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Can't remember what this paper is about... probably psychology
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  Cigarette smoking is the second major cause of death in the world and is the cause of 1out of every 10 adult deaths. (World Health Organization website) Unless action is taken, from2025 to 2030 an estimated 10 million people willdie prematurelydiefrom tobacco use. (WHO, Tobacco Atlas) It is also an activity that is very much avoidable. With so much risk involved withsmoking, it is a wonder that so many people still smoke. How are the last couple sentencesconnected? An increase in anti-smoking sentiment has swept the nation yet the idea of “coolsmokers” is still ubiquitous. In almost every movie, smoking occurs within the first few minutes,yet it is widely known that smoking is hazardous to one’s health.It is important to know what factors influence the decisions to smoke, because of thelarger implications of death as a result of smoking. Don’t understand how that follows Sincesmoking is extremely hard to quit, whydo peoplestart? The factors that influence smokinginitiation, in many cases, seem purely social. It is interesting to note that the pressures behind thedecision to smoke could also affect our lives in other ways. With so many decisions stemmingfrom perceived information, the initiation of smoking demonstrates just one way that we areinfluenced by social factors. Many social conformity theories that have been developed mayexplain the decision to smoke. This paper discusses several theories in order to address thequestion: what social factors influence the decision to start smoking? An analysis of thesetheories then discusses how they explain smoking behavior.In order to look at smoking decision making social factors, it is necessary to first look atmodels of conformity. There are two prevalent theories about conformity and changing opinions.The “rational” model of pre-conformity is a model that states that opinions are altered before adecision and thus influence that decision. This model demonstrates the idea that behavior is aresult of personal opinions, and no cognitive dissonance occurs. However in order to have pre-  conformity changes of meaning effects, it is necessary to have both motivation to engage incritical thinking instead of passively agreeing with the group, and “accessibility of relevantattitudes.” (Griffin) These different attitudes then interchange when weighing new information prior to a decision. When using this model, a decision-maker first makes cognitions alignthemselves with decisions before they are made.  Don’t understand what this senstance means  The second model, the “rationalizing” model of post-conformity, proposes that decisionsare directly influenced by social situations,andthen opinions are changed to justify behavior changes. (Griffin) When a decision is made,social influences can immediately alter the decisionand then the decision-maker will alter hisor /her opinions to align with the decision. In the casewhere an opinionsthat differs from the taken action would normally weigh heavily within themakers mind  this appears to be a sentence fragment . However, since a contradictory decisionwas made, the social influences must be extremely powerful to completely alter a decision.In The experiment conducted byGriffin and Buehler ’s experiment,examined the  prevalence of each theory noting that pre-conformity should most often occur when before adecision they observe shif ts in judgment followed by group discussion that introduces novelideas. On the contrary if they were to observe “mindless” conformity, they would see “novel”ideas formed after the decision: post-conformity. From the results, it was shown that amongstudents the pre-conformity change of meaning effect was less prevalent than the post-conformity change of meaning effect. Though there were limitations to this experiment that theyaddress such as the stimuli provoking cognitive processing or not, the findings suggest that social pressures first alter behavior then change attitudes, however individual situations could be processed differently than other situations and thus one model could describe a certain situationthat the other does not.  In order to understand many of the conformity and social pressure theories, the idea of social influence must be introduced. Social influence is just how strongly those around usinfluence us. In an experiment to see the effects of social influence, it was shown that peer  pressure has the ability to make participants to state a clearly wrong answer to a simple problem.In his line experiment( who is he?) , he measured an individual’s willingness to conform to agroup. The results showed that due to peer pressure, individuals were giving the wrong answer 36.8 percent of the time as opposed to the ordinary 1 per cent. (Asch) As was stated above,situational influences must be extremely persuasive in order to cause cognitive dissonance froma decision. When Asch observed conformity to the level of obvious misevaluation being creditedto situational factors, it follows that social pressure, though often not verbalized, is extremelyinfluential.In the study done by Griffin et al., the post-conformity model offers an explanation for the cognitive dissonance and the tension that resulted from Asch’s line experiments. In the caseof smoking, when there is peer pressure, the decision can first be resolved before opinions aboutcigarettes are changed. Thus, the post-conformity model of change in meaning best describesdirect pressure leading to a change in normal action, direct pressure being a situation where peersinfluence is immediately imposing on a decision.When dealing with the decision to start smoking, a person who subscribes to the pre-conformity theory,will create a positive opinion of smoking prior to actually trying cigarettes.The decision will be based upon previous cognitions such as ideas about the social environment,an idea of smokers, and the risks involved with smoking. (Evans et. al) Social pressure mightalso be a factor considered when one is in a situation where the opportunity to smoke is  immediately available, but the opinion about smoking must first be changed to a positive one before initiation.One model of factors for smoking initiation is the model introduced by Evans et al. Thismodel takes into account two factors: the immediate social environment, and the individual perceptions about smoking. Their social influence model stems from Social Learning Theory thatstates that it is human nature to learn from those around us. (Krohn et al.) The theory proposed by Evans et al. addresses the initiation of the use of cigarettes as a decision influenced byopportunities to observe and use cigarettes as well as by social norms supporting smoking.The first variable of this model is social environment. Based on the results of Evans etall’s survey, it has been shown that social environment does play a large role in decisions tosmoke. Whenlooked analyzedin depth by a study conducted by Wiium et al., an adolescent maysee family memberswho smokeas roles models and thus have a positive image of smoking. This positive image of smoking then influences the intentions of an individual to smoke. In addition torelatives, peers also play a large role in decision influence. In this study however, it was foundthat friends and peers consistently exerted a stronger influence on a person’s propensity tosmoke. Thus the implications are that although having relatives around one that smoke is afactor, often times peer pressure will exert a greater influence on his/her decision to smoke.The second variable is the social image of smoking. Thought it is correlated with thesocial environment, it serves to extend the model into the individual’s cognitions about smoking. Don’t understsand the previous sentence For example, although one might not live withrelatives who smoke and know the effects of tobacco the lungs in the long run, he/she might stillhave positive thoughts about smoking because a movie star is a chain smoker. The individual
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