without taking into account the coupling between DE and DM.Considering the equation of state of DE is time-dependent, we will adopt two extensively discussed DEparametrization modelsWe have to find the maximum of the likelihood functionUnderstanding the interaction between DE & DMThe entropy of the dark energy enveloped by the cosmological event horizon is related to its energy and the pressure in the horizon by the Gibb's equation Consideringand using the equilibrium temperature associated to the event horizonwe get the equilibrium DE entropy described byNow we take account of small stable fluctuations around equilibrium and assume that this fluctuation is caused by the interaction between DE and DM. It was shown that due to the fluctuation, there is a leading logarithmic correction to thermodynamic entropy around equilibrium in all thermodynamical systems,C>0 for DE domination. Thus the fluctuation is indeed stableUnderstanding the interaction between DE & DMthe entropy correction reads This entropy correction is supposed arise due to the apparence of the coupling between DE and DM. Now the total entropy enveloped by the event horizon isfrom the Gibb's law we obtainwhere is the EOS of DE when it has coupling to DMIf there is no interaction, the thermodynamical system will go back to equilibrium and the system will persist equilibrium entropy andUnderstanding the interaction between DE & DMWith interaction: Understanding the interaction between DE & DMUnderstanding the interaction between DE & DMComparing to simple model Our interacting DE scenario is compatible with the observations.Thermodynamics of the universe with DEQ-space with constant equation of state for the DE The dynamical evolution of the scale factor and the matter density is determined by the Einstein equationsDefiningfor a constant equation of state we haveaccelerating Q-spaceThe event horizon for the Q-space isThe apparent horizonThe horizons do not differ much, they relate byNeither the event horizon nor the apparent horizon changes significantly over one Hubble timeFirst law of thermodynamicsFor the apparent horizonThe amount of energy crossing the apparent horizon during the time interval dt is The apparent horizon entropy increases by the amountComparing (3) with (4) and using the definition of the temperature, the first law on the apparent horizon,For the event horizonThe total energy flow through the event horizon can be similarly got asThe entropy of the event horizon increases byUsing the Hawking temperature for the event horizon we obtainB.Wang, Y.G.Gong, E. Abdalla PRD74,083520(06),gr-qc/0511051.Second law of thermodynamicsThe entropy of the universe inside the horizon can be related to its energy and pressure in the horizon by Gibb’s equation For the apparent horizonwe haveSecond law of thermodynamicsFor the event horizonGSL breaks downSummaryCould w be smaller than -1? Observations & Theoretical understandingIs there any interaction between DE & DM? w crossing -1SN constraintAge constraintsSmall l CMB fittingUnderstanding the interaction between DE and DM ??

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