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Chapter 39.1 terms. Pathogen Infectious disease Koch’s postulates. Chapter 39 RQ…. What are disease-causing agents called? What procedure is used to identify a pathogen? The common cold is an example of an ___demic disease. What proteins protect cells from viruses?
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Chapter 39.1 terms
  • Pathogen
  • Infectious disease
  • Koch’s postulates
  • Chapter 39 RQ…
  • What are disease-causing agents called?
  • What procedure is used to identify a pathogen?
  • The common cold is an example of an ___demic disease.
  • What proteins protect cells from viruses?
  • Which cells does HIV kill?
  • 1. What is an infectious disease?
  • Caused by disease-causing agents – “pathogens”
  • Examples: bacteria, protozoans, fungi, viruses, worms, etc.
  • They are found in soil, water, animals, and other people
  • They disrupt your body’s homeostasis 
  • Anthrax, Malaria, Athlete’s Foot, HIV, and tapeworm2. What procedure is followed to determine what causes a disease?
  • Lots of causes to diseases…
  • Genetic, wear & tear, exposure, malnutrition, pathogens (which cause infectious disease)
  • Koch’s postulates help discover which pathogen causes which infectious disease
  • Find same pathogen in every case of the disease
  • Isolate pathogen & grow outside of organism
  • Place pure pathogen in a healthy host, disease must be caused
  • Re-isolate pathogen from the new host & show that it is the same as the original 
  • Good Morning3. What does it mean to be a “reservoir” of a pathogen?
  • Anything that could harbor a disease and potentially spread it
  • The human body itself is the main source of human diseases
  • People who have the pathogen but are not sick yet are in the “incubation period” 
  • 4. In what ways can infectious diseases be transmitted?
  • Direct contact
  • *common cold, influenza, STDs
  • By an object
  • *bacteria, other microorganisms
  • Through the air (coughing, sneezing)
  • *Streptococcus, measles
  • A vector (intermediate organism)
  • *Malaria, West Nile, Lyme disease, the bubonic plague Chapter 39.1 terms…
  • Endemic disease
  • Epidemic
  • Antibiotic
  • 5. How do viruses and bacteria cause symptoms of a disease?
  • Viruses…
  • Cause damage by taking over a cell’s DNA and organelles to make the cell make more virus
  • Bacteria…
  • Most damage done by toxins that are transported to the blood
  • Can inhibit protein synthesis, destroy blood cells and vessels, produce fever, or cause convulsions by damaging the nervous system 
  • EndemicDiseases that are constantly present in the populationEx: the common coldEpidemicWhen many people in the same area come down with the disease at the same timeEx: influenza, typhoid fever, etc 6.Distinguish between the patterns of endemic and epidemic diseases.7. In what ways can infectious diseases be treated?
  • Fight bacterial diseases with antibiotics (NO effect on viruses… )
  • Continued use of antibiotics has caused bacterial resistance – penicillin example
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae is now penicillin-resistant (it causes pneumonia, ear infections, and meningitis)
  • There are anti-viral drugs, but our best defense is our own immune system! 
  • Answer questions (1 – 4) on page 1030.Chapter 39.2 terms
  • Innate immunity
  • Phagocyte
  • Interferon
  • 8. Distinguish between innate and acquired immunity.
  • Innate – the body’s earliest lines of defense and those you were born with
  • Acquired – when your body builds up a resistance to a specific pathogen 
  • 9. How do your skin and body secretions protect you?
  • Mucus – keeps various parts of the body from drying out & traps foreign substances
  • Gastric juice – acidic & destroys pathogens
  • Sweat, tears, saliva – all have lysozyme which breaks down bacterial cell walls 
  • 10. How does inflammation help fight pathogens?
  • Inflammation – redness, swelling, pain and heat to the injured area
  • It begins when damaged tissue cells and basophils release histamine
  • This causes the local blood vessels to dilate, and fluid leaked into the area helps destroy the toxic agents present 
  • 11. Distinguish among the white blood cell types and describe their functions.
  • White blood cells –
  • Phagocytes – destroy pathogens by engulfing them. They include…
  • - Monocytes which mature into macrophages, neutrophils, and eosinophils *macrophages (which are in body tissues) are the first defense, which then consume all pathogens & damaged cells - neutrophils (which circulate in the blood) come next - new tiny monocytes squeeze into the area & mature into phagocytes
  • The infected tissue, all of the dead pathogen, dead WBCs, and body fluids is called PUS 
  • 12. What are interferons? How are they produced and what do they do?
  • Phagocytes alone cannot destroy viruses
  • It itself will get taken over 
  • Interferons: proteins that protect cells from viruses
  • They are host-cell specific (can only protect human cells)
  • It is produced by a body cell that has been infected – the message goes to non-infected cells, who then produce antiviral proteins 
  • Chapter 39.2 terms…
  • Lymph
  • Lymph node
  • Lymphocyte
  • 13. How does the immune system recognize cells that belong to you, and those that don’t?
  • Your cells have MHC markers that are specific to you (nametags )
  • Your immune system recognizes substances that enter your body as foreign by the protein markers (antigens) on their surfaces 
  • 14. What is the lymphatic system’s job?
  • To help maintain homeostasis by keeping a constant body fluid level
  • To help defend against disease 
  • 15. Describe lymph/tissue fluid, lymph nodes, and lymphocytes.
  • Tissue fluid – the stuff that surrounds all of your cells
  • Made of water & dissolved substances from blood
  • When it enters lymph capillaries it is now called “lymph”
  • This fluid returns to the bloodstream after if has been filtered
  • Lymph nodes – small mass of tissue
  • Contains lymphocytes to filter pathogens from lymph
  • Lymphocytes – a type of WBC that defends against foreign substances 
  • Continued..
  • Tonsils – large clusters of lymph tissue
  • Form a protective ring and provide protection against pathogens
  • Spleen – stores lymphocytes, does not filter lymph
  • Destroys bacteria and worn-out RBCs
  • Acts as a blood reservoir
  • Thymus – located above the heart
  • Stores immature lymphocytes until they mature 
  • Antibody immunityHelper T cells (made in bone marrow & matured in the thymus) activate… B cells which become either plasma cells…that make antibodies AND memory B cells that stay in the bloodstream in case the infection strikes againCell-mediated immunityCytotoxic T cells (stored in the lymph nodes, spleen, and tonsils) differentiate & clone, then…travel to the infection site and…Release enzymes directly into the pathogens, who then die 16. What two immune responses make up acquired immunity?T cellsA type of lymphocyteProduced in the bone marrow and processed in the thymusThey activate B cellsB cellsBecome plasma cells or memory cells when activated Plasma cells make antibodies (2000 per second!)Memory cells hang around 17. Distinguish between T cells and B cells. What do they each do?Chapter 39.2 terms…
  • Acquired immunity
  • T cell
  • B cell
  • AllergiesWhen the immune system overreacts to a harmless substanceMast cells release too much histamineThis causes sneezing, mucus production, rednessAutoimmune disordersWhen the immune system attacks its own cells as foreignEx: Lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis 18. Describe how allergies and autoimmune disorders might happen.PassiveNaturally acquired when antibodies are transferred from mom to baby through the placenta or milkArtificially acquired when antibodies from another person are injected into someone else (ex: snakebite)ActiveNaturally when a person is exposed to antigens & produces antibodiesArtificially when a vaccine induces an immune response (kind of a “preview” for your immune system) 19. What is the difference between passive and active immunity? How can you acquire these?20. Overview the history of HIV and AIDS, and describe how it impacts the immune system.
  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus  kills helper T cells and leads toAcquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
  • Transmitted through blood or body fluids
  • HIV is a retrovirus. It attaches to the receptor on a helper T cell, enters, and uses reverse transcriptase to write it’s RNA into DNA and become part of the host cell genome
  • For many years it continues to infect other helper T cells, and usually progresses to become AIDS 
  • Answer questions (1 – 4) on page 1041.
  • The End!
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