Chapter 2: Data Manipulation

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Chapter 2: Data Manipulation. Chapter 2: Data Manipulation. 2.1 Computer Architecture 2.2 Machine Language 2.3 Program Execution 2.4 Arithmetic/Logic Instructions 2.5 Communicating with Other Devices 2.6 Other Architectures. Computer Architecture.
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Chapter 2:Data ManipulationChapter 2: Data Manipulation
  • 2.1 Computer Architecture
  • 2.2 Machine Language
  • 2.3 Program Execution
  • 2.4 Arithmetic/Logic Instructions
  • 2.5 Communicating with Other Devices
  • 2.6 Other Architectures
  • Computer Architecture
  • Central Processing Unit (CPU) or processor
  • Arithmetic/Logic unit versus Control unit
  • Registers
  • General purpose
  • Special purpose
  • Bus
  • Motherboard
  • Figure 2.1 CPU and main memory connected via a busStored Program Concept A program can be encoded as bit patterns and stored in main memory. From there, the CPU can then extract the instructions and execute them. In turn, the program to be executed can be altered easily.Terminology
  • Machine instruction: An instruction (or command) encoded as a bit pattern recognizable by the CPU
  • Machine language: The set of all instructions recognized by a machine
  • Machine Language Philosophies
  • Reduced Instruction Set Computing (RISC)
  • Few, simple, efficient, and fast instructions
  • Examples: PowerPC from Apple/IBM/Motorola
  • and SPARK from Sun Microsystems
  • Complex Instruction Set Computing (CISC)
  • Many, convenient, and powerful instructions
  • Example: Pentium from Intel
  • Machine Instruction Types
  • Data Transfer: copy data from one location to another
  • Arithmetic/Logic: use existing bit patterns to compute a new bit patterns
  • Control: direct the execution of the program
  • Figure 2.2 Adding values stored in memoryFigure 2.3 Dividing values stored in memoryFigure 2.4 The architecture of the machine described in Appendix CParts of a Machine Instruction
  • Op-code: Specifies which operation to execute
  • Operand: Gives more detailed information about the operation
  • Interpretation of operand varies depending on op-code
  • Figure 2.5 The composition of an instruction for the machine in Appendix CFigure 2.6 Decoding the instruction 35A7Figure 2.7 An encoded version of the instructions in Figure 2.2Program Execution
  • Controlled by two special-purpose registers
  • Program counter: address of next instruction
  • Instruction register: current instruction
  • Machine Cycle
  • Fetch
  • Decode
  • Execute
  • Figure 2.8 The machine cycleFigure 2.9 Decoding the instruction B258Figure 2.10 The program from Figure 2.7 stored in main memory ready for executionFigure 2.11 Performing the fetch step of the machine cycleFigure 2.11 Performing the fetch step of the machine cycle (cont’d)Arithmetic/Logic Operations
  • Logic: AND, OR, XOR
  • Masking
  • Rotate and Shift: circular shift, logical shift, arithmetic shift
  • Arithmetic: add, subtract, multiply, divide
  • Precise action depends on how the values are encoded (two’s complement versus floating-point).
  • Figure 2.12 Rotating the bit pattern 65 (hexadecimal) one bit to the rightCommunicating with Other Devices
  • Controller: An intermediary apparatus that handles communication between the computer and a device
  • Specialized controllers for each type of device
  • General purpose controllers (USB and FireWire)
  • Port: The point at which a device connects to a computer
  • Memory-mapped I/O: CPU communicates with peripheral devices as though they were memory cells
  • Figure 2.13 Controllers attached to a machine’s busFigure 2.14 A conceptual representation of memory-mapped I/OCommunicating with Other Devices (continued)
  • Direct memory access (DMA): Main memory access by a controller over the bus
  • Von Neumann Bottleneck: Insufficient bus speed impedes performance
  • Handshaking: The process of coordinating the transfer of data between components
  • Communicating with Other Devices (continued)
  • Parallel Communication: Several communication paths transfer bits simultaneously.
  • Serial Communication: Bits are transferred one after the other over a single communication path.
  • Data Communication Rates
  • Measurement units
  • Bps: Bits per second
  • Kbps: Kilo-bps (1,000 bps)
  • Mbps: Mega-bps (1,000,000 bps)
  • Gbps: Giga-bps (1,000,000,000 bps)
  • Bandwidth: Maximum available rate
  • Other Architectures
  • Technologies to increase throughput:
  • Pipelining: Overlap steps of the machine cycle
  • Parallel Processing: Use multiple processors simultaneously
  • SISD: No parallel processing
  • MIMD: Different programs, different data
  • SIMD: Same program, different data
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