Securing AODV for MANETs using Message Digest with Secret Key

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This article has been withdrawn by arXiv admins because it contains plagiarized content from International Conference on Computer Networks and Security (ICCNS 2008, September 27-28, 2008): "Securing AODV for MANETs using Message Digest with
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  International Journal of Network Security & Its Applications (IJNSA), Vol.1, No.3, Octoer !""# Securing AODV for MANETs using Message Digest with Secret Key Mr. Kamaljit Lahtaria ! "   #rof. $hasar N. #atel % " Mr. Satish &. #raja'ati ( " Dr. N. N. )ani * ! ($%.. 'esearc% Sc%olar), ecturer, *A epart+ent, At+iya Institute of ec%nolo-y & Science, 'akot/uarat, In0ia, +ail2 ka+alit.ilak%taria-+ail.co+ % 4ea0 of epart+ent, *o+puter & Infor+ation ec%nolo-y epart+ent, 5.S.$atel $olyetc%nic, /anpat Vi0yana-ar,6%era7a, /uarat, In0ia, +ail2 er8%askarpatelya%oo.co+ ( ecturer, *o+puter epart+ent, 5.S.$atel $olyetc%nic, /anpat Vi0yana-ar, 6%era7a, /uarat, In0ia, +ail2 s-p8it""1"9!ya%oo.co+ * irector, 6a0i Vis%7a0i7a Vi0yalaya (ee+e0 :ni7ersity), S 6 $atel Institute of ana-e+ent & *o+puter Science, /an0%ina-ar, In0ia, +ail2 0rnnanics0-+ail.co+  Abstract  + ue to lack of t%e infrastructure, open peer;to;peer arc%itecture, s%are0 wireless +e0iu+, li+ite0 resource constraints an0 %i-%ly 0yna+ic topolo-y, ANs (oile A0;%oc Networks) are fre<uently estalis%e0 in insecure en7iron+ents, w%ic% +ake t%e+ +ore 7ulnerale to attacks. %ese attacks are initiate0 y s%arin- +alicious no0es a-ainst 0ifferent ser7ices of network. %e in0in- force in t%ese networks is routin- protocol, w%ic% is a co++on tar-et of +alicious no0es. ANs routin- protocols are ein- 0e7elope0 wit%out %a7in- security in +in0. A0;%oc On;e+an0 istance Vector (AOV) is one suc% wi0ely use0 routin- protocol t%at is at present un0er-o e=tensi7e researc% an0 0e7elop+ent. AOV is ase0 on 0istance 7ector routin-, ut %ere t%e up0ates are s%are0 not on a perio0ic asis ut on an as per 0e+an0 asis. %e control packets contain a %op;count an0 se<uence nu+er fiel0 w%ic% reco-ni>es t%e fres%ness of routin-. %ese fiel0s are e0itale, so it creates a possile susceptiility t%at is fre<uently ause0 y +alicious no0es to a07ertise false etter routes. As well as, trans+ission of routin- up0ates in for+ of clear te=t also re7eals crucial infor+ation aout t%e network topolo-y, w%ic% is a-ain a proale security 0an-er. In t%is paper we are presentin- a no7el an0 practical security +ec%anis+ for securin- t%e AOV routin- protocol t%at protects a-ainst a nu+er of attacks carrie0 out in ANs. ?e will present +essa-e 0i-est wit% secret key +ec%anis+ to secure AOV +essa-es, w%ic% is 7ery effecti7e, an0 less power consu+in- security solution for ANs.  Keywords  @ Security, 'outin- $rotocol, essa-e i-est, ec%anis+, alicious, Secret 6ey ,. , NT-OD/T,ON AN is a collection of in0epen0ent +oile users t%at co++unicate o7er relati7ely an0wi0t% an0 power constraine0 wireless links 1B. AN %as capaility to estalis% networks at anyti+e, anyw%ere. %ese networks are uilt, work an0 +aintaine0 y its own ecause eac% no0e perfor+s 0ual role of %ost an0 router. 5y an0 lar-e, t%ese no0es %a7e a li+ite0 trans+ission ran-e an0 so eac% no0e searc% for t%e support of its nei-%orin- no0es in forwar0in- packets. In or0er to estalis% routes etween two no0es, w%ic% are away fro+ eac% ot%er t%an a sin-le %op, special routin- protocols are alrea0y 0esi-ne0. %is uni<ue feature is responsile to route t%e +essa-e in spite of 0yna+ic topolo-y of network !B. %ese networks 0onCt 0epen0 on e=traneous %ar0ware, w%ic% +akes t%e+ an i0eal can0i0ate for +ilitary ser7ices an0 operations. Dor e=a+ple attle fiel0 a0 %oc network, in suc% a network we woul0 surely e first concerne0 wit% t%e efficient an0 in ti+e 0eli7ery of t%e +essa-e ut wit% t%is, we will %a7e to  e +ore concerne0 aout t%e stron- pri7acy or secrecy of t%e infor+ation also. %ese kin0s of scenarios, w%ere we want to trans+it pri7ate an0 secure infor+ation 7ery rapi0ly, +oti7ate us to +ake use of +essa-e 0i-est wit% secret key in security conte=t. In t%is paper we consi0er a07anta-e of +essa-e 0i-est wit% secret key to %i0e t%e infor+ation of all t%e fiel0s of +essa-e y usin- 0ifferent +essa-e 0i-est functions. ,,. # -EV,OS  0 O-K  o protect AN a-ainst 7arious possile attacks a routin- protocol +ust fulfill a set of re<uire+ents 3B to confir+ t%at t%e 0eter+ine0 pat% fro+ source to 0estination works correctly in t%e presence of +alicious no0es. %ese re<uire+ents are21)Aut%ori>e0 no0es s%oul0 perfor+ route co+putation an0 0isco7ery,!)ini+al e=posure of network topolo-y,3)etection of spoofe0 routin- +essa-es,E)etection of faricate0 routin- +essa-es,9)etection of altere0 routin- +essa-es,F)A7oi0in- for+ation of routin- loops, an0G)$resent re0irection of routes fro+ s%ortest pat%s.any secure routin- protocols %a7e een recently 0e7elope0 t%at confor+ to +ost of t%e re<uire+ents. So+e of t%e+ are as un0er21. SAOV (Secure A0;%oc On;e+an0 istance Vector)SAOV HB is an e=tension of AOV routin- protocol. It  pro7i0es aut%entication, +essa-e inte-rity an0 non;repu0iation in a0;%oc networks y usin- one;way %as% c%ain an0 0i-ital si-nature. It nee0s t%e use of 6ey ana-e+ent Sc%e+e. %e +ain 0isa07anta-e wit% t%e  protocol is t%e use of $ulic 6ey *rypto-rap%y t%at re<uires consi0erale a+ount of processin- power an0 slows 0own t%e process to so+e e=tent. 111  International Journal of Network Security & Its Applications (IJNSA), Vol.1, No.3, Octoer !""#!. A'AN (Aut%enticate0 'outin- for A0;%oc Networks)A'AN 3B pro7i0es aut%entication, +essa-e inte-rity an0 non;repu0iation in a0;%oc networks y usin- a preli+inary certification process w%ic% is followe0 y a route instantiation process t%at ensures en0;to;en0 security ser7ices. 5ut it nee0s t%e use of truste0 certification ser7er. %e +ain 0isa07anta-e wit% t%e protocol is e7ery no0e t%at forwar0s a route 0isco7ery or a route reply +essa-e +ust also si-n it, w%ic% is 7ery power consu+in- an0 causes t%e si>e of t%e routin- +essa-es to increase at eac% %op. ,,,. AODV -  OT,N&  # -OTO/OL AOV !B is a 0istance 7ector routin- protocol t%at %as  een naturally uil0 for ANs. It is an on 0e+an0  protocol an0 reacti7e in nature as it searc%in- t%e routes only w%en re<uire0. It +akes use of asic route estalis%+ent an0 +aintenance +ec%anis+s fro+ t%e S'  protocol an0 %op;to;%op routin- 7ectors fro+ t%e SV  protocol. AOV +akes wi0esprea0 use of se<uence nu+ers in control packets to a7oi0 t%e prole+ of -eneration of routin- loops. ?%en a source no0e is intereste0 to co++unicate wit% a 0estination no0e w%ose route is unknown, it roa0casts a '' ('oute 'e<uest)  packet. ac% '' packet contains a 'e<uest I, source an0 t%e 0estination no0e I$ a00resses an0 se<uence nu+ers alon- wit% a %op count an0 fla-s. %e 'e<uest I fiel0 uni<uely i0entifies t%e '' packet t%e se<uence nu+ers -i7es infor+ation re-ar0in- t%e fres%ness of control packets an0 t%e %op;count +aintains t%e nu+er of no0es etween t%e source an0 t%e 0estination. 'ecipient no0e of t%e '' packet t%at %as not fin0 t%e Source I$ an0 I pair or 0oesnCt +aintain a fres%er (lar-er se<uence nu+er) route to t%e 0estination reroa0casts t%e sa+e  packet after incre+entin- t%e %op;count. Suc% inter+e0iate no0es also create an0 preser7e a 'V'S 'O: to t%e source no0e for a certain ti+e. ?%en t%e '' packet arri7e0 at t%e 0estination no0e or any inter+e0iate no0e t%at %as a fres%er route to t%e 0estination a ''$ ('oute 'eply) packet is -enerate0 an0 sent ack to t%e source. ''$ packet contains t%e 0estination no0e se<uence nu+er, t%e source an0 t%e 0estination I$ a00resses, route lifeti+e alon- wit% a %op count an0 fla-s. Inter+e0iate no0e t%at recei7es t%e ''$  packet, incre+ents t%e %op count, estalis%es a Dorwar0 'oute to t%e source of t%e packet an0 trans+its t%e packet on t%e 'e7erse 'oute. AOV +akes use of 4O +essa-es perio0ically to fin0 link failures to no0es t%at it consi0ers as its i++e0iate nei-%ors. ?%en a link failure is 0etecte0 for a ne=t %op of an acti7e route a ''' ('oute rror) +essa-e is sent to its acti7e nei-%ors t%at were usin- t%at particular route.%e key 7ulnerailities !B present in t%e asic AOV routin- protocol are21)ecepti7e incre+entin- of Se<uence Nu+ers!)ecepti7e 0ecre+entin- of 4op *ount Value1ash 2unction "'eser7e019!S4A13;1!G'eser7e01!H;!99I+ple+entation epen0ent Ta3le !4 #ossi3le 5alues for 1ash62unction fiel7 ,V. S E/-,N&  AODV  S,N&  M ESSA&E  D ,&EST  A ND S E/-ET  K  E8  M E/1AN,SM %ere is a essa-e i-est wit% Secret 6ey +ec%anis+ use0 to secure AOV +essa-e. %is +ec%anis+ calculates +essa-e 0i-est usin- appropriate %as% function for all t%e fiel0s (+utale as well as non;+utale) of an AOV +essa-e in a00ition wit% secret key. An0 t%en +essa-e 0i-est an0 %as% function 7alue will e trans+itte0 alon- wit% t%e AOV +essa-e.%e essa-e i-est wit% Secret 6ey +ec%anis+ al-orit%+ is as follows2  7ery ti+e a no0e ori-inates a '', a ''$ or a ''' +essa-e, it perfor+s t%e followin- operations2 • It c%ooses suitale 7alue of %as% function % t%at is to  e use0 to +ake +essa-e 0i-est, fro+ all a7ailale  possile 7alues s%own in ale 1. • Sets 4as%8Dunction fiel0 y 7alue of c%osen %.4as%8Dunction K %?%ere, % is t%e 7alue of %as% function. • /et t%e 7alue of Secret 6ey, an0 a00 it to 7alues of all t%e fiel0s of +essa-e. • *alculates essa-e8i-est y passin- t%e 7alues of all t%e fiel0s wit% a00e0 secret key to %as% function %.essa-e8i-est K % (7alues of all t%e fiel0s wit% a00e0 secret key) ?%ere, % is a %as% function.%(=) is t%e result of applyin- t%e function % to =.  In a00ition, e7ery ti+e a no0e recei7es a '', a ''$ or a ''' +essa-e, it perfor+s t%e followin- operations in or0er to 7erify t%e 7ali0 +essa-e2 • /et t%e 7alue of Secret 6ey, an0 a00 it to 7alues of all t%e fiel0s of recei7e0 +essa-e. • Applies t%e %as% function % to t%e 7alues of all t%e fiel0s of recei7e0 an AOV +essa-e wit% a00e0 secure key e=cept 4as%8Dunction an0 essa-e8i-est fiel0s, an0 7erifies t%at t%e calculate0 +essa-e 0i-est is e<ual to t%e 7alue containe0 in t%e essa-e8i-est fiel0 of recei7e0 an AOV +essa-e.essa-e8i-est K K % (7alues of all t%e fiel0s wit% a00e0 secure key e=cept 4as%8Dunction an0 11!  International Journal of Network Security & Its Applications (IJNSA), Vol.1, No.3, Octoer !""#essa-e8i-est fiel0s), ?%ere, a K K  rea0s2 to 7erify t%at a an0  are e<ual. • 5efore reroa0castin- a '' or forwar0in- a ''$ or a ''', a no0e will perfor+ t%e followin-2  It once a-ain c%ooses suitale 7alue of %as% function % (+ay e 0ifferent of earlier 7alue of %) t%at is to e use0 to +ake +essa-e 0i-est.  Sets 4as%8Dunction fiel0 y 7alue of c%osen %.4as%8Dunction K %  /et t%e 7alue of Secret 6ey, an0 a00 it to 7alues of all t%e fiel0s of +essa-e.  *alculates essa-e8i-est y passin- t%e 7alues of all t%e fiel0s to %as% function %.essa-e8i-est K % (7alues of all t%e fiel0s wit% a00e0 secret key) V. E 9TEDED  M ESSA&E  2 O-MATS Di-ure 12 Secure AOV '' essa-e Dor+atDi-ure !2 Secure AOV ''$ essa-e Dor+atDi-ure 32 Secure AOV ''' essa-e Dor+at As s%own in Di-. 1, Di-. ! an0 Di-. 3, t%e e=ten0e0 fiel0s na+ely 4as% Dunction an0 essa-e i-est (s%own in -ray color) are a00e0 in AOV +essa-es 13B, in or0er to +ake t%e+ secure accor0in- to our propose0 +ec%anis+. V,. M ESSA&E  D ,&EST  0 ,T1  S E/-ET  K  E8  M E/1AN,SM In our propose0 secure +ec%anis+, we assu+e0 t%at t%ere e=ists a central key +ana-e+ent syste+, w%ic% 0istriutes secret key to all le-iti+ate no0es in a07ance efore t%ey  participate in syste+ calle0 a tea+ key or a -roup key or anyt%in- else. 4ow key +ana-e+ent syste+ %an0les, 0istriute an0 s%are t%e secret key a+on- le-iti+ate no0es is out of scope for t%is paper.%e no0e w%ic% wants to sen0 AOV +essa-e, first selects appropriate %as% function an0 t%en -ets secret key an0 a00s secret key to t%e +essa-e 0ata an0 t%en applies %as% function on +essa-e 0ata wit% a00e0 secret key to create +essa-e 0i-est, after creatin- +essa-e 0i-est it will sen0 +essa-e 0i-est an0 %as% function 7alue alon- wit% AOV +essa-e to t%e ne=t no0e. Di-ure E2 essa-e 0i-est wit% secret key +ec%anis+ %e no0e w%ic% recei7es AOV +essa-e first otains %as% function fro+ recei7e0 %as% function 7alue an0 t%en -ets secret key an0 a00s secret key to t%e +essa-e 0ata of recei7e0 +essa-e an0 t%en applies t%at %as% function on +essa-e 0ata of recei7e0 +essa-e wit% a00e0 secret key an0 creates +essa-e 0i-est. After creatin- +essa-e 0i-est it will co+pare create0 +essa-e 0i-est wit% recei7e0 +essa-e 0i-est, if ot% +essa-e 0i-ests are e<ual it will accept t%at 7ali0 +essa-e an0 113  International Journal of Network Security & Its Applications (IJNSA), Vol.1, No.3, Octoer !""#  process it, ut if t%ey are not e<ual it will not acceptin- t%at in7ali0 +essa-e an0 si+ply 0rops it. %e 0etail secure essa-e 0i-est wit% secret key +ec%anis+ works as s%own in Di-ure E. V,,. S E/-,T8  A NAL8S,S 4ere we 0iscuss %ow t%e presente0 +essa-e 0i-est wit% secret key security +ec%anis+ 0efies possile attacks in AN an0 satisfies t%e se7en re<uire+ents of any secure routin- protocol2 1)Authorized nodes should perform route computation and discovery All aut%ori>e0 no0es are %a7in- uni<ue syste+ wi0e secret key an0 0ifferent secure %as% function y usin- w%ic% t%ey are -eneratin- +essa-e 0i-est for route co+putation an0 0isco7ery w%ile unaut%ori>e0 no0es 0oes not %a7e secret key an0 any knowle0-e aout %as% functions an0 so t%at t%ey cannot participate in network. 2)Minimal exposure of network topology ec%anis+ allows passi7e ea7es0roppin- y any a07ersary re-ar0in- network topolo-y, ut +ain punc% of +ec%anis+ is it will not let any +alicious no0e to +isuse t%at ea7es0roppe0 infor+ation, ecause a07ersary cannot alter or faricate routin- +essa-e, as t%ey 0o not %a7e secret key. )!etection of spoofed routing messages Spoofin- of infor+ation 0oes not -i7e any enefit to t%e a07ersary until it %as secret key an0 0ifferent %as% functions a7ailale to use t%at spoofe0 infor+ation. ")!etection of fabricated routing messages alicious no0es cannot inect faricate0 routin- +essa-es into t%e network as t%ey %a7e not secret key, re<uire0 to -enerate +essa-es. #)!etection of altered routing messages All routin- +essa-e 0ata pro0uces sin-le an0 uni<ue +essa-e 0i-est so t%at it is not possile y any +alicious no0e to alter it wit%out secret key, an0 if +alicious no0e alters it t%en le-iti+ate no0e can easily fin0 out t%at alteration w%en it co+pares +essa-e 0i-est. $)Avoiding formation of routing loops %is +ec%anis+ confir+s t%at routin- loops cannot e for+e0 t%rou-% any +alicious action. Since routin- loops +ainly occurs if a +alicious no0e is ale to spoof, alter or faricate le-iti+ate routin- packets !B. %)&resent redirection of routes from shortest paths /enerally, s%ortest pat%s are create0 y 0ecre+entin- t%e nu+er of a00resses in t%e routin- protocol. %e +ec%anis+ is 0esi-ne0 in suc% a +anner t%at routin-  packets are only accepte0 fro+ aut%enticate0 i++e0iate nei-%ors. %is ensures t%at an a07ersary cannot inect suc% routin- packets unless an aut%ori>e0 no0e first aut%enticates it !B.Dollowin- are t%e attacks t%at can e launc%e0 a-ainst t%e AOV routin- protocol 1!B2 1)Message tampering attack  %is +ec%anis+ confir+s t%at if +alicious no0e ta+pers +essa-e in etween t%e route, it can e easily 0etecte0 y 0estination no0e. 2)Message dropping attack  %is +ec%anis+ confir+s t%at if +alicious no0e 0rops in7ali0 +essa-es to t%e 0estination or to t%e inter+e0iate0 no0e, it can e easily 0etecte0. V,,,. S ,MLAT,ON  A ND -  ESLTS ?e %a7e successfully i+ple+ente0 +essa-e 0i-est +ec%anis+ to secure AOV routin- protocol usin- NS;!.!H #, 1"B on De0ora core E inu= 7ersion an0 conclu0e0 t%at it is 7ery secure +ec%anis+ w%ic% fulfills all security re<uire+ents wit%out consu+in- +uc% power of no0es an0 -i7es al+ost sa+e perfor+ance as AOV -i7es wit%out usin- +ec%anis+.%e +ain ai+ of si+ulation is to pro7e propose0 +ec%anis+ is properly securin- AOV wit% all security aspects. Dor si+ulation, we %a7e consi0ere0 3 0ifferent +oile no0es, na+ely no0e ", no0e 1 an0 no0e !. %e *$ traffic connection is estalis%e0 etween no0es " to no0e 1. otal si+ulation ti+e is 19" sec. All network co+ponents of +oile no0e are consi0ere0 t%eir 0efault 7alues. (.-. ink ayer, Interface ueue, ac ayer etc.) A-ent, 'outer an0 o7e+ent traces are kept ON an0 ac trace is kept ODD for all t%ree +oile no0es.Dollowin- tales are s%owin- t%e result of our si+ulation t%at pro7es propose0 +ec%anis+ is securin- AOV. -outing #rotocol4  AOV /ase4  ?it% or wit%out +alicious no0e No7e#acets&enerate7Sent2orwar7e7-ecei5e7No7e : 3#3E3#31"GH3G No7e ! 3#!33#!""GHEH No7e % FFGH!GGHE9 Ta3le %4 AODV with or without malicious no7e;s-outing #rotocol4  AOV wit% propose0 +ec%anis+ /ase4  ?it%out +alicious no0e No7e#acets&enerate7Sent2orwar7e7-ecei5e7No7e : 3#3E3#31"GH3G No7e ! 3#!33#!""GHEH No7e % FFGH!GGHE9 Ta3le (4 AODV with 'ro'ose7 mechanism an7 without malicious no7e;s 11E  International Journal of Network Security & Its Applications (IJNSA), Vol.1, No.3, Octoer !""# -outing #rotocol4  AOV wit% propose0 +ec%anis+ /ase4  ?it% +alicious no0e " No7e#acets&enerate7Sent2orwar7e7-ecei5e7No7e : 1!1!"9 No7e ! """F No7e % """# Ta3le *4 AODV with 'ro'ose7 mechanism an7 with malicious no7e :-outing #rotocol4  AOV wit% propose0 +ec%anis+ /ase4  ?it% +alicious no0e 1 No7e#acets&enerate7Sent2orwar7e7-ecei5e7No7e : 1!1!"1H No7e ! HH"1E No7e % ##"13 Ta3le <4 AODV with 'ro'ose7 mechanism an7 with malicious no7e !-outing #rotocol4  AOV wit% propose0 +ec%anis+ /ase4  ?it% +alicious no0e ! No7e#acets&enerate7Sent2orwar7e7-ecei5e7No7e : 99E"9939"11"EF No7e ! 991H99"!"11"EG No7e % 1919"1G Ta3le =4 AODV with 'ro'ose7 mechanism an7 with malicious no7e %  Ne=t we will consi0er t%e power consu+ption of no0es an0 s%owin- t%e result of our si+ulation. ?e consi0ere0 ener-y +o0el for all t%ree no0es wit% initial ener-y 1"  oules an0 ".1 ? ener-y consu+e0 w%en no0e recei7es AOV +essa-e an0 ".! ? ener-y consu+e0 w%en no0e trans+its AOV +essa-e. -outing #rotocol4  AOV /ase4  ?it% or wit%out +alicious no0e No7e#acets&enerate7Sent2orwar7e7-ecei5e7No7e : 3"FG3"EH"F"F# No7e ! 3"!"3"1G"F"3G No7e % !!9F#!9F#E Ta3le >4 AODV with or without malicious no7e;s-outing #rotocol4  AOV wit% propose0 +ec%anis+ /ase4  ?it%out +alicious no0e No7e#acets&enerate7Sent2orwar7e7-ecei5e7No7e : 3"FG3"EH"F"F# No7e ! 3"!"3"1G"F"3G No7e % !!9F#!9F#E Ta3le ?4 AODV with 'ro'ose7 mechanism an7 without malicious no7e;s-outing #rotocol4  AOV wit% propose0 +ec%anis+ /ase4  ?it% +alicious no0e " No7e#acets&enerate7Sent2orwar7e7-ecei5e7No7e : 1!1!"9 No7e ! """F No7e % """# Ta3le @4 AODV with 'ro'ose7 mechanism an7 with malicious no7e :-outing #rotocol4  AOV wit% propose0 +ec%anis+ /ase4  ?it% +alicious no0e 1 No7e#acets&enerate7Sent2orwar7e7-ecei5e7No7e : 1!1!"1H No7e ! HH"1E No7e % ##"13 Ta3le !:4 AODV with 'ro'ose7 mechanism an7 with malicious no7e !-outing #rotocol4  AOV wit% propose0 +ec%anis+ /ase4  ?it% +alicious no0e ! No7e#acets&enerate7Sent2orwar7e7-ecei5e7No7e : EF9!EF9!"#!GH No7e ! EF3EEF!F"#!FH No7e % EE"9 Ta3le !!4 AODV with 'ro'ose7 mechanism an7 with malicious no7e % ale ! an0 ale G s%ows t%at si+ple AOV routin- protocol cannot 0etect any +alicious no0eLs an0 -enerate, sen0, forwar0 an0 recei7e sa+e a+ount of packets in ot% t%e cases of present an0 asent of +alicious no0eLs.ale 3 an0 ale H s%ows t%at AOV routin- protocol wit%  propose0 +ec%anis+ an0 wit%out any +alicious no0es in syste+ will -enerate, sen0, forwar0 an0 recei7e sa+e a+ount of packets as AOV will -enerate, sen0, forwar0 an0 recei7e.ale E an0 ale #, s%ows AOV routin- protocol wit%  propose0 +ec%anis+ an0 wit% +alicious no0e " t%at can easily 0etect +alicious no0e. 4ere no0e ! reco-ni>es t%at no0e " is +alicious an0 will not forwar0 any of t%e +essa-e sent y no0e " to no0e 1.119
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