Control Yard Pests Responsibly

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Introduction Pests Define Identify Integrated Pest Management Prevention Cultural Biological Chemical Physical Attracting Beneficials. Control Yard Pests Responsibly. Author: Rebecca McNair Edited By: Allison Steele. Cycle of Pesticide Dependency.
IntroductionPests Define IdentifyIntegrated Pest Management Prevention Cultural Biological Chemical PhysicalAttracting BeneficialsControl Yard Pests ResponsiblyAuthor: Rebecca McNairEdited By: Allison SteeleCycle of Pesticide DependencyMany chemical pesticides are broad spectrum, killing not only target pests but also beneficial organisms that serve as natural pest control systems. NO natural controlsIndiscriminate mortality- pests and beneficials Dependence on chemical pesticides          In the days following a pesticide treatment, pests reproduce faster than predatory insects. By killing off beneficial insects, pest populations flourish.After Thomas WeisslingToleranceSome damage to plants is natural. Don’t strive for a pest free yard; instead, decide on a realistic threshold of damage.What is a Pest, really?
  • Pest- plant, animal, or other organism that is out of place
  • Diseases, Weeds, Insects, Reptiles, Mammals, Arthropods
  • Of all insect species in the world, less than 1 % are considered pests
  • Am I a Pest? This depends on where I am feeding, in the yard or the butterfly garden.ScaleAphidsMealybugsWhitefliesNematodesThripsSpider mitesPlant Diseases PlantEnvironmentDisease occurs when an agent impairs the necessary functions of a plant PathogenLeaf Spots
  • Algal, bacterial or fungal pathogens
  • Enters through injured tissues
  • Spread by splashing water, and insects
  • Root Rot
  • Poor growth, thinning canopy
  • Yellowing and leaf drop
  • Branch or plant death
  • Roots dark and rotted, strip off easily
  • Due to excessive soil moisture
  • Poor drainage
  • Over-watering
  • Planting too deep
  • Shallow rooting
  • Environmental StressesMany environmental effects are mistakenly treated as pest problems.
  • Drought
  • Nutrient deficiency
  • Variations in pH
  • Mechanical damage
  • Cold damage
  • Excessive water or fertilizer
  • Herbicides injured this tomato plant.Integrated Pest Management (IPM)
  • IPM is the coordinated use of pest and environmental information and available pest control methods
  • To prevent unacceptable levels of pest damage by the most economicalmeans
  • With the least possible hazard to people, property and the environment
  • Principles of IPM-using a resource so that the resource is not depleted or permanently damaged Sustainable Prevention Cultural Practices Biological Methods Physical Methods Chemical MethodsAfter Dr. Norman LepplaPreventionOur most sustainable pest control method involves avoiding the introduction of pests (into our country, state or yard).
  • Buy pest-free plants
  • Select plants adapted to your yard
  • Select resistant varieties
  • Avoid notoriously problematic plants
  • Properly install and maintain plants
  • Key Plant, Key PestSome key plants are likely to be infested by key pests. For example, Azaleas are commonly infested by lacebugs, particularly if the azalea is planted in a sunny location.ScoutingMonitor plants routinely to aid in early detection of an insect, disease, or other problem. Look for:
  • Favorable conditions for pests
  • Signs and symptoms of pests
  • The pests
  • Damage to plant
  • Leaf spot, leaf curl, feeding
  • Frass- insect excretions
  • Presence of natural enemies
  • Cultural PracticesWe can also avoid problems with insects and diseases through proper design, installation, and maintenance.Stressed plants are more susceptible to attack, like the Chinese Elm with crowded roots shown here.Water Wisely
  • Water during the early morning, when leaves are already wet
  • Avoid overhead irrigation of woody ornamentals
  • Many foliar diseases gain entry into plants through the water remaining on leaves.Biological ControlThe use of living organisms to control pests
  • Predators
  • Parasites
  • Pathogens
  • Lady beetles and their larvae feed on aphids and other soft bodied insects. They are commercially available in bulk.Attract Beneficial Insects by:
  • Not using harmful pesticides
  • Providing food
  • Nectar and pollen
  • Plant diversity
  • Providing shelter
  • Enhance vertical layers
  • Food for ThoughtMany herbs and fragrant flowering plants attract natural enemies
  • Gaillardia
  • Milkweeds
  • Goldenrod
  • Echinacea
  • Sunflower
  • Clover
  • Cilantro
  • Dill
  • Fennel
  • Mustards
  • Clover also fixes atmospheric nitrogen into a form available to other plants.As A Last Resort….Sometimes, major pest damage reaches a level that is unacceptable to the observer. When all previous management efforts have been ineffective, individuals may wish to apply:
  • Physical methods
  • Chemical methods
  • These are the least sustainable methods discussed because they are labor intensive, and often require repeated treatments.Physical Management
  • Remove pests by hand
  • Remove infested parts
  • Establish barriers to prevent pest access to plants
  • Yellow sticky paper attracts whiteflies and other insects. These traps help to monitor pest populations in greenhouses.Chemicals
  • Choose least harmful pesticides
  • Use selective pesticides rather than broad spectrum killers
  • Spot treat where pests are abundant, rather than the entire yard
  • Horticultural oils
  • Follow pesticide label instructions carefully
  • InsectManagement Strategies
  • “Sap Suckers”- (aphids, soft scales, mealybugs, whiteflies, spider mites)
  • Biological controls
  • Soaps and oils
  • Caterpillars-
  • Bt
  • Plant Chewers-(grasshoppers, beetles, leaf miners)
  • Use a proper insecticide if damage warrants action
  • DiseaseManagement Strategies
  • Leaf Spots-
  • Avoid overhead irrigation
  • Improve air circulation
  • Sanitize- remove infected plant parts to avoid reinfection
  • Stem Cankers/ Stem rots-
  • Change watering and pruning practices
  • Root rots-
  • Change watering practices
  • Remove infected plant and roots
  • Wilt-
  • Remove infected plant
  • For More Information onVisit: http://biocontrol.ifas.ufl.eduFeatures: Newsletters, presentations, news releases, photo galleries, tutorials, videos, training, publications, diagnostic clinic, listserv, links and more!Further Readinghttp://edis.ifas.ufl.eduENY 298 Landscape Integrated Pest ManagementENY-276 Beneficial Insects and MitesCIR 642 Homeowners' Guide to Pesticide Safety ENY 292 What’s Bugging MeWEC-20 Dealing with Unwanted Wildlife in an Urban Environment PDMG-V1-01 Characteristics of Plant Disease
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