Social Institutions and Suicidal Behaviors among University Students: A Study of Opinion Evaluation of University Graduates on Depressive Disorders in Islamabad

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ABSTRACT: Suicide is becoming the most growing issues among the young generation. The reasons observed during this study were that depression is the main key area for youngsters to commit suicide. Existing literature shows that suicide rate becoming
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  Sci.Int.(Lahore),24(4),167-169,2012 ISSN 1013-5316; CODEN: SINTE 8   167 SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS AND SUICIDAL BEHAVIORS AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS: A STUDY OF OPINION EVALUATION OF UNIVERSITY GRADUATES ON DEPRESSIVE DISORDERS IN ISLAMABAD Farhat Fazal 1 , Abid Ghafoor Chaudhry 2, Aftab Ahmed 3 , M. Aurangzeb Chohan 4 , Sajjad Hussain 5, M. Khurum Irshad 6   1 M.Phil Student, Dept. Of Anthropology and Sociology, PMAS-AAU Rawalpindi, 2 Dept. Of Anthropology and Sociology, PMAS-AAU Rawalpindi, 3 Anthropologist, Association of Social Development (ASD), Islamabad,  4 M.Sc Anthropology, Dept of Anthropology & Sociology, PMAS-AAU Rawalpindi 5 Regional Development Network (RDN), Islamabad, 6 Association of Social Development (ASD), Islamabad, Corresponding Author: 3 huda.aftab@gmail.com  ABSTRACT: Suicide is becoming the most growing issues among the young generation. The reasons observed during this study were that depression is the main key area for youngsters to commit suicide.  Existing literature shows that suicide rate becoming higher among youth, especially in Muslim community around the world. Objective of the study was to answer the question that depression among youth leading to commit suicide. Students of two well-known educational institutions of Islamabad, Quid-i-Azam University and Comsats Institute of Information Technology was selected as participants. By using convenient sampling technique respondents were selected for this study. Results shows that 67.3% of the respondents were belong to the age category between 21-25 years. Respondents were at the level of getting master degree and B.S education from respective institutions.44% respondents reported helplessness, 16% responses in aggression category and 36.7% respondent’s  restlessness was a major cause of depression.  Finding at the responsible institutions for depression were, in 35.4% cases family institutions, in 22.7% cases educational institutions and in 37.4% cases economic institutions were major responsible institutions to create depression among youth. Religious teachings can play important role. In this regard, the  government can establish the counseling cells in the universities and NGOs can prioritize psychological treatments and counseling among the university students to guide the graduate to adopt the more realistic life styles among them Key Word: Depression, Suicide, Youth, Institution INTRODUCTION The Holy Qur’an says: “…  And do not kill yourselves (nor kill one another). Surely, Allah is Most Merciful… ” (An-Nisa 4:29) Two- thirds of the country’s population is reportedly suffering from depression, and a trend of suicide among the  people has seen a sharp increase in the first quarter of this year. Lack of financial resources, insecurity and identity  problems have pushed the suicide rate up by 24 percent as compared to last year. Professor Dr Muhammad Riaz Bhatti, one of the key psychiatrics in Pakistan, told Daily times that considering the ratio between those who attempt suicide, men had more suicidal tendencies than women, as they are more aggressive and depressed due to financial problems. 1  Treatment compliance and endpoint measures of suicidal ideation and depression have been shown to be superior in a family intervention plus an educational intervention at intake in the emergency room, relative to the family intervention alone for adolescent Latina suicide attempters. 2  Suicide and suicidal behavior is depreciated in all revealed religions and great world cultural traditions. The civic and cultural mind set encourages human to cope with the depression in a more practical manner instead of avoid fighting and facing the harsh social realities and difficulties. All religious traditions and cultures suppose its members to lead realistic modes of life instead of mere day dreaming. It is observed that the complexities of social life, demands of modernity and unrealistic fashioning of youth leads to the increase of depressive behaviors among youngsters. It is usually observed the today’s youth is more ambitious than ever therefore over ambitiousness leads to depressions and later on becoming suicidal. Major depression has 17% lifetime prevalence in the U.S. general population 3 , yet rates of major depression differ among ethnic groups 3  –  8 . Suicide is the eighth leading cause of death in the United States 9 , and most suicide victims suffer from major depression around the time of death 10  –  12 . Thus, rates of major depression are related to suicide rates 13,14 . The study will answer the question: Depression among youth leading to commit suicide.   MATERIALS AND METHODS The study consisted of two universities of Islamabad i.e. Comsats Institute of Information Technology and Quaid-i-Azam University. These two institutions had been selected out of 15 institutions of Islamabad. A sample of 150 respondents was selected by using convenient sampling technique. Keeping in consideration the objectives of the study, an interview guide was constructed. Interview guide that was used in this research has comprised questions that cover all concerning issues. Each respondent was explained about the objectives of the study.     ISSN 1013-5316; CODEN: SINTE 8 Sci.Int.(Lahore),24(4),167-169,2012   168 RESULTS Table.1 Age distribution of respondents Age Frequency Percentage 19-20 49 32.7 21-23 77 51.3 24-25 24 16 Total 150 100 Table.1 shows the respondents age distribution. Between the age group 19-20, 32.7% participate in this research. 51.3% of the respondents belong to age group 21-23, which shows the maximum percentage among respondents. While 16% respondents falls in the category of 24-25. Table.2 Current Educational status among respondents Qualification Frequency Percentage M.Sc. 50 33.3 M.BA. 46 30.7 B.S. 54 36 Total 150 100 Above table shows the figure of current education status of the respondents of this research. 64% respondents were getting their Master’s level education in Quid -i-Azam and Comsats institution. While, 36% respondents were seeking their degrees in B.S Program. Table.3 Type of Depression reported by respondents Type of depression Frequency Percentage Helplessness 66 44 Aggression 24 16 Restlessness 55 36.7 Others 5 3.3 Total 150 100 Table.3 focused on the type of depression reported by the respondents during this research. The major finding shows in the table that, 44% of the respondents were of the view that helplessness was a major reason to commit suicide among youngsters. Aggression was the third major category of depression reported by the participants. And second major depression was 36.7% that is restlessness during their routine life. Table.4 Responsible Institutions of Depression Institutions responsible for depression Frequency Percentage Family 53 35.4 Educational 34 22.7 Economic 56 37.4 Friends 2 1.3 Society 2 1.3 Others 2 1.3 All 1 .6 Total 150 100 Above table shows the category of the institutions were  being responsible for depression among youth. Family was the second higher percentage as an institution held responsible to create depression, educational institutions were at number three in ranking by getting 22.7% responses and first major institution was economic institution with 37.4% responses. These results show that family, educational and economic institutions were more affective key partners to raise the level of depression. DISCUSSION Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a Muslim country and as per daily news reports, unfortunately, the suicide graph among Muslims, as compared to other minority communities, shows an increasing trend. Therefore, it would be essential to analyze and create awareness about this condemned act in the light of Holy Qur’an and Sunnah. As already cited above, this act is condemned in all the revealed religions, including Islam, which has crystal clear divine instructions about this sinful act, which is detrimental to soul’s eternal  journey after death. 15  Present research depicted that depression was a major issue among the youth of Universities, which leads them to take decision to end their lives and commit suicide. The basic factors being responsible to create depression and raise the level of depression among youth were the family matter, educational hurdles and economic problem faced by them during their lives. Unfortunately, the ratio of suicide among young generation is notable. The literature of previous one to two years categorically mentioned the growing chart of suicide in developing countries. In a 2001 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, the Center for Disease Control (CDC) reported that during the past year, 19% of high school students had ideation, 15% made a plan, 9% made an attempt, and 2.6% made a medically serious suicide attempt 16 . Suicide is among the leading causes of death among 10- to 19-year-olds in developed countries, and accounts for more deaths than all natural causes combined 16,17 . CONCLUSION Seeing the results of the study, there is a need on behalf of the government and non-governmental organizations especially the civil society to come forth to play its role to focus on extending the social counseling to the youth. The youth is also requiring the proper and appropriate socio-cultural and religious measures to increase awareness about the challenges of social life and its remedies. In this regard, religious teachings can play important role. In this regard, the government can establish the counseling cells in the universities and NGOs can prioritize psychological treatments and counseling among the university students to guide the graduate to adopt the more realistic life styles among them. REFERENCES 1.   Aliya Mirza. Trend of suicide increased by 24 percent this year. http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2012\05\19\story_19-5-2012_pg7_22. [Online] [Accessed at 27-12-12] 2.   Rotheram-Borus M, Piacentini J, Van Rossem R, Flemming G, Cantwell C, Castro-Blanco D, Miller S, Feldman J. 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Compr Psychiatry.,   1 :349  –  359(1960). 12.   Henriksson MM, Aro HM, Marttunen MJ, Heikkinen ME, Isometsä ET, Kuoppasalmi KI, Lönnqvist JK: Mental disorders and comorbidity in suicide.  Am J Psychiatry ., 150 :935  –  940(1993) 13.   Rihmer Z, Barsi J, Veg K, Katona CLE: Suicide rates in Hungary correlate negatively with reported rates of depression.  J Affect Disord.,  20 :87  –  91(1990). 14.   Rutz W, Von Knorring L, Wálinder J: Frequency of suicide on Gotland after systematic postgraduate education of general practitioners.  Acta Psychiatr Scand  ., 80 :151  –  154(1989). 15.   Aijaz Ali Wassan and Mahwish Riaz. A Socio Religious Analysis of Suicides and its Impact on Economic Development.  Indus Journal of Management & Social Sciences . Vol. 1 , No. 1 :1-13 (Spring 2007). 16.   Gould MS, Greenberg T, Velting DM, Shaffer D. Youth suicide risk and preventive interventions: A review of the past 10 years.  J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry ., 42 :386-405(2003). 17.   Hawton K, Simkin S, Harriss L, Bale E, Bond A. ―Deliberate Self  - Harm in Oxford 1999‖, Enquiries to Professor Hawton. Oxford University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, 1999
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