Historical Research Methods: Telling the Stories of New Orleans Nursing History

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Historical Research Methods: Telling the Stories of New Orleans Nursing History. Deborah Garbee PhD, APRN, BC & Dianna Hutto Douglas DNS APRN-CNS. Historical Research Defined. Integrated Written Record of Past that Weaves in Multiple Factors e.g. Social, Political, & Economic
Historical Research Methods: Telling the Stories of New Orleans Nursing HistoryDeborah Garbee PhD, APRN, BC&Dianna Hutto Douglas DNS APRN-CNSHistorical Research Defined
  • Integrated Written Record of Past that Weaves in Multiple Factors e.g.
  • Social, Political, & Economic
  • Probing for Explanations & Relationships , Effects or Trends
  • Purpose is to Understand the Past to Explain the Present or Future
  • Historical Research Traditions
  • Positivistic
  • Attempt to categorize information and show cause-effect
  • Idealist
  • Try to Understand Thoughts of Individuals in an Event Along with Time, Place, and Situation
  • Historical Design
  • Define the Study Topic or Focus
  • There May be a Hypotheses, Questions, or Theoretical Orientation
  • Climate of the Time Period
  • ROL, Major Works on Topic
  • Identify Themes and Ambiguities
  • Formulate Questions
  • Organize Data (Full Reference,
  • Archive and/or Library)Data Collection
  • Primary Sources
  • Personal Letters
  • Diaries
  • Organizational Records
  • Photographs
  • Secondary Sources
  • Newspaper
  • Journal articles
  • Textbooks
  • Archives
  • Unpublished Material, Records, Manuscripts, Papers
  • Finding Aids
  • Collections, Record Group, Series, Subseries
  • Linear Cubic Feet
  • On-site Use Only
  • Pencil & Paper Only
  • Confirming Sources
  • Genuineness
  • Authenticity
  • External Criticism
  • Internal Criticism
  • Corroborating Evidence
  • Data Analysis
  • Based on Questions, Themes, and Conceptual Framework
  • Discover New Truths
  • Researcher Bias & Other Bias
  • Bias
  • Researcher Bias Identified
  • Present-Mindedness
  • Ideological Bias
  • Ethical Issues
  • Right to Privacy v. Right to Know
  • Infringement on Historical Reputation
  • Interpretation
  • Researchers Tell the Story
  • Explain What, How and Why
  • Explore Relationships
  • Historical Research Voice
  • Creatively Render Events, Findings, & Supporting Ideas
  • Plan the Story Using Themes
  • Weave Together Historical Facts
  • Go Beyond Facts
  • Develop New Knowledge, Ideas, and Meanings
  • ExampleEvolving Standards for Nursing Curriculum and Nursing Faculty in Louisiana 1920-1950Research Questions
  • How did Louisiana, New Orleans specifically, respond to national calls for nursing reform?
  • What changes were made to nursing school curricula at Charity Hospital School of Nursing (CHSN) in New Orleans?
  • Primary Sources
  • CHSN reports to Committee on Grading of Nursing Schools (Jan. & Oct., 1932)
  • National League of Nursing Education (NLNE) Facts About Your School (1935, 1939, 1943, & 1945)
  • Secondary Sources
  • Goldmark Report, Nursing and Nursing Education in the United States (1923)
  • Nursing Schools Today and Tomorrow (Committee on the Grading of Nursing Schools, 1934)
  • CHSN Yearbooks
  • Caps and Capes (1938, 1942, & 1950)
  • CHSN Bulletin (1958-1959)
  • Louisiana State University (LSU) Register (1940-1941)
  • LSU Bulletin (1942-1943).
  • National Calls for Reform
  • Improve Nursing School Curriculum Without Duplication of Learning
  • Improve Faculty Qualifications to Teach at a School of Nursing with College Graduates as Faculty
  • Eliminate Non-Nursing Duties
  • National Themes
  • Free Labor, A Win-Lose Situation
  • Anyone Can Teach – Raising the Bar for Nursing Faculty
  • Folding Linen, Washing Lettuce, & Cleaning Bathrooms
  • Local Perspective“Story”
  • Nursing N’Awlins Style
  • Sister Servants, CHSN Faculty Snapshot
  • Nursing Students: White Caps, White Stockings, & White Shoes
  • Discussion
  • CHSN Similar to Nursing Schools Across America
  • Students Worked Long Hours
  • A non-nurse board
  • Same Person over Hospital Nursing Service & SON
  • CHSN Ahead of Other Nursing Schools
  • Staff Performed Non-Nursing Duties
  • Large, Varied Patient Population
  • Increased Number of Graduate Nurses at Bedside
  • Presence of BSN Ed Students.
  • Regardless of hard work, CHSN Students Seemed
  • to Love Their Experience.Conclusions
  • So what?
  • Efforts to professionalize and improve nursing image & education continues today.
  • The image of clinging to an instructors skirt the first day on a nursing unit rings true today in that students are innocent & young.
  • Just as nurses before us, nursing faculty do not want to sacrifice what we perceive as quality education in the process of reform.
  • What Topic do you Want to Research from New Orleans Nursing History?References
  • Glesne, C. (1999). Becoming Qualitative Researchers An Introduction. (2nd ed.). New York: Longman.
  • Kyvig, D.E. & Marty, M.A. (2000). Nearby History. (2nd ed.). Walnut Creek, CA: Alta Mira Press.
  • Speziale, H.J. & Carpenter, D.R. (2007). Qualitative Research in Nursing Advancing the Humanistic Imperative.
  • (4th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott.
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