Crisis of Water Availability A Solution

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Crisis of Water Availability A Solution
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  CRISIS OF WATER AVAILABILITY__ A SOLUTION Dr. Mirza Arshad Ali BegFormer Director General PCSIR 136C Ra!ahe Aam "o#sing Societ$% Malir "alt% &arachi'()1* Water shortage is faced b !" #erce$t of the %or&d #o#'&atio$( a$d that is %h it %as o$e of the fi)e *e iss'es ear+ar*ed b UN Secretar,-e$era& as ce$tra& to the $egotiatio$s at the .oha$$esb'rg S'++it he&d i$ A'g'st &ast ear/ Abo't 0" #er ce$t of fresh,%ater is 'sed for agric'&t're a$d o$& 1" #er ce$t is a)ai&ab&e for other #'r#oses( i$c&'di$g #otab&e %ater for dri$*i$g( +'$ici#a& 'ses( i$d'stries etc/ I$ 2a*ista$ a&+ost 345 of the a)ai&ab&e %ater is 'sed for agric'&t're a$d the do+estic a$d i$d'stria& $eeds are +et fro+ the irrigatio$ sste+/ Co$sideri$g the i$creasi$g $eed of food #rod'ctio$ for the ra#id& gro%i$g #o#'&atio$( a$ a+#&e s'##& of fresh,%ater is esse$tia& b't it $eeds to be efficie$t& 'ti&i6ed for agric'&t'ra& #rod'cti)it/ Iro$ica&&( t h e greatest drai$ o$ the %or&d fresh %ater s'##&ies is the i$efficie$t agric'&t'ra& irrigatio$ sste+ ado#ted a&& o)er the %or&d d'e to %hich there is a &oss of abo't 7"5 of the %ater di)erted for the #'r#ose/   Barri$g a fe% co'$tries %hich are co$sidered %ater,rich the rest of the %or&d is either %ater deficie$t or is bare& brea*i$g e)e$/ I$ tota& disregard of the #ositio$ of a)ai&abi&it( the %ater de+a$d is i$creasi$g three ti+es as fast as the rate of gro%th of #o#'&atio$ a$d i$ the +ea$%hi&e it is &ea)i$g behi$d abo't 8/9 bi&&io$ #eo#&e %ho &ac* safe dri$*i$g %ater a$d the i$c&'de at &east 8"" +i&&io$ #eo#&e i$ 2a*ista$/ 2ro)idi$g safe dri$*i$g %ater to a&& b the ear 9"84 re:'ires h'ge i$)est+e$t i$ %ater reso'rce +a$age+e$t a$d the de&i)er of %ater ser)ices/ O$ a g&oba& sca&e it is esti+ated that this %i&& cost o)er ;9"" bi&&io$/ Water A)ai&abi&it i$ 2a*ista$ is fro+ #reci#itatio$ o$ its territor a$d s'rface f&o% fro+ the drai$age basi$s of the ri)ers( %hich f&o% i$to the co'$tr fro+ across its borders/ The %ater recei)ed fro+ the sste+ recharges the gro'$d%ater #ote$tia& a$d is a&so &ost( soo$er tha$ recei)ed( as a res'&t of e)a#oratio$ i$ the arid c&i+ate o$ +a<or #arts of the co'$tr %hich %o'&d other%ise ha)e bee$ a desert if the I$d's Ri)er a$d its trib'taries %ere $ot bri$gi$g i$ the 8!" =AF each ear/ These &osses occ'r first d'ri$g the #re,+o$soo$ #eriod fro+ A#ri& to =a %he$ the &a$d is heated to te+#erat'res bet%ee$ !" o C a$d 4" o C a$d b&asted %ith &o$g s#e&&s of heat %a)e( %hich desiccates the soi&/ This is fo&&o%ed b the +o$soo$ brea* i$ ear& .'$e %he$ the +oist're &ade$ %i$ds start off fro+ the so'th of the >ecca$ 2&atea' i/e/ So'th I$dia/ The +o$soo$ sste+( %hich is the +ai$ co$stit'e$t of the %ater b'dget has '$dergo$e rec'rre$t fai&'re d'ri$g the #ast decade starti$g fro+ 8331/ The res'&ts ha)e bee$ catastro#hic/ The sste+ fai&ed agai$ d'ri$g the ear 9""9 a$d did $ot reach 2a*ista$ at the $orth%est a$d so'th%ester$ e$ds of its cc&e/ The gro'$d%ater reso'rces of the %ater,star)ed regio$s a&& o)er 2a*ista$ ha)e bee$ de#&eted i$ the +ea$ ti+e a$d there is $o ho#e of recharge i$ the offi$g/ A c&ose &oo* at the +o$soo$ sste+ sho%s it to be f'&& o#eratio$a& o$ the so'ther$( easter$( a$d ce$tra& regio$s of its cc&e that i$c&'de I$dia a$d Ba$g&adesh b't it &oses its i$te$sit %he$ it reaches the %ester$ a$d $orth%ester$ regio$s( %hich i$c&'de 2a*ista$/ The +o$soo$ sste+ te$ds to recede as it #roceeds to%ards Ne#a& at the e$d of .'& a$d the +o$th of A'g'st has bee$ re&ati)e& dr d'ri$g this #eriod/ ?ea) do%$#o'r co$ti$'es i$  its east ti&& Se#te+ber bri$gi$g f&oods i$ Be$ga& a$d Ba$g&adesh/ This is %hat ha##e$ed i$ Se#te+ber 9""9 %he$ e@te$si)e areas of West Be$ga& %ere f&ooded a$d 80 +i&&io$ #eo#&e %ere affected there( i$c&'di$g the &o% &i$g areas of Ca&c'tta/ 2a*ista$ recei)ed o$& sca$t rai$fa&& fro+ the sa+e sste+( %ith Is&a+abad getti$g 99 ++ a$d other areas i$ the )ici$it recei)i$g scattered sho%ers/It is +ore tha$ &i*e& that the +ai$ factor res#o$sib&e for the de)iatio$ i$ the +o$soo$ sste+ is the set of irre)ersib&e cha$ges i$ the ecosste+ ca'sed b i$discri+i$ate e@#&oitatio$ of forest reso'rces i$ the easter$ ?i+a&aas/ This has res'&ted i$ rai$s across the ?i+a&aas a$d o$ the east of Ne#a& b't $ot o$ its West/ This has set the stage for a&teratio$ of the +o$soo$ #atter$ i$ So'th Asia/ The +o$soo$ %i$ds are $o% crossi$g o)er the ?i+a&aas i$to Chi$a( i$stead of tra)e&i$g a&o$g the +o'$tai$s a$d bri$gi$g rai$s to the Lo%er ?i+a&aa$ regio$ o)er Ne#a&( a$d &ater o$ to the areas i$ 2a*ista$/ This #atter$ is sti&& bei$g fo&&o%ed as ca$ be see$ fro+ the sate&&ite i+ageries bei$g sho%$ o$ 2TV each e)e$i$g fro+ the e$d of A#ri& this ear/The $et res'&t is deficit i$ both co+#o$e$ts of the %ater b'dget there is red'ced #reci#itatio$ a$d red'ced s'rface f&o%/ Water a)ai&abi&it has bee$ grad'a&& red'ced to be&o% 3" =AF a$d this is &i*e& to co$ti$'e if the c&i+ate cha$ge has beco+e o#erati)e( as it see+s it has fro+ the recei#t a$d f&o% #atter$ of the #ast te$ ears/ The a)ai&abi&it at ca$a& head %as( accordi$g to Eco$o+ic S'r)e of 2a*ista$( 9""8,"9( &ess tha$ ! =AF/ This %i&& go do%$ sti&& f'rther si$ce a)ai&abi&it fro+ the gro'$d%ater so'rces %i&& get red'ced each ear as a res'&t of red'ced recharge/ The i+#act of c&i+ate cha$ge o$ the eco$o+( #artic'&ar& agric'&t'ra& acti)it i$ 2a*ista$( %i&& be high& dist'rbi$g if s'ch a sit'atio$ rea&& sets i$/  ALTERNATIVE SOURCES The abo)e a$a&sis #rese$ts a %orst case sce$ario( %hich i$ a$ case deser)es serio's co$sideratio$/ 2a*ista$ has a&read &ost ti+e i$ ado#ti$g co$ser)atio$ #ractices s'ch as dri# irrigatio$ a$d recc&i$g of %aste %ater/ It is $o% ti+e o$& for crash #rogra++es to fi$d a&ter$ati)e so'rces besides sa)i$g o$ %ater a$d tri$g to &i)e %ith a &i+ited %ater b'dget of &ess tha$ 3" =AF/ A+o$g the a&ter$ati)es that are a)ai&ab&e are recc&i$g of %aste %ater a$d co$ser)atio$ #ractices/ These a&ter$ati)es( ho%e)er( do $ot a'g+e$t the #rese$t s'##& %hich ca$ o$& be #ossib&e %ith i$creased rai$fa&& or desa&i$atio$ of sa&i$e %ater that is the &eachate fro+ irrigatio$ %ater a$d the sea%ater o$ a +ass sca&e of se)era& h'$dred +i&&io$ ga&&o$s #er da/ I$creased rai$fa&& b seedi$g the c&o'ds is a #ossib&e so&'tio$/ It +a be reca&&ed that i$ the ear 9""" a$d 9""8 so+e s'ccessf'& efforts %ere re#orted a$d it %as c&ai+ed that the bro'ght abo't 4"++ of rai$fa&& i$ the Thar#ar*ar/ It is $ot *$o%$ %h the efforts %ere $ot re#eated i$ the fo&&o%i$g ears/ Seedi$g the c&o'ds has $e)erthe&ess $ot had s'ccess so far e)e$ i$ the i$d'stria&i6ed co'$tries/There are three +a<or +ethods that are bei$g s'ccessf'&& 'sed for &arge sca&e desa&i$atio$ of %ater( %hi&e so&ar desa&i$atio$ the fo'rth +ethod has $ot fo'$d %ide acce#ta$ce/ The i$trod'ctio$ of this +ethod at -%adar has had its reser)atio$s a$d is $ot cited as a s'ccess stor/ The three +a<or sste+s for #rod'ctio$ of %ater are based o$ the fo&&o%i$g #ri$ci#&es  D8 F&ash E)a#oratio$ or Va#ori6atio$ a$d Co$de$satio$( D9 Re)erse Os+osis a$d D1 >e+i$era&i6atio$ b Io$ e@cha$ge/ D8 F&ash E)a#oratio$ or Va#ori6atio$ a$d co$de$satio$ 2rocess co+#rises heati$g sa&i$e %ater '$der )ac''+ a$d co$de$si$g the %ater )a#o'r to #rod'ce #'re %ater/ This #rocess is ca#ita& i$te$si)e a$d a&so e@#e$si)e i$ o#eratio$ b't it has the ad)a$tage that it ca$ be +ade eco$o+ica&& )iab&e b i$cor#orati$g a #o%er ge$eratio$ sste+/ It is +ost attracti)e for oi& #rod'ci$g a$d &o% f'e&,cost co'$tries &i*e Sa'di Arabia a$d UAE/ O)er a do6e$ s'ch #&a$ts are sti&& i$ o#eratio$ i$ these co'$tries/ D9 Re)erse Os+osis( RO  This co+#rises se#aratio$ of %ater fro+ a sa&i$e so&'tio$ %hich co'&d be brac*ish %ater or sea%ater( b the %e&& *$o%$ #rocess of os+osis/ The RO #rocess re:'ires the +o)e+e$t of %ater +o&ec'&es i$ the sa&i$e so&'tio$ '$der sa&i$it gradie$t across a se+i,#er+eab&e +e+bra$e to%ards the so&'tio$/ Tra$s#ort of %ater thro'gh the se+i,#er+eab&e +e+bra$e that has bee$ e$c&osed i$ a )esse& creates %hat is *$o%$ as os+otic #ress're %hich is #ro#ortio$a& to the differe$ce i$ the co$ce$tratio$ of the sa&t o$ the t%o sides of the +e+bra$e/ F&o% of %ater is sto##ed i$ case #ress're is a##&ied o$ the side of the +e+bra$e ha)i$g the sa&i$e so&'tio$/ It %i&& o$ the other ha$d start f&o%i$g i$ the o##osite directio$ i/e/ fro+ sa&i$e so&'tio$ side to the %ater side i$ the e)e$t of e@ceedi$g the os+otic #ress're/ This #rocess ca$ be 'sed for the se#aratio$ of so&'b&e +atter i$ so&)e$ts to obtai$ #'re so&)e$t/ This #rocess of de+i$era&i6atio$ of %ater has beco+e co++ercia&& )iab&e after the a)ai&abi&it of stab&e s$thetic se+i,#er+eab&e +e+bra$es at co+#etiti)e #rice/ It has( i$ )ie% of the a)ai&abi&it of brac*ish %ater i$ the se+i,arid co'$tries( ass'+ed i++e$se co++ercia& i+#orta$ce a$d is bei$g traded b a &arge $'+ber of i$d'stria&i6ed co'$tries( i$c&'di$g I$dia/ It is bei$g #ro+oted b +a$ of these co'$tries a&& o)er the %ater star)ed regio$s of the %or&d a$d a&so bei$g offered o$ soft &oa$s for ob)io's be$efits to their i$d'stries a$d to *ee# the+ r'$$i$g/ I$d'stries i$ 2a*ista$ ha)e ado#ted the RO #rocess i$ )ie% of the '$certai$t of the %ater s'##& sste+s/ This( ho%e)er( is at best a$ ad,hoc so&'tio$ to the #rob&e+ of %ater scarcit a$d a rece$t i$d'ctio$ for the co++issio$i$g of the #rocess b the 2T sho%s #ro+ise that it ca$ be ado#ted for &arge sca&e o#eratio$s of the order of se)era& +i&&io$ ga&&o$s #er da/ D1 >e+i$era&i6atio$ b Io$ E@cha$ge  This #rocess re:'ires the #assage of sa&i$e %ater of +oderate sa&i$it( $ot sea %ater( thro'gh &arge co&'+$s co$tai$i$g %ater softe$i$g resi$s/ The resi$s 'sed i$ the %ater softe$i$g #rocess are easi& a)ai&ab&e a$d the sa+e are #&aced i$ t%o sets of co&'+$s for e@cha$gi$g the catio$s a$d a$io$s i$ the sa&i$e so&'tio$ %ith hdroge$ a$d hdro@& io$s res#ecti)e& a$d gi)i$g %ater of high #'rit/ The resi$s %he$ e@ha'sted after co$ti$'o's e@cha$ge of the io$s( are rege$erated 'si$g +i$era& acids to rege$erate the catio$s a$d ca'stic soda to rege$erate the a$io$s/ This #rocess is $ot ca#ita& i$te$si)e %he$ co+#ared %ith the other t%o b't its o#eratio$a& cost i$c'rred i$ rege$eratio$ of the resi$s is high for sa&t so&'tio$s s'ch as sea %ater/ It is bei$g 'sed +ai$& b the #har+ace'tica& a$d a fe% che+ica& i$d'stries %hich re:'ire %ater of high #'rit/  2a*ista$ has the o#tio$s of goi$g for the RO as %e&& as the F&ash E)a#oratio$ #rocess/ RO ca$ be the choice for s+a&& sca&e o#eratio$s 'si$g sa&i$e %ater b't for &arge sca&e o#eratio$s it %o'&d be #r'de$t to co$sider the &atter( as it is )er te+#ti$g to e:'ate oi& i$ the =idd&e East %ith La*hra or Thar#ar*ar coa& i$ 2a*ista$/ The t%o f'e&s are <'st as chea# i$ the co$te@t of the t%o eco$o+ies/ 2o%er 2&a$ts #rod'ci$g 1"" =W of e$erg #ro+ise to #rod'ce 1" +i&&io$ ga&&o$ or 814(""" + 1  of %ater/ The %ater #rod'ctio$ ca$ be i$creased se)era& fo&d if #o%er s'##& is 'ti&i6ed i$ f&ash e)a#oratio$/ Fo'r s'ch #&a$ts %he$ i$sta&&ed $ear .a+shoro to o#erate o$ coa& fro+ the La*hra +i$es a$d o$ the sa&i$e eff&'e$t fro+ the RBO> sste+ %i&&( accordi$g to these esti+ates( be e$o'gh to +eet the e$tire %ater a$d e&ectricit $eeds of ?derabad a$d otri/ The sa+e sste+ ca$ #rod'ce at &east three ti+es as +'ch %ater if the e&ectricit is 'sed +ai$& for f&ash e)a#oratio$ a$d co$de$satio$ as is bei$g do$e i$ Sa'di Arabia/Si+i&ar& the sste+( if ado#ted at a site $ear Thar#ar*ar +i$es or at eti B'$der( %hich %as at o$e ti+e abo't to ha)e a 4(""" =W #o%er #&a$t( %i&& be ab&e to #rod'ce o)er o$e bi&&io$ + 1  a$d +eet the e$tire %ater a$d e&ectricit $eeds of the so'ther$ a$d coasta& areas of Si$dh/ It %i&& ha)e the ad)a$tage of re#&e$ishi$g the gro'$d%ater &e)e& a$d re<')e$ati$g the +a$gro)e #o#'&atio$( besides e@#orti$g e&ectricit/ I$dige$o's Coa& for Water G 2o%er 2rod'ctio$  The #ositio$ e$<oed b coa& is e$)iab&e for oi& a$d gas/ Its )iabi&it is estab&ished for a 8(""" =W ca#acit #o%er #&a$t %ith a do+estic reso'rce base( if 8"" +i&&io$ to$s of i$dige$o's coa& as #ro)e$ reser)es or a$ e:'i)a&e$t a+o'$t of co+b'stib&e +ateria& is dedicated for #o%er #rod'ctio$ a$d is a)ai&ab&e for a 1" ear &ifeti+e of o#eratio$ of the #&a$t based o$ 7" to 0"5 &oad factor/ With 0 bi&&io$ to$s of i$ferred a$d 1/00 bi&&io$ to$s of +eas'red a)ai&abi&it of coa&( the de#osits %i&& &ast for se)era& h'$dred +'&ti#&es of 8""" =W #o%er ge$eratio$/ The estab&ished 'se of f&'idi6ed bed co+b'stio$ tech$o&og( FBC at the #o%er #&a$ts at La*hra a$d H'etta( a$d the de+o$strated a$d #ro)e$ tech$o&og for the e$)iro$+e$t frie$d& 'sage is a&read gro'$ded i$ the co'$tr/ A$other t%o #o%er #&a$ts %ith 04 =W #rod'ctio$ ca#acit each are &i*e& to be i$sta&&ed agai$ 'si$g the FBC tech$o&og b't 'ti&i6i$g Thar#ar*ar coa& b the Chi$ese/ This s'ggests that the e:'atio$ of oi& i$ the =idd&e East %ith coa& i$ 2a*ista$ is :'ite fa)o'rab&e/ It +a be $oted that USA is a+o$g the +a<or 'sers of coa& a$d !" +i&&io$ to$s of its i$dige$o's coa& is bei$g 'sed at its I&&i$ois state a$d that +ore tha$ ha&f the e&ectricit i$ the USA is ge$erated b b'r$i$g this f'e&/ I&&i$ois %as ho%e)er $ot ab&e to 'se its &oca&& +i$ed high s'&f'r coa& beca'se of the stri$ge$t e$)iro$+e$ta& reg'&atio$s/ It %i&&( i$ the $ear f't're( be b'r$i$g +ore of the i$dige$o's coa& b b'r$i$g it c&ea$& '$der a re)i)a& #rogra+/2a*ista$ $eeds to ado#t a si+i&ar sta$ce/ La*hra Coa& #o%er #&a$t at .a+shoro has bee$ i$ #o%er #rod'ctio$ si$ce the +id,833"s Coa& fro+ La*hra +i$es is *$o%$ to be of #oor :'a&it( ha)i$g high s'&#h'r( high ash a$d &o% heati$g )a&'e ra$gi$g fro+ !(7"" to 0(4"" BTU/ ?o%e)er( the #&a$t %as i$ o#eratio$ ti&& rece$t& a$d has bee$ ge$erati$g 84" =W of e$erg( des#ite so+e of the deficie$cies/ The #rocess for coa& 'ti&i6atio$ at this #&a$t is based o$ the f&'idi6ed bed co+b'stio$ tech$o&og de)e&o#ed i$ Chi$a %here +ore tha$ 9""" '$its #rod'ci$g 7 =W ha)e bee$ i$sta&&ed a$d there are :'ite a fe% '$its each #rod'ci$g +ore tha$ 94 =W e$erg/ To +a*e it e$)iro$+e$t frie$d&( s'&#h'r dio@ide e+issio$ has bee$ co$tro&&ed b i$<ecti$g &i+esto$e i$ the heat 6o$e to ca#t're a$d restrai$ the e+issio$ of the gas/  The t%o #o%er #&a$ts %ith 04 =W #rod'ctio$ ca#acit each that are &i*e& to be i$sta&&ed b the Chi$ese 'si$g Thar#ar*ar coa& co'&d be 'sed to i$cor#orate the f&ash e)a#oratio$ #rocess for the #rod'ctio$ of %ater( a$d to ser)e as a +ode& for the bi&&io$ ga&&o$ %ater that co'&d be a)ai&ab&e fro+ the t%o $eg&ected reso'rces Coa& a$d Sea%ater/It +a be re+i$ded that if 2a*ista$ ado#ts this +ea$s of e$erg a$d #o%er #rod'ctio$( it %i&& $ot o$& re&ie)e the #ress're of the crisis of %ater b'dget( #artic'&ar& do%$strea+ otri( b't a&so #re#are itse&f for the f't're so'rce of e$erg %hich is goi$g to be ?droge$ gas/ It is %e&& *$o%$ that #etro&e'+ reso'rces are &i*e& to be e@ha'sted i$ &ess tha$ t%e$t fi)e ears a$d the f't're e$erg reso'rce %i&& ha)e to be coa&/ Coa& %i&& be 'sed for the #rod'ctio$ of #o%er a$d %ater a$d the t%o of the+ %i&& be 'sed for the #rod'ctio$ of hdroge$ gas( %hich %i&&( i$ t'r$ be 'sed to f'e& the co$)e$tio$a& e$gi$es/ Co'$tries( the %or&d o)er are co'$ti$g o$ their reser)es of coa&/ The USA has +ore tha$ a 1"" ear s'##& of coa& at its #rese$t s#e$di$g ca#acit/ The go)er$i$g hierarch of this co'$tr has   #&edged to i$)est ;9 bi&&io$ d'ri$g the co+i$g decade for de)e&o#+e$t of tech$o&ogies to +eet the gro%i$g de+a$d for e$erg %hi&e a&so #rotecti$g the e$)iro$+e$t/ 2a*ista$ %i&& therefore be %e&& #&aced to <oi$ the efforts that are '$der%a to desig$ $ear 6ero,e+issio$ #o%er #&a$ts b 'si$g coa& to #rod'ce #o%er a$d %ater/ The co'$tr %i&& be ab&e to #rod'ce hdroge$ gas b e&ectro&sis a$d th's fi$d a $e% +ea$s to f'e& the eco$o+ %ith +i$i+a& e$)iro$+e$ta& i+#acts/
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