Mazingira Bora Newsletter- Meru, Kenya Field Study

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1. Published by TIST-Kenya. Web: www.tist.org Email: martinweru@tist.org Tel: 0722 - 846 501 April 2015 Newsletter Mazingira Bora An Environmental, Sustainable…
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  • 1. Published by TIST-Kenya. Web: www.tist.org Email: martinweru@tist.org Tel: 0722 - 846 501 April 2015 Newsletter Mazingira Bora An Environmental, Sustainable Development and Community Forestry Program. Not for sale w w w . t i s t . o r g English Version TIST Continues To Receive Visitors From Across the World. Page 2 Seed Storage & Pre-treatment. Page 3 Nursery Care.Page 5 Best practice to try: Raised pot beds. Page 6 PatriciaWachuka,TIST Quantifiers together withTIST farmer andVerifier auditing the tree groves during the recentVerification exercise. Inside: Mr.Evans Maneno talking to New England College Students who paid him a courtesy call during theirTIST trip last month.
  • 2. O nce more, TIST received visitors from foreign countries, this time students from New England College (NEC) and Yale University in USA.This was a working trip organized purposely to help improve TIST. Though they worked together,NEC students primarily focused on talking to some of the TIST famers at the Cluster meetings, hearing their stories inTIST which they will use to marketTIST carbon tones in global market as well as for fundraising to get more money to expandTIST.On the other hand, Yale University students focused on a survey that intends to measure the benefitsTIST farmers have been receiving out of their participation in TIST. 2ENGLISH VERSION TIST Continues To Receive Visitors From Across the World. The students numbering 17 lead by their dean, Martin Kevin and John Cornor arrived in Kenya on the night of 9th March 2015 for a eight day visit ending on 17th March .Also, in this team was Brad Neff, senior manger working with Pacific Gas and Electric company in California, USA. The team multiplied themselves into three groups, each group visiting a different Cluster. However,on first day,they all visited MwikuriaTIST Small Group in Mwea Cluster.Among the Clusters visited include Kiraro, Kirindini and Kitheo on second day. Third day were Nyweri, Nkando and Mbajone. Fourth day were Miruri iiri, mworoga and Mituntu while on the last day,Monday 16th were Nyariginu, Burguret and Nturukuma. On Saturday 14th , the students had a soccer match with Meru University Soccer team as well as Meru’s Mahakama FC. On same day Saturday,they briefly toured Lower Imenti Forest, where TIST farmers are planting indigenous trees in the gazzetted forest under the TIST/KFS memorandum of understanding (MOU). On Sunday, they took a break. Besides visiting TIST Clusters, they also had meetings with Meru county Ecosystem Conservator, Mr Evan Maneno at KFS offices in morning hours of Monday 16th . In the evening of the same day, we met Laikipia County Governor, H.E Joshua Irungu. Soccer match: NEC. Students vs Mahakama FC, Meru.The students had a friendly match with Mahakama FC as well as Meru University Students Soccer club.
  • 3. 3ENGLISH VERSION Seed Storage Make sure that if you are transporting fruit from the site of seed collection that you keep them dry, shaded and well ventilated so that the seeds inside the fruit do not spoil. Transport your fruit and seeds in woven sacks or baskets. Do not transport them in plastic bags or tins which have no ventilation and can cause the moisture to collect and spoil the items. Make sure you have sorted the good quality seed first (see unit 2) and that the seed is clean and dry before being stored. Dry seed rustles and cracks when you shake it. Most seeds need to have been dried in the sun for 2-3 days before they are ready. Store your seeds in a dry,shaded place.Use storage material such as cloth sacks or clay pots to reduce the chances of mould. Use air-tight containers or jars for high-value seeds, filling your containers completely to reduce air space. If you do not have enough seed to fill your containers, fill the gaps with material such as charcoal, rice husks, or crumpled newspaper.These will absorb air moisture. Use wooden pallets or poles to make sure the seed containers do not touch the ground (this can make them more susceptible to changes in temperature, damp, pests etc.).If you are using sacks or bags, you can hang them. Obtain advice from your nearby small groups and local extension workers to know if you need to use a pesticide or fungicide to protect your particular seeds from pests. For example, neem oil or leaves, gliricidia leaves and soap may offer some protection. Remember to check your seeds regularly to ensure they are not being damaged. Obtain local information on how long your seeds can be stored for.This is dependent on the species.Many species,if stored properly, can be kept for a year or more. You can experiment at different time periods to check the germination rate of your seeds. Pick a small sample of seeds (for example, 100), record the number of seeds chosen, sow them and count how many germinate. If you do this every month, for example, you will be able to see when the seed quality is starting to deteriorate. Share your findings with your cluster. The cooler the storage environment, the longer your seeds can be stored for. Ensure the seeds are not exposed to light. If the storage area is too humid the seeds will spoil more quickly. Note there is one category of seed called ‘recalcitrant seed’.These seeds ideally need to be sown straight away after collection and extraction because they require high moisture content. If they are wrapped in damp cloths they can be stored for a few days up to a week. Recalcitrant seed dies once it is dry. Tree species which are examples of recalcitrant seeds include: Artocarpus heterophyllus (jackfruit), Azadirachta indica (neem), Calamus species (rattans), Durio zibethinus (durian), Eusideroxylon zwageri Seed Storage & Pre-treatment.
  • 4. 4ENGLISH VERSION (ulin), Theobroma cacao (cacao) and many dipterocarps (Shorea, Hopea, Palaquium, etc). Finally,when you are transporting your seeds to the nursery, remember to keep them dry and covered. What kind of pre-treatment might be needed? Sow some seeds and see how long they take to germinate. If they take longer than one week, consider pre-treatment. If you are not sure which of the following advice is best, do an experiment and try different pre-treatment techniques and share your findings with your cluster leader to share the best practices. If the seeds have a very small or thin coat often no treatment will be needed e.g. Croton megalocarpus, Neem, Cassia species and Kei apple can be sown directly into a pot. If you have collected fruit, you can soak the fruit for 1-2 days, then get a wire mesh and squeeze the fruit against it to release the seed using water to wash away the fruit pulp e.g. for Syzium cuminii, Dovyalis caffra, Trichilia emetica, Vitellaria paradoxa,PrunusAfricana, Gmelina arborea (gmelina), Azadirachta indica (neem) and Tamarindus indica (tamarind). Some fruit just needs the outer layer removing by rubbing together e.g. Tectona grandis (teak) and Calamus species (rattans). Some fruits have seeds that need to be pounded.After soaking the fruit for 1-2 days, pound the fruit with a pestle and mortar e.g. for Melia volkensii, Melia azedarach, Sclerocarya birrea, Cordia Africana. Some pods need to dry for 3-5 days (in the semi-shade) and then be threshed to extract the seed e.g. Leucana species, Calliandra calothyrsus,Acacia species, Sesbania sesban, Grevillea robusta, Casuarina species and Eucalyptus species. Seeds that have thick coats will need some form of pre-treatment. Some need to have their seed coat cracked with a hammer or a stone after drying for 3-5 days to allow water to enter the seed for germination. Seeds should be planted immediately after cracking. Species that may need cracking include Melia (mukau), Podo species, Croton megalocarpus, Adansonia digitata, Swietenia macrophyylla, Delonix regia. For small, hard seeds place them in a jar lined with sand paper and shake hard, enough to scratch the surface. Some seeds just require a small cut in the seed coat to help water infiltrate (nicking). Do not cut the part that was attached to the pod or capsule as this part contains the baby plant. Some seeds respond well to soaking in hot water e.g.Calliandra,mostAcacias,Tamarind, Leucaena and Albizia. Put the seeds in a container,boil the water and pour it over the seeds.Allow the water to cool remove the seeds from the water after they look swollen. Some seeds can be soaked in normal (cold) water for 12-24 hours e.g.Sesbania,Tephrosia, Dalbergia species, Gmelina, Gliricidia and Acacia augustissima. Put the seeds in a container and add the cold water (roughly double the volume of the seeds). Remove any seeds which are floating. All seeds, once pre-treated, need to be planted straight away.
  • 5. 5ENGLISH VERSION A. Pest control Organisms like fungi, bacteria, viruses, nematodes and insects (e.g. ants, termites, aphids) can damage seedlings. A common nursery disease is called damping off and is caused by fungi. It causes seeds to rot before germination, roots to decay before the shoot appears and the shoot to become thin and collapse. The typical symptoms are: - The thinning and death of the stem at ground level - The subsequent wilting and falling over of the seedling. - The leaves turn yellow. - The seedling eventually dies. Control damping off by: - Changing seedbed soil every 1-2 years. Loosening the soil also helps. - Immediately removing affected seedlings and burning them - Avoiding excessive watering - Ensuring good drainage - Providing better aeration - Weeding effectively and on time - The soil should not be overly fertile. The proper ratios of the soil should be followed. Reduce nitrogen content by applying less manure. - There should be enough spacing between seedlings to avoid overcrowding. - Make sure that the nursery is clean at all times. Diseases can also be managed by the proper use of chemicals and insecticides. It is best to use natural insecticides as chemical ones can be expensive and may damage the environment e.g. - Application of ash. - Ensure the seedbed is clean to avoid encouraging pests. B. Root pruning Move the seedlings around once a week so that the taproots do not sink into the ground and need to be cut. A healthy taproot helps the trees get water after transplanting. When the seedlings are growing in the pots after 3-4 months (depending on species and climate) their roots start to grow out of the bottom of the pots.These roots should be cut every 1-2 months with knives. Note that care must be taken when lifting the pots so as not to damage the young roots. Alternatively,try the raised nursery beds (see Unit 4) which reduce the need for root pruning as the roots drop off naturally. C.Watering,weeding and shading. - Sprinklers should be attached to the watering cans so as not to cause soil erosion. - You can also use a pierced tin. - Avoid too much or too little watering, roughly 20 litres for 1000 seedlings.Too much water can weaken the seedlings and attract pests and fungus.One sign of over-watering is a thin film of algae or green moss on the soil surface. - Water every morning and evening when possible. - Sandy soils will need more watering than clay soils. - Direct the water to the soil,not to the leaves. - Water slowly to ensure it penetrates the soil. - Be careful not to damage roots when weeding. - Do not leave the weeding too late.Weeding is necessary as the weeds increase competition for light, soil water and nutrients. - Some seeds require shading – make sure simple shades are constructed. - During the rainy season, cover the seedlings using dry grasses or hay. Seedlings should be moved away from under trees so water does not drip onto the seedlings and cause damage. - Fence off the nursery to protect from cattle and playing children. - Let the seedlings grow to about 30 cm before transplanting.This may take from 1 month to 6 months. See transplanting notes. Also remove the shade during this time. Nursery Care.
  • 6. 6ENGLISH VERSION Fig 1: Seedlings of various species arranged in stacks on a raised bed, ICRAF demonstration site, Meru, Kenya A t your Cluster meeting, encourage the Small Groups to try raised pot beds and to report back on whether the design makes a difference or not. A raised bed can easily be made from a wooden frame and wire mesh (see photo). These allow automatic root pruning because when the roots get to the container bottom they naturally drop off (called air root pruning).This means that roots do not get injured through normal root pruning methods.The roots then tend to strengthen without growing further.This produces a healthy root system and the seedling has higher chances to establish faster in the field. It also eliminates the need for labour to do root pruning, a practice that is often forgotten or done too late with serious damage on the roots. Weed control under the raised beds is also easier. The raised beds might appear to increase the amount of water used in nurseries. However, nursery operators have devised innovations to deal with this constraint. A good innovation observed in Tanzania is digging a trench, placing planks of wood or wire mesh across it and placing the seedlings on the planks or wire mesh. The seedlings thus appear to be on the ground level but the trench under them provides the space which aids air root pruning.The water is trapped in the trench and will moisturize the seedlings through evaporation and reduce the need for very frequent watering.A polythene sheet can also be placed in the trench to ensure water does not seep into the ground. Best practice to try: Raised pot beds.
  • 7. Published by TIST-Kenya. Web: www.tist.org Email: martinweru@tist.org Tel: 0722 - 846 501 April 2015 Newsletter Mazingira Bora An Environmental, Sustainable Development and Community Forestry Program. Not for sale w w w . t i s t . o r g Kimeru Version PatriciaWachuka,TIST Quantifiers together withTIST farmer andVerifier auditing the tree groves during the recentVerification exercise. TIST nigwita na mbele kuriungirwa ni ageni kuuma guntu kunthe nthigurune.Page 2 Gwika mbeu na kwithuranira niuntu bwa kuanda. Page 3 Kumenyeera minanda. Page 5 Mwitire jumwega juri aubatikugeria:Minanda iukiritue.Page 6 Inside: Mr.Evans Maneno talking to New England College Students who paid him a courtesy call during theirTIST trip last month.
  • 8. TIST niariungirwe kairi ni ageni kuuma nthiguru cia oome, kuuma cukuru igwitwa New England College (NEC) naYale University iria iri USA. Iji yari ndiunga ya ngugi iria yabangi niuntu bwa gutethia kuthongomia TIST Kinya kethira nibaitire ngugi amwe, aritwa kuuma NEC bategete mono kwaria na arimi baTIST babakai ndene ya micemanio ya cluster, kwigua rugono rwao ndene ya TIST ruria bagatumira kwendia caboni inyingi ya TIST ndene ya thoko ya nthiguru yonthe amwe na gucua mbeca ingi cia kuaramia mubango jwa TIST. Ndengi, aritwa ba cukuru yaYale University nibategaira kuuria biuria biria bigatethia kuthima baita iria arimi ba TIST bethiritwe bakionaga kuumania na kwithirwa bar indene yaTIST. Aritwa bau, baria bari ikumi na mugwanjwa batongeretue ni murungamiri wa aritwa, Martin Kevin na John Cornor nibakinyire Kenya utuku bwa tariki kenda mweri jwa ithatu 2015 ndiunga ya ntuku inyanya iria yathirire tariki ikumi na mugwanja mweri jwa ithatu. Kiri gikundi kiu nikwari kinya na Brad Neff, murungamiri umunene witaga ngugi na kambuni ya Pacific Gas and Electric company naria California, USA. Gikundi kiu nikiaigaire kia bithatu, o gikundi gikariungira cluster mwanya. Indi ntuku ya mbele, bonthe nibariungire gikundi gikinini kia Mwikuria TIST Small Group ndene ya cluster ya Mwea. Cluster iria bariungire ciari Kiraro, Kirindini na Kitheo ntuku ya ijiri. Ntuku ya ithatu ciari Nyweri, Nkando na Mbajone. Ntuku ya inya Miru iiri, Mworoga na Mituntu na ntuku ya muthia, jumatatu tariki ikumi na ithanthatu Nyariginu, Burguret na 2KIMERU VERSION TIST nigwita na mbele kuriungirwa ni ageni kuuma guntu kunthe nthigurune. Soccer match:NEC.Students vs Mahakama FC,Meru.The students had a friendly match with Mahakama FC as well as Meru University Students Soccer club. Nturukuma. Ntuku ya Jumamosi tariki ikumi na inya, aritwa bau nibari na muchetho jwa mubira na gikundi kuuma cukuru ya Meru University amwe na gikundi kingi giguitwa Meru’s Mahakama FC. Ntuku o iu, nibariungire mwitu jwa Lower Imenti naria arimi ba TIST bakuanda miti ya gintwire ndene ya mwitu jou jwa thirikari niuntu bwa MOU iria yasainirwe gatigati ga TIST na KFS. Ntuku ya kiumia, nibanogokere. Amwe na kuriungira cluster cia TIST, nibari kinya na micemanio na Mukuru Evan Maneno uria uri mumenyeeri wa gukaranira kwa nyomoo na imera bia mithemba mwanya (Ecosystem Conservator) ndene ya county ya Meru naria ofisi cia KFS ruukiri rwa Jumatatu tariki ikumi na ithanthatu. Ugoro bwa ntuku o iu, nitwatirimanire na Governor wa county ya Laikipia Mheshimiwa Joshua Irungu.
  • 9. Gwika Mbeu. Menyeera ati kethira nugukamata matunda kuuma antu aria ukuuthurania mbeu, jeke janyaari na antu kurina kirundu na kuwi na ruugo nikenda mpindi iria iri ndene ya ntunda itithuka. Kamata itunda riaaku na mpindi iri nkuniene kana gikabune. Ugaikamatira kiratasine kia nailoni gitina antu a gukurukia ruugo na aria gugatuma ruuji ruuthurane amwe na kuthukia ntunda na mbeu iu. Menyeera ati ukuathurana mbeu injaga mbele na ati mbeu nitheri na niumi mbele ya gwika. Mpindi injumu niciritaga sauti na kuunika wainaninia. Mpindi iria nyingi niciendaga kuumua riuene ntuku ijiri gwita ithatu mbele ya cibua cia gwika. Ika mbeu yaku antu gukuumo na kurina kirundu. Ikira nkuniene kana nyongune ya muthetu nikenda unyiyia kanya ga kuthuuka. Tuumira mikebe itigutonyithia ruugo riria ugwika mbeu ya goro na ujurie mikebe iu buru nikenda unyiyia kanya ka ruugo. Kethira utina mbeu ing’ani kuujiuria mikebe yaku, ujuriria na gintu ja makara, mati ja mucere kana maratasi ja ngazeti. Bibi bikajukia ruuji ruria ruri ruugone. Tuumira mpau kana mbito kumenyeera ati mikebe iu irina mbeu itigutonga nthiguru (guku nigutumaga mbeu ikathukua ni kugaruka kwa murutira, ruuji, na tunyomoo). Kethira uritumira nkunia kana mibuko, curia. Uria kirira kuumania na ikundi bingi biria bigukuiritie na ariti ba ngugi ya gutetheria arimi nikenda umenya uria ugutumira dawa cia tunyomoo na cia iria nikenda umenyeera mbeu yaku kuumania na tunyomoo. Mung’uanano, maguta kuumania na muarubaine kana mathangu, mathangu ja muti jugwitwa gliricidia na sabuni imwe nocikue utethio. Rikana gutega mbeu yaku o nyuma ya igita ririkai nikenda umenyeera ati itirathuka. Cuua umenyo kwegie ni igita ring’ana mbeu yaku iumba wikwa. Bubu bukaringana na muthemba jwacio. Mithemba imingi, igekwa bwega, noikare mwaka kana nkuruki. No ugerie gwika igita ria uraja mwanya nikenda utegera ni ririku ritumaga mbeu ikaumanga na mpwi. Jukia mpindi inkai ( mung’uanano igana), andika ni ing’ana wathuura, ciumithie na utare ni ing’ana ikauma. Ukaththia uju o mweri, mung’uanani, ukomba kwona riria uthongi bwa mbeu bukambiria kuthira. Gaana jaria ukoona na cluster yaku. O uria antu aria wikite mbeu yaku kurina mpio nou igakara igita riraja nkuruki. Menyeera ati mpindi iu itiki werune. Kethira antu aria ugwika kurina ruugo rurina ruuji rurwingi, mbeu ikathukanga na mpwi nkuruki. Rikana ati kurina mithemba imwe ya mbeu ciitagwa ‘recalcitrant’mbeu iji niciendaga kuandwa orio ciothuranua kuuma mitine na ciaritwa ntundene niuntu niciendaga ruuji rurwingi. Cikaogwa na nguo irina ruuji no cikare ntuku inkai mwanka kiumia kimwe. Mpindi iji nicikujaga ciaga cioma. Mithemba ya miti iria iri muthemba juju jwa mbeu ni amwe naArtocarpus heterophyllus (jackfruit), Azadirachta indica (muarubaine), Calamus species (rattans), Durio zibethinus (durian), Eusideroxylon zwageri (ulin), Theobroma cacao (cacao) na mithemba inyingi ya dipterocarps (Shorea, Hopea, Palaquium, na nkuruki). 3KIMERU VERSION Gwika mbeu na kwithuranira niuntu bwa kuanda.
  • 10. Muthia, ukithamia mbeu yaku wikia munandene ri
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