GEO 201 Cultural Geography

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GEO 201 Cultural Geography. Chapter 3 Population Geography. Population & Geography or Geodemography. Demographers study population and its impact on the earth. Are we overpopulated or just unevenly distributed? Families in developed countries have fewer members than before.
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GEO 201Cultural GeographyChapter 3Population GeographyPopulation & Geography or Geodemography
  • Demographers study population and its impact on the earth.
  • Are we overpopulated or just unevenly distributed?
  • Families in developed countries have fewer members than before.
  • In less developed countries, the number of children per family is still very high.
  • Less developed areas of the world tend to be poor and unable to provide adequate food, clothing and shelter for all its citizens.
  • As of 2010, there were 6.9 billion people on this earth.
  • Can the earth support that many people or more?
  • We need to look at resources and lifestyle
  • Westerners, including us, use more resources and non-renewable resources than others in this world: fossil fuels, farmland, clean water.
  • If every one of the 6.9 billion people lived as we do, those resources would be gone, leaving air & water pollution, little potable water, soil depletion, and erosion in its wake.I. Region: How do demographic traits vary from region to region?
  • Demography looks at population characteristics:
  • How people are distributed spatially
  • They look at distribution by age, gender, occupation, fertility, health, birth rates, and death rates.
  • Look at map pp. 66-67. You see that ¾ of the world’s population live on 5% of the earth’s surfaceWe have 6.9 billion people on earth. If they were evenly distributed, there would be about 112+ people per square mile.We are not evenly distributed.
  • Densities vary from place to place:
  • Greenland – 0.1 per sq. mile
  • Bangladesh – 2300 per sq. mile
  • India – 812 per sq. mile
  • Canada – 8 per sq. mile
  • Australia – 6 per sq. mile
  • Egypt – 181 per sq. mile, but 9,000 per sq. mile in the Nile River Valley
  • By Continent:
  • Eurasia -- 72.7% of world’s people
  • North America -- 7.9%
  • Africa -- 13.2%
  • South America -- 5.7%
  • Australia & the Pacific -- 0.5%
  • 21% of humans live in China17% live in India4.6% live in the United StatesWhen you consider these numbers, you are looking at a region examining one trait, population
  • This is then a Formal Region you are considering.
  • Population geographers also look at standards of living.
  • Thickly populated areas can have the highest standards of living. Ex: New York City
  • Sparsely populated areas may put too much pressure on the land if there aren’t enough resources
  • You must look at the carrying capacity of the land -- the population beyond which a given environment cannot provide support without becoming significantly damaged.
  • Many avert damage by bringing in resources from another area. Ex: water piped in or shipping in oil.
  • Americans use 26% of the world’s oil
  • Our lives would change if we couldn’t use resources from other areas.
  • Demography of various places can and do change over time.
  • If we look at population numbers, there are 3 things that affect the numbers:
  • Birth Rates
  • Death Rates
  • Migration
  • Birth Rates
  • The number of live births per year, per one thousand of the population
  • CBR – crude birth rate; crude means you are looking at society as a whole
  • Total Fertility Rate (TFR) -- is the average number of children born per woman during her childbearing years (15-49 years).
  • TFR attempts to predict the future and can vary from place to place
  • TFR for the world as a whole today is 3, and can vary from region to region.
  • Birth RateTotal Fertility RateTFR
  • Europe -- less than 2
  • Any country with a TFR of less than 2 will experience population decline
  • Southern and Eastern Europe -- 1.3
  • Bulgaria -- 1.2 and is expected to lose 38% of its population by 2050
  • Sub-Saharan Africa -- TFR of 7 or higher Niger -- TFR of 7.38 Mali -- TFR of 7.37TFRs have fallen in Sub-Saharan Africa in the last 20 years. Why?Mortality Rates/ Death Rates
  • Also referred to as CDR or Crude Death Rate; using the term “crude” means looking at the society as a whole
  • Death Rate is the number of deaths per year per 1000 people
  • In developed world, people die from age-related degenerative conditions, HIV, heart disease, stroke, and the effects of pollution
  • In the developing world, people die from civil strife, poor health care, and diseases like malaria, HIV, and dengue fever.
  • Death Rate MapDeath Rates are often broken down into male/female and age-specific groups.
  • The highest death rates are in Sub-Saharan Africa
  • 25 to 30 people die per 1000 people
  • Other areas: Ecuador - 4 deaths per 1000 people
  • European Union – 10 deaths per 1000Canada - 8 deaths per 1000Infant Mortality Rate
  • Infant Mortality Rates or IMR is the number of deaths before age 1 per 1000 live births per year.
  • The highest rates are in Sub-Saharan Africa at 100+ deaths per 1000 live births per year.
  • The lowest rates are in Western Europe with fewer than 10 deaths per 1000 live births per year.
  • The IMR reflects a country’s health care system.
  • Infant Mortality Rate, IMRIn the U.S. there is a higher IMR among the poor who can’t afford health care. Perhaps that will change with the new health care law.
  • In other countries, like England, health care is provided.
  • U.S. is #37 in health care as ranked by the World Health Organization. France is # 1
  • Why is population increasing at different rates in different countries?
  • Countries have gone through different demographic changes over time.
  • Countries don’t go through the same changes at the same time.
  • The process of change in a society’s population is called the Demographic Transition.
  • p. 72 Chart
  • The demographic transition happens in several stages – 5 stages.
  • 5 Stages of the Demographic Transition
  • Stage 1 -- Low Growth
  • both birth rate and death rate are high
  • this can vary from year to year
  • but the rate of natural increase is low
  • people are concerned with survival: war, poor harvests, climate, hunting and gathering, and diseases
  • Every country has moved on to at least Stage 2.See p. 72, chartStage 2 -- High Growth
  • a lowered death rate
  • birth rate remains high as in Stage 1
  • rate of natural increase is high because of lowered death rate
  • the first part of Stage 2 is when population grows
  • the second part of Stage 2 is when the population growth rate begins to slow down, but there is still a big gap between birth and death rates
  • See p. 72, chart
  • There are new products, more food, better medical care and better sanitation coming in to Stage 2.
  • Europe and the United States entered Stage 2 in the late 18th or early 19th centuries.
  • Asia, Africa, Latin America entered Stage 2 in the 20th century.
  • Latin America entered in 1950.
  • Stage 3 -- Moderate Growth
  • crude birth rates drop dramatically
  • crude death rates continue to fall but at a slower rate than in Stage 2
  • Population still continues to grow because crude birth rate (CBR) is still higher than the crude death rate (CDR)
  • Europe and North America entered Stage 3 during the first half of the 20th century.Some in Asia, Africa, and Latin America entered only recently while others still remain in Stage 2.
  • Birth rates decline in Stage 3 because of social custom. It is seen as beneficial to have fewer children.
  • Stage 4 -- Low Growth & ZPG (zero population growth)
  • crude birth rates (CBR) decline enough to equal the crude death rates (CDR)
  • the rate of natural increase approaches -0-
  • Sweden, Germany, and the United Kingdom are in Stage 4The U.S. hasn’t completely entered because birth rates among recent immigrants is still high.Social customs again account for movement into Stage 4
  • Women are working outside the home and are having fewer children.
  • Birth control is available and used.
  • There are economic conditions and lifestyles that have changed, so that fewer children or no children are desired.
  • Stage 5 is a new stage
  • for post-industrial society
  • ZPG truly takes hold
  • there is a population decline
  • Are there any problems with population decline?5 Stages of Demographic TransitionAge Distribution
  • Some countries have a very young population.
  • in Africa
  • in Latin America
  • in some parts of Asia
  • In these areas, half the population is younger than15.
  • In Uganda, 51% of the population is younger than 15.
  • In Sub-Saharan Africa, 44% of the population is younger than 15.
  • Why?
  • Other more developed nations have large numbers between the ages of 15 and 65.
  • Countries like Sweden have aging populations: 17% are older than 65.
  • In less developed nations, many don’t live to be 65.
  • In Italy where the TFR is 1.3, 18% are older than 65
  • Some elderly there can apply for adoption by families in need of grandparents.
  • A useful way to show age and sex distribution is with a population pyramid, p.80.
  • This graphically shows: age distribution, sex ratios, and dependency rates (the young and the old).
  • pp. 78 & 79 and pp. 82 &83
  • It can help predict what will be needed in the future.
  • This information is gathered in a census.
  • Population PyramidII. Mobility
  • Migration
  • affects the size of population
  • definition: a permanent move to a new location (a change of residence)
  • definition of mobility: the ability to move from one location to another, to work, to school, to the store, without a permanent change of residence
  • The United States is the result of migration. We can all trace our ancestry to another area of the world
  • From the G-nome Project, it is thought we all evolved in Africa.
  • Humans have migrated to and adapted to different kinds of environments
  • We tend to stay away from areas that are too cold, too hot, too wet, or too dry
  • Most migrate in search of economic opportunity, political freedom, or environmental comfort.
  • There are 2 forms of migration:
  • Emigration – migration from a location
  • Immigration – migration to a location
  • 19th Century – 50 million Europeans left Europe to find a better life.
  • Today – about 160 million people live outside the country of their birth.
  • Reasons for leaving one place and going to another are called push/pull factors
  • Push Factors: induce people to move away from a location
  • Pull Factors: attract people to a particular new location
  • 3 Major Kinds of push/pull factors:
  • Political
  • Economic
  • Environmental
  • Political Push Factors: 1. People who have fled their homes and country and cannot return for fear of persecution because of race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group, or their political opinion. 2. People who are forced to migrate for this reason are called refugees. There are about 16 million todayPolitical Push Factors: the lure of freedom usually found in democracies, like Hitler and World War II.
  • Economic Push Factors:
  • 1840s millions of Irish were forced to leave Ireland because of the potato blight, mass starvation, and little to no help from their English landlords.
  • 1980s ¼ of Irish labor force left because they couldn’t find jobs. Most were young and well-educated.
  • Economic Pull Factors:
  • Many came to U.S. for economic opportunity
  • 19th century – U.S. businessmen advertised in Europe for workers
  • People migrate to areas where they think they can find jobs
  • Ex: Houston, 1970s – boom, 2002 – Enron – bust.
  • Environmental Push Factors:
  • People leave a place because of adverse conditions in the environment
  • Water is the most common reason for the move: too little or too much
  • 40% of world’s natural disasters are flood
  • 20% of world’s natural disasters are storm related
  • People move to find water.
  • Environmental Pull Factors:
  • 1. small towns – made easier with technology
  • 2. temperate climates – no harsh weather
  • 3. dry climates – for those with allergies
  • Disease can be a push factor (get away from it) or a pull factor ( no disease in new area).
  • III. Globalization
  • How many people can the earth support?
  • Should people have fewer children?
  • Is there a population explosion?
  • There has been a dramatic increase in population since 1900.
  • There have been large numbers of births and a decline in the death rate.
  • People are living longer.
  • Our population has been doubling in shorter periods of time.
  • From the beginning until 1800: 1 billion people
  • From 1800 to 1930: 2 billion people
  • From 1930 to 1975: 4 billion people
  • June 2010: 6,852,472,823 people
  • Doubling Time, p. 90.
  • Thomas Malthus
  • was the first to examine the problem of population size
  • said population will outrun our ability to produce food
  • said population grows at a much faster rate than the earth’s food supply
  • He was writing about this in 1798 before the industrial and agricultural revolutions and before many modern birth control methods had been discovered.
  • Malthus named Positive and Preventive checks on population
  • Positive Checks: malnutrition, famine, disease, and war.
  • Preventive Checks: late marriage and abstinence
  • Critics of Malthus are called cornicopians, and they believe if we curb our numbers, we may be preventing geniuses from being born.Neo-Malthusians say that the earth cannot support more and more people, especially if they all want the Western lifestyle.As of 2001, our population growth has slowed somewhat.
  • Some demographers believe that we will only have 11 billion people by 2100.
  • Lifestyles may have to change when looking at available resources.
  • Rule of 72 is used for calculating doubling time
  • take a country’s rate of annual increase as a %
  • divide % into the number 72
  • the result is the # of years a population, growing at a given rate, will take to double
  • Guatemala is growing now at 2.7% per year. Its population is doubling every 25.7 years.
  • India is growing 1.7% per year which means that its 1 billion people will be 2 billion in 42 years.
  • China’s will double in 120 years. They now have 1.3 billion people.
  • Are there enough resources, jobs, health care for all?
  • Population Control:
  • Overpopulation results when an area’s population exceeds its physical, social, and economic resources.
  • Population geographers say there are 2 main ways to solve overpopulation:
  • 1. Reduce the size of population OR
  • 2. Increase resources
  • Increase Resources:
  • emphasize economic development
  • increase scientific inventions (new manufacturing and agricultural processes)
  • share resources more equally; don’t let one nation use most of them.
  • Reduce Population:
  • Increase the death rate
  • How? Ideas?
  • Reduce the birth rate
  • How? Hurdles?
  • Government policies
  • Abortion
  • Support parents in old age
  • Problems with a population that is too small:
  • Defense : Are there enough people to guard the borders?
  • Support: Are there enough people to provide benefits to older generation?
  • In U.S. – Social Security
  • In Germany – pensions, health care
  • IV. Nature-Culture
  • Climate influences where people live.
  • Very dry, very high, very wet, very cold/hot areas are usually not heavily populated.
  • These regions also cannot support large populations.
  • Most humans prefer the lower elevations where it is not too cold or too warm.
  • Those who live in the tropics seem to like the higher elevations where it might be a lot cooler and not so humid.
  • Humans like to live near the sea.
  • Populations seem clustered near the coasts; Ex: Australia – half the total population lives in only 5 port cities.
  • Disease also influences where people live. Illness can affect livestock and therefore, people’s food supply. Then people migrate.
  • Diseases that affect humans can influence where people choose to live
  • away from mosquitoes or contaminated water
  • Love Canal – contaminated land and high number of cancer victims
  • Jefferson County, Colorado – near nuclear test site – resulting in high numbers of leukemia victims.
  • Perception also plays a part in where people choose to live.Germans immigrating to U.S. Wished to find land similar to what they left behind.
  • People’s perception of a place may change over time:
  • Florida - swamp land, buggy
  • Florida – a haven for those escaping cold weather; air conditioning and screening alleviate problems.
  • Many move for a better climate, jobs, beautiful scenery, or to be near water.Different age groups have different preferences.People alter their environments
  • Large populations can devastate an area by using up all the resources.
  • Overpopulation isn’t the only reason for an ecological crisis.A small percentage of the earth’s people control much of the technology and consume a very high percentage of the earth’s resources each year.Americans make up less than 5% of the world’s population and account for 25% of the natural resources consumed globally each year.
  • Houses are bigger and hold fewer people; Ex: 2002 compared to 1975.
  • If everyone on earth lived as Americans do, the earth could only support around 500 million people.
  • As living standards in other countries improve, what will happen?
  • V. Cultural Landscape
  • Demographic factors are displayed on the landscape: shapes of human settlement.
  • Rural Settlement Patterns had farm villages with fields outside of the village OR dispersed farmsteads, pp. 96, 97.
  • Farm Villages - clustered settlements with fields, pastures, meadows outside of the village. Farmers left village to work the land. Common in Europe, Latin America, parts of Asia, Africa, and the Middle East
  • Street Villages – E. Europe & Russia
  • Green Villages – N. & NW Europe
  • Checkerboard Villages – use grid pattern like Mormons
  • Why settle in villages?
  • Security
  • Water communal ties
  • Less isolation
  • There are also Unit Farmsteads and Courtyard Farmsteads, p. 97.Isolated Farmstead
  • found in Anglo-America, Australia, New Zealand, and S. Africa
  • areas colonized by Europeans
  • also called dispersed settlement
  • found in areas with peace, security, water, and individual families
  • most began since colonization
  • Historical Factors Shape Culture/ Landscape
  • Mayans of the Yucatan lived in “wet point villages”, villages around a water source, before the Spanish arrived.
  • After the Spanish took over, Mayans had to live in “checkerboard villages” set up by the Spanish.
  • The village pattern may have been a Spanish victory, but Mayan culture prevailed. There were few wheeled vehicles used, and traditional housing was kept.
  • There are remnants of both Spanish and Catholic influence.
  • Political and Economic Factors Shape Cultural /Demographic Landscape.
  • Politics affects population geography with its government policies:
  • Birth Rates
  • Forced Migration
  • Ethnic Cleansing – removal of an unwanted minority in nation-states: Balkans, Darfur, Jews during World War II
  • Governments restrict voluntary migration and immigration to other countries.
  • Economics is often intertwined with politics and affects the landscape
  • Industrialization caused great voluntary migration as people looked for jobs.
  • World War II women took over factory jobs as men left for the war
  • Gender and Cultural/Demographic Landscape: - women s
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