Social Pollution Gender balance

of 11

Please download to get full document.

View again

All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
11 pages
0 downs
Social Pollution Gender balance
  SOCIAL POLLUTION AS AN INHIBITING FACTOR IN INTEGRATING GENDER BALANCE IN DEVELOPMENT PROCESSES Dr. Mirza Arshad Ali BegFormer Director General, PCSIR 13!C Ra"ahe Aam #o$sing Societ%, Malir #alt, &arachi '()1*, Pa+istan  ABSTRACT Social Poll$tion, % de"inition is contamination o" the social milie$ % corr$-t "orces. It is concerned ith -oll$tion o" social s%stems, their norms and str$ct$re. It can e estimated "or di""erent co$ntries in terms o" the Corr$-tion Perce-tion Inde/, CPI de0elo-ed % rans-arenc% International. Being the root ca$se o" -oll$tion o" other s%stems, it is $i2$ito$s. It reeds in  -o0ert% and in an im-o0erished en0ironment, -artic$larl% in an illiterate societ% in hich e/-loiters ao$nd. he strong arm o" the r$thless males, dominating the go0erning hierarch%, o-erates the "orces o" social -oll$tion. $stice, e2$itale distri$tion o" reso$rces, and share in a$thorit% is denied in the de0elo-ing co$ntries ith CPI ran+ing similar to Pa+istan. he go0erning hierarch% ill contin$e to maintain class distinction and gender imalance till s$ch time that it changes its -s%che. As s$ch the dontrodden, the omen, children, elderl% and the ea+ ill remain its 0ictims. Moreo0er since sec$lar "orces dominate o0er religio$s matters, omen seem to e $naare o" the religio$s conce-t o" h$sand4s oedience. he% are constrained in their social and "amil% roles % traditions and social 0al$es rather than % religio$s 0al$es. he 5$ranic commandment gi0es the omen all that the% desire 0iz. right to ed$cation, -restige, and hono$r, right to on -ro-ert%, to eing g$ardian inside the home and to or+ o$tside the home. #oe0er, the -re0ailing le0el o" social -oll$tion in co$ntries o" the region, does not allo omen to learn "rom the religio$s oo+s as to hat their rights are. his is -rimaril% d$e to an illiterate social en0ironment and its go0ernance % the -s%che o" a male dominated go0erning hierarch%, hich has a semi!literate m$lla in Pa+istan to inter-ret the 5$ranic in6$nctions and a corres-onding religio$s leader in other co$ntries to inter-ret their oo+s. Social -oll$tion is an inhiiting "actor in integrating good go0ernance -ractices and as a corollar%, in integrating gender alance into de0elo-ment acti0ities o" Pa+istan. Since it is di""ic$lt to change the -s%che o" the go0erning hierarch%, hich go0erns the distri$tion o" a$thorit%, it can e ass$med that the go0ernance s%stem is less li+el% to concede rights to omen to e e2$al -artners in decision ma+ing in the near "$t$re. he reasons attri$ted "or this -essimism are that the "orces o" social -oll$tion intensi"% in an illiterate setting ith their o-erating arms in the -artners o" a netor+ com-rising e/-loiters. D$ring the co$rse o" time the netor+ has "irmed $- and di""erent roles ha0e een in"ormall% assigned to its -artners. he o-erators o" social -oll$tion ha0e no regard "or rights o" omen ho are considered in"erior in the hierarch%. Gender alance is less li+el% to e achie0ed since it ill create -rolems o" sharing a$thorit%. ransition to democrac% did not alter the go0ernance s%stem at the grass root le0el in the co$ntries o" the region and hence the rights o" omen ha0e not een com-ensated. 7i+e!minded -ersons  ere inter!laced d$ring the transition into the netor+, hich does not incl$de omen as its  -artner. 7i+eise the in"ormal go0ernance s%stem hich o-erates the "orces o" social -oll$tion has a str$ct$re highl% oriented toards the males. Social -oll$tion has th$s contin$ed to remain as the inhiitor% "actor in alloing the transition "rom the trial to a ci0il s%stem o" go0ernance. his $-holds the concl$sion that social 0al$es o" the en0ironment incl$ding gender alance, are not li+el% to e integrated in the near "$t$re into the de0elo-ment -rocesses in Pa+istan and other co$ntries o" the region. INTRODUCTION Social Poll$tion is a term that has een concei0ed to descrie the ra0aging o" societies o" their moral and material 0al$es in the same manner as -h%sical -oll$tion has een degrading their 0al$ale reso$rces. B% de"inition it is contamination o" the social milie$ % corr$-t "orces. Degradation o" -h%sical and economic en0ironment is intimatel% connected ith social degeneration and their root ca$se can e traced in social -oll$tion. De0elo-ment o" the conce-t is  ased on case histor% o" disasters o" social -oll$tion in Pa+istan as ell as a "e other de0elo-ing and ind$strialized co$ntries81,)9. It s$ggests that the c$rrenc% o" m$na"a2at or h%-ocris% -ro0ides the in"rastr$ct$re "or seeding social -oll$tion, "or degrading the 2$alit% o" li0ing en0ironment, and retarding the de0elo-ment -rocesses. he com-le/ -rocesses o" social -oll$tion ca$se -er-et$ation o" -o0ert% and ma+e the rich richer and the -oor -oorer. he contin$ing domination o" class and caste str$ct$re is a mani"estation o" social degeneration among societies in So$th Asia. :ell!estalished s%stems s$ch as the "e$dal s%stem and a$tocratic regimes are its o-erational arms in the region. he% ser0e as its mode o" go0ernance. It is s%non%mo$s ith corr$-tion and among some o" its $nritten o6ecti0es are gloalization o" corr$-tion, creation o" -arallel econom% and trans"er o" the ene"its to an in"ormal +ingdom o" the $nderorld. Social -oll$tion can e 2$anti"ied. Anal%sis o" Corr$-tion Perce-tion Inde/, CPI de0elo-ed % rans-arenc% International839, s$ggests that social -oll$tion is res-onsile "or gloal -oor go0ernance. he common denominator in the cases e/amined is the -s%che o" the go0erning hierarch% and the netor+ o-erated % an oligarch%. he ene"iciar% in each case is the $nderorld hose 0er% e/istence retards the normal groth -rocesses. he loser is the ta/-a%er ho is denied the ene"its o" the groth -rocesses, hich are retarded. Pa+istan, India, Indonesia, R$ssia and other co$ntries, hich ha0e lo CPI rating, ha0e a high social -oll$tion le0el. he% constit$te a gro$- here the -rocess o" colonization or re-ressi0e r$le ga0e rise to reeding o" a -arasitic elite social class. As internal colonists this elite social class de0elo-ed the -s%che, hich has ta+en di""erent "orms. his is the gro$- o" co$ntries here the get!rich!2$ic+l% -s%che dominates o0er the o-erations o" the go0erning hierarch%. his is also the gro$-, hich $ses the negati0e "orces at its command "or the achie0ement o" its o6ecti0es.Another gro$- o" co$ntries ith medi$m CPI rating and social -oll$tion o" medi$m le0el has the ca-ailit% to e/-loit others reso$rces and ind$ce its -s%che on relati0el% 0$lnerale and ea+ economies, to o-en the mar+ets to their t%-e o" econom%. his gro$- is tr%ing to gloalize trade $sing m$ltinational cor-orations as their o-erational arm and incl$des America, Israel and ;ast Asian economies. It ind$ces corr$-tion % $sing 0ario$s instr$ments, o""er o" economic aid and  "oreign in0estments, eing some o" them. his is the gro$- here the en6o%!the!richness -s%che g$ides the go0erning hierarch%. Mala%sia and &orea -ro0ide an e/am-le o" this t%-e o" en6o%ment here c$rrenc% s-ec$lators nearl% de0astated the state econom%. he% a--l% -ress$re con!scio$sl% in certain co$ntries thro$gh aid, in0estment in ind$s!trialization or direct militar% inter0ention in the name o" more and etter democratization, and $nconscio$sl% thro$gh trade and sm$ggling or similar acti0ities that ene"it the in"ormal s%stem o" the $nderorld. Also $nconscio$sl% the% interact ith the c$lt$ral and moral 0al$es o" the societies and ind$ce social change % technolog% in0asion and introd$ction o" modernit%. OPERATION OF THE FORCES OF SOCIAL POLLUTION AT NATIONAL LEVEL he -s%che de0elo-ed in an en0ironment o" social -oll$tion in the co$ntries ith lo CPI rating, o-erates a 0icio$s circle and has a gloal character. he 0icio$s circle com-rises lo -rod$ction, more im-ort o" cons$mer goods, ad0erse alance o" -a%ment sit$ation, more loans im-l%ing a  -l$nge dee- into det tra-, str$ct$ral re"orms and cost escalation. he second c%cle starts "rom here ith m$ch loer -rod$ction $t ends at de"a$lt li+e sit$ation. A stage is reached here short!term loans ha0e to e orroed to re-a% the loans, lest the co$ntr% goes % de"a$lt. S$ch a sit$ation has alread% arri0ed in Pa+istan. he "e$dal s%stem o-erates the 0icio$s circle in Pa+istan thro$gh a go0ernance s%stem that has a netor+ com-rising the ci0il and militar% $rea$crac%, iradri or cronies, -atharedars, dacoit and religio$s leaders at almost all le0els o" hierarch%. he netor+ has a strong gender ias and does not $s$all% ha0e "emales as its -artners. his netor+ lin+s the "ormal ith the in"ormal sectors o" the econom% at the assemlage machinated % the -olice and intelligence agencies in their di""erent roles. According to recent estimates it di0erts at least (*< o" the re0en$e thro$gh in"ormal channels to the $norganized $nderorld. Corr$-tion as estimated in 1==( to e di0erting Rs 1'( to )** illion ann$all%, hile sm$ggling and ta/ e0asion ere di0erting Rs 1** to 1(* illion ann$all%. he di0ersion o" Rs >** to (** illion e/-lains h% monetar% e/-ansion o" 1.< e/ceeds the rate o" groth o" ) to 3<. he lac+ mone% so generated is estimated at o0er Rs 1.) trillion.Social -oll$tion as created and groomed in Pa+istan % the "e$dal netor+ -artners ho ha0e  een -laced in the go0erning hierarch% and are o-erating the 0icio$s circle. he stor% o" social  -oll$tion has een enacted into a drama in hich the "e$dal landlords!t$rned!-oliticians ha0e een ta+ing t$rns. he% $se their clo$t in -olitics, ind$str% and $rea$crac% and "orm -ress$re gro$-s to  -la% di""erent roles in commodit% trade i.e. s$--l% and demand and to control the mar+et "orces. he cost escalation itnessed % the -oor Pa+istani d$ring the %ears a"ter restoration o" democrac%, is the res$lt o" "$n"air o" social -oll$tion staged % the second and third generation elitists, com-rising agric$lt$rists, ind$strialists, traders, $rea$crats, and -oliticians oth o$tside and inside the -arliament. he netor+ -artnershi- o" the "e$dal str$ct$re allos collaoration among the o--osition and treas$r% enches on matters o" common interest e.g. ta/ on agric$lt$re, riting o"" loans and -assing on the entire $rden o" corr$-tion, hich has s$r"aced $- in the "orm o" cost escalation, to the cons$mer.In the "olds o" "e$dal societ% social -oll$tion a--ro0es a adera, a cha$dhr% or a +han to e a s%mol o" terror. #e en6o%s the -ri0ilege o" $sing hate0er he has in his -ossession to s$6$gate  those hom he holds as hostage in his estate and to ma+e $se o" them in the manner o" his li+ing. he dirt% treatment to the onded lao$r, incl$ding omen is an act in hich he e/cells. Sociall%  -oll$ted s%stems s$ch as the "e$dal netor+ allo these actors to -o$r 0enom into terror hen the% are -laced in a$thorit%. ;ach one o" these actors aims at graing -oer to enhance the territor% o" his a$thorit% and is eager to do an% thing to ha0e it. OPERATION OF THE FORCES OF SOCIAL POLLUTION AT THE GRASS ROOT LEVEL he strong arm o" the r$thless males, dominating the -s%che o" the go0erning hierarch%, o-erates the "orces o" social -oll$tion. his is one reason "or 6$stice and e2$itale distri$tion o" reso$rces, and share in a$thorit% to e denied in a societ% s$ch as in Pa+istan and other de0elo-ing co$ntries ith similar CPI ran+ing. he go0erning hierarch%, it has een h%-othesized, is li+el% to contin$e to maintain class distinction and gender imalance till s$ch time that it changes its -s%che. As s$ch the dontrodden, the omen, children, elderl% and the ea+ ill remain its 0ictims till -ast the ne/t milleni$m. he dri0ing "orce o" social -oll$tion is stronger than religio$s demands and that is h% sec$lar "orces dominate o0er religio$s matters. According to a recent ho$sehold s$r0e% in &arachi, ?(< omen ere "o$nd $naare o" the religio$s conce-t o" h$sand4s oedience. he%, irres-ecti0e o" their age and ed$cation, ere "o$nd constrained in their social and "amil% roles % traditions and social 0al$es o" the time rather than % religio$s 0al$es8>9. Contrar% to the 5$ranic in6$nctions, hich grant similar rights to omen as to men in a 6$st manner, the e2$alit% in the res-ecti0e rights o" the to se/es is denied to the "emales. he 5$ranic commandment gi0es the omen all that the% desire 0iz. the right to ed$cation, -restige, and hono$r, the right to on -ro-ert%, to eing the g$ardian inside the home and e0en to or+ o$tside the home. he -re0ailing le0el o" social -oll$tion in Pa+istan and other co$ntries o" the region as ell as those ith lo CPI ran+ing, does not allo omen to learn "rom the religio$s oo+s as to hat are their rights. his is -rimaril% d$e to an illiterate social en0ironment and its go0ernance % the -s%che o" a male dominated go0erning hierarch%, hich has a semi!literate m$lla in Pa+istan to inter-ret the 5$ranic in6$nctions and a corres-onding religio$s leader in other co$ntries to inter-ret their oo+s. he omen there"ore do not +no as to hat the religio$s oo+s e.g. the #adith ha0e to sa% ao$t $n2$estionale oedience. :hile Islam $-holds the conce-t o" egalitarian decision ma+ing, here the s-o$ses are not liale to $n2$estionale oedience o" each other, the -s%che o" the male dominated societ% denies the same to them in Pa+istan. his has gone to the e/tent o" legalizing hono$r +illing % the legislators o" the recentl% o$sted elected go0ernment.Most -eo-le in Pa+istan and other co$ntries in So$th Asia li0e in small 0illages. he societies in these co$ntries are largel% dominated % strong conser0ati0e 0al$es, e/horted in0arial% % local religio$s leaders. Men ha0e in general een ro$ght $- in a male dominated -atriarchical societ% in hich it is men ho deal ith the o$tside orld and omen are s$--osed to limit their acti0ities to ho$se+ee-ing and child earing. S$6ects other than these are taoo and omen are s$--osed to +no 0er% little i" at all, ao$t them. he% there"ore ha0e nothing to do ith decision ma+ing. Moreo0er, ma6orit% o" the omen o" the region li0ing in r$ral areas is illiterate. he% are, instead o"  eing 0ieed as -rod$cers, considered as de-endent cons$mers. his is the role that has lin+ed them to the 0icio$s circle o" -o0ert%, de-letion o" reso$rces and a deteriorating 2$alit% o" li"e. Modern trend o" mechanization o" agric$lt$re has largel% dis-laced the omen lao$r "orce. his  has red$ced the role o" omen in agric$lt$ral -rod$ction and their increasing de-endence on the males "or "ood -rod$ction. he 0icio$s circle is th$s -er-et$al.Ma6orit% o" the ho$seholds in the region still has a 6oint "amil% s%stem li0ing in small ho$ses and sharing common li0ing areas. Mothers in!la dominate the homes and dictate the li0es o" oth the sons and their da$ghter in!la. #$sands and i0es ha0e 0er% little in terms o" a common gro$nd and 0ies on iss$es that concern their li0es. his is the -hiloso-h% o" li"e that has dominated the regional societies thro$gho$t m$ch o" recorded histor%. Conser0ati0e and traditional norms generall% dictate that omen "ollo a sociall% acce-tale eha0io$r or "ace se0ere social isolation. :omen are generall% not ed$cated and are -ermitted to ha0e onl% limited moilit%, restricted to "amil% gro$-s and ho$ses. In man% -arts o" Pa+istan and other co$ntries ith a highl% traditional societ% it is $ncommon "or omen to tra0el alone or to go "or -$rchases in the azar itho$t ha0ing a male accom-an%ing her. Man% o" the traditional omen ha0e acce-ted that their onl%  -$r-ose in li"e is to -rod$ce children. Prod$cing a large n$mer o" children is there"ore a norm rather than an e/ce-tion. Families o" small size and "eer children are considered % the traditional societ% to e anormal or at least a""licted % -h%sical or "inancial -rolems.Social str$ct$re o" the traditional societ% is s$ch that omen are ad0ised to li0e a li"e o" sacri"ices im-osed $-on them % their h$sands, scolded i" the demands are not met, ha0e to ear children, raise them and ha0e to res-ond to the re2$irements o" all in the "amil%. his the% ha0e to do itho$t e/-ecting a reard. I" a -$nishment is "orthcoming instead o" a reard, it is highl% "r$strating. :hen %o$ng omen are married, the% are ta$ght to -$t $- ith their in!las. heir on -arental "amil% does not s$--ort them e0en in di""ic$lt times. he "amil% s%stem as is still in e/istence, o--resses omen or at least -$ts them $nder serio$s stress.raditional societ% o" the region e/-ects omen to gi0e irth to o%s, and hen girls are orn the mother ho as $nder stress "or the -ast nine months, has to "ace dee-er "r$stration and ma% e tort$re. Sons are still considered a matter o" -ride in the societies, irres-ecti0e o" their eing trial or $ran. A large n$mer o" sons is -restigio$s e0en hen e are ao$t to enter the ne/t milleni$m. he "ather is considered to gather strength "rom ha0ing a large n$mer o" sons and not da$ghters, hose larger n$mer -$ts the "ather to shame and "orces him to marr% %et another time. Attem-ts to ha0e a large n$mer o" sons generall% leads to a large "amil%. Since agric$lt$re is %et to e mechanized in "$ll, it remains largel% animal -oered and re2$ires man$al handling. his re2$ires man% or+ing hands and hence it is good eno$gh reason to ha0ing a large "amil%. Po0ert% is %et another "actor, hich demands more children $nder the same roo" to increase the n$mer o" or+ing hands. #oe0er, health conditions in the -ast ere not ade2$ate hich as ca$se "or high child mortalit% rate. he onl% a% to ha0e sons as to ha0e a large n$mer o" children. here has  een a grad$al im-ro0ement in health care "acilities $t the s%stem has not reached the grass root le0el and the r$ral as ell as $ran -o-$lation is not %et s$re that the s%stem ill -ro0ide the  ene"it to them. hings in the $ran centres are not e/actl% the same as has een 6$st stated "or the r$ral areas. Remar+ale change is noticed in the attit$de o" men toards the omen hen the% mo0e to the cities. his is -artl% d$e to ed$cation $t largel% d$e to e/-os$re and economic necessities. Both ha0e ca$sed acce-tale eha0io$r to e 2$ite di""erent "rom hat it as )( to 3* %ears ago. At that time omen sat together itho$t the -resence o" men and tal+ed ao$t their -rolems. his
Related Search
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks