Social Pollution Gender balance

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Social Pollution Gender balance
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  SOCIAL POLLUTION AS AN INHIBITING FACTOR IN INTEGRATING GENDER BALANCE IN DEVELOPMENT PROCESSES Dr. Mirza Arshad Ali BegFormer Director General, PCSIR 13!C Ra"ahe Aam #o$sing Societ%, Malir #alt, &arachi '()1*, Pa+istan  ABSTRACT Social Poll$tion, % de"inition is contamination o" the social milie$ % corr$-t "orces. It is concerned ith -oll$tion o" social s%stems, their norms and str$ct$re. It can e estimated "or di""erent co$ntries in terms o" the Corr$-tion Perce-tion Inde/, CPI de0elo-ed % rans-arenc% International. Being the root ca$se o" -oll$tion o" other s%stems, it is $i2$ito$s. It reeds in  -o0ert% and in an im-o0erished en0ironment, -artic$larl% in an illiterate societ% in hich e/-loiters ao$nd. he strong arm o" the r$thless males, dominating the go0erning hierarch%, o-erates the "orces o" social -oll$tion. $stice, e2$itale distri$tion o" reso$rces, and share in a$thorit% is denied in the de0elo-ing co$ntries ith CPI ran+ing similar to Pa+istan. he go0erning hierarch% ill contin$e to maintain class distinction and gender imalance till s$ch time that it changes its -s%che. As s$ch the dontrodden, the omen, children, elderl% and the ea+ ill remain its 0ictims. Moreo0er since sec$lar "orces dominate o0er religio$s matters, omen seem to e $naare o" the religio$s conce-t o" h$sand4s oedience. he% are constrained in their social and "amil% roles % traditions and social 0al$es rather than % religio$s 0al$es. he 5$ranic commandment gi0es the omen all that the% desire 0iz. right to ed$cation, -restige, and hono$r, right to on -ro-ert%, to eing g$ardian inside the home and to or+ o$tside the home. #oe0er, the -re0ailing le0el o" social -oll$tion in co$ntries o" the region, does not allo omen to learn "rom the religio$s oo+s as to hat their rights are. his is -rimaril% d$e to an illiterate social en0ironment and its go0ernance % the -s%che o" a male dominated go0erning hierarch%, hich has a semi!literate m$lla in Pa+istan to inter-ret the 5$ranic in6$nctions and a corres-onding religio$s leader in other co$ntries to inter-ret their oo+s. Social -oll$tion is an inhiiting "actor in integrating good go0ernance -ractices and as a corollar%, in integrating gender alance into de0elo-ment acti0ities o" Pa+istan. Since it is di""ic$lt to change the -s%che o" the go0erning hierarch%, hich go0erns the distri$tion o" a$thorit%, it can e ass$med that the go0ernance s%stem is less li+el% to concede rights to omen to e e2$al -artners in decision ma+ing in the near "$t$re. he reasons attri$ted "or this -essimism are that the "orces o" social -oll$tion intensi"% in an illiterate setting ith their o-erating arms in the -artners o" a netor+ com-rising e/-loiters. D$ring the co$rse o" time the netor+ has "irmed $- and di""erent roles ha0e een in"ormall% assigned to its -artners. he o-erators o" social -oll$tion ha0e no regard "or rights o" omen ho are considered in"erior in the hierarch%. Gender alance is less li+el% to e achie0ed since it ill create -rolems o" sharing a$thorit%. ransition to democrac% did not alter the go0ernance s%stem at the grass root le0el in the co$ntries o" the region and hence the rights o" omen ha0e not een com-ensated. 7i+e!minded -ersons  ere inter!laced d$ring the transition into the netor+, hich does not incl$de omen as its  -artner. 7i+eise the in"ormal go0ernance s%stem hich o-erates the "orces o" social -oll$tion has a str$ct$re highl% oriented toards the males. Social -oll$tion has th$s contin$ed to remain as the inhiitor% "actor in alloing the transition "rom the trial to a ci0il s%stem o" go0ernance. his $-holds the concl$sion that social 0al$es o" the en0ironment incl$ding gender alance, are not li+el% to e integrated in the near "$t$re into the de0elo-ment -rocesses in Pa+istan and other co$ntries o" the region. INTRODUCTION Social Poll$tion is a term that has een concei0ed to descrie the ra0aging o" societies o" their moral and material 0al$es in the same manner as -h%sical -oll$tion has een degrading their 0al$ale reso$rces. B% de"inition it is contamination o" the social milie$ % corr$-t "orces. Degradation o" -h%sical and economic en0ironment is intimatel% connected ith social degeneration and their root ca$se can e traced in social -oll$tion. De0elo-ment o" the conce-t is  ased on case histor% o" disasters o" social -oll$tion in Pa+istan as ell as a "e other de0elo-ing and ind$strialized co$ntries81,)9. It s$ggests that the c$rrenc% o" m$na"a2at or h%-ocris% -ro0ides the in"rastr$ct$re "or seeding social -oll$tion, "or degrading the 2$alit% o" li0ing en0ironment, and retarding the de0elo-ment -rocesses. he com-le/ -rocesses o" social -oll$tion ca$se -er-et$ation o" -o0ert% and ma+e the rich richer and the -oor -oorer. he contin$ing domination o" class and caste str$ct$re is a mani"estation o" social degeneration among societies in So$th Asia. :ell!estalished s%stems s$ch as the "e$dal s%stem and a$tocratic regimes are its o-erational arms in the region. he% ser0e as its mode o" go0ernance. It is s%non%mo$s ith corr$-tion and among some o" its $nritten o6ecti0es are gloalization o" corr$-tion, creation o" -arallel econom% and trans"er o" the ene"its to an in"ormal +ingdom o" the $nderorld. Social -oll$tion can e 2$anti"ied. Anal%sis o" Corr$-tion Perce-tion Inde/, CPI de0elo-ed % rans-arenc% International839, s$ggests that social -oll$tion is res-onsile "or gloal -oor go0ernance. he common denominator in the cases e/amined is the -s%che o" the go0erning hierarch% and the netor+ o-erated % an oligarch%. he ene"iciar% in each case is the $nderorld hose 0er% e/istence retards the normal groth -rocesses. he loser is the ta/-a%er ho is denied the ene"its o" the groth -rocesses, hich are retarded. Pa+istan, India, Indonesia, R$ssia and other co$ntries, hich ha0e lo CPI rating, ha0e a high social -oll$tion le0el. he% constit$te a gro$- here the -rocess o" colonization or re-ressi0e r$le ga0e rise to reeding o" a -arasitic elite social class. As internal colonists this elite social class de0elo-ed the -s%che, hich has ta+en di""erent "orms. his is the gro$- o" co$ntries here the get!rich!2$ic+l% -s%che dominates o0er the o-erations o" the go0erning hierarch%. his is also the gro$-, hich $ses the negati0e "orces at its command "or the achie0ement o" its o6ecti0es.Another gro$- o" co$ntries ith medi$m CPI rating and social -oll$tion o" medi$m le0el has the ca-ailit% to e/-loit others reso$rces and ind$ce its -s%che on relati0el% 0$lnerale and ea+ economies, to o-en the mar+ets to their t%-e o" econom%. his gro$- is tr%ing to gloalize trade $sing m$ltinational cor-orations as their o-erational arm and incl$des America, Israel and ;ast Asian economies. It ind$ces corr$-tion % $sing 0ario$s instr$ments, o""er o" economic aid and  "oreign in0estments, eing some o" them. his is the gro$- here the en6o%!the!richness -s%che g$ides the go0erning hierarch%. Mala%sia and &orea -ro0ide an e/am-le o" this t%-e o" en6o%ment here c$rrenc% s-ec$lators nearl% de0astated the state econom%. he% a--l% -ress$re con!scio$sl% in certain co$ntries thro$gh aid, in0estment in ind$s!trialization or direct militar% inter0ention in the name o" more and etter democratization, and $nconscio$sl% thro$gh trade and sm$ggling or similar acti0ities that ene"it the in"ormal s%stem o" the $nderorld. Also $nconscio$sl% the% interact ith the c$lt$ral and moral 0al$es o" the societies and ind$ce social change % technolog% in0asion and introd$ction o" modernit%. OPERATION OF THE FORCES OF SOCIAL POLLUTION AT NATIONAL LEVEL he -s%che de0elo-ed in an en0ironment o" social -oll$tion in the co$ntries ith lo CPI rating, o-erates a 0icio$s circle and has a gloal character. he 0icio$s circle com-rises lo -rod$ction, more im-ort o" cons$mer goods, ad0erse alance o" -a%ment sit$ation, more loans im-l%ing a  -l$nge dee- into det tra-, str$ct$ral re"orms and cost escalation. he second c%cle starts "rom here ith m$ch loer -rod$ction $t ends at de"a$lt li+e sit$ation. A stage is reached here short!term loans ha0e to e orroed to re-a% the loans, lest the co$ntr% goes % de"a$lt. S$ch a sit$ation has alread% arri0ed in Pa+istan. he "e$dal s%stem o-erates the 0icio$s circle in Pa+istan thro$gh a go0ernance s%stem that has a netor+ com-rising the ci0il and militar% $rea$crac%, iradri or cronies, -atharedars, dacoit and religio$s leaders at almost all le0els o" hierarch%. he netor+ has a strong gender ias and does not $s$all% ha0e "emales as its -artners. his netor+ lin+s the "ormal ith the in"ormal sectors o" the econom% at the assemlage machinated % the -olice and intelligence agencies in their di""erent roles. According to recent estimates it di0erts at least (*< o" the re0en$e thro$gh in"ormal channels to the $norganized $nderorld. Corr$-tion as estimated in 1==( to e di0erting Rs 1'( to )** illion ann$all%, hile sm$ggling and ta/ e0asion ere di0erting Rs 1** to 1(* illion ann$all%. he di0ersion o" Rs >** to (** illion e/-lains h% monetar% e/-ansion o" 1.< e/ceeds the rate o" groth o" ) to 3<. he lac+ mone% so generated is estimated at o0er Rs 1.) trillion.Social -oll$tion as created and groomed in Pa+istan % the "e$dal netor+ -artners ho ha0e  een -laced in the go0erning hierarch% and are o-erating the 0icio$s circle. he stor% o" social  -oll$tion has een enacted into a drama in hich the "e$dal landlords!t$rned!-oliticians ha0e een ta+ing t$rns. he% $se their clo$t in -olitics, ind$str% and $rea$crac% and "orm -ress$re gro$-s to  -la% di""erent roles in commodit% trade i.e. s$--l% and demand and to control the mar+et "orces. he cost escalation itnessed % the -oor Pa+istani d$ring the %ears a"ter restoration o" democrac%, is the res$lt o" "$n"air o" social -oll$tion staged % the second and third generation elitists, com-rising agric$lt$rists, ind$strialists, traders, $rea$crats, and -oliticians oth o$tside and inside the -arliament. he netor+ -artnershi- o" the "e$dal str$ct$re allos collaoration among the o--osition and treas$r% enches on matters o" common interest e.g. ta/ on agric$lt$re, riting o"" loans and -assing on the entire $rden o" corr$-tion, hich has s$r"aced $- in the "orm o" cost escalation, to the cons$mer.In the "olds o" "e$dal societ% social -oll$tion a--ro0es a adera, a cha$dhr% or a +han to e a s%mol o" terror. #e en6o%s the -ri0ilege o" $sing hate0er he has in his -ossession to s$6$gate  those hom he holds as hostage in his estate and to ma+e $se o" them in the manner o" his li+ing. he dirt% treatment to the onded lao$r, incl$ding omen is an act in hich he e/cells. Sociall%  -oll$ted s%stems s$ch as the "e$dal netor+ allo these actors to -o$r 0enom into terror hen the% are -laced in a$thorit%. ;ach one o" these actors aims at graing -oer to enhance the territor% o" his a$thorit% and is eager to do an% thing to ha0e it. OPERATION OF THE FORCES OF SOCIAL POLLUTION AT THE GRASS ROOT LEVEL he strong arm o" the r$thless males, dominating the -s%che o" the go0erning hierarch%, o-erates the "orces o" social -oll$tion. his is one reason "or 6$stice and e2$itale distri$tion o" reso$rces, and share in a$thorit% to e denied in a societ% s$ch as in Pa+istan and other de0elo-ing co$ntries ith similar CPI ran+ing. he go0erning hierarch%, it has een h%-othesized, is li+el% to contin$e to maintain class distinction and gender imalance till s$ch time that it changes its -s%che. As s$ch the dontrodden, the omen, children, elderl% and the ea+ ill remain its 0ictims till -ast the ne/t milleni$m. he dri0ing "orce o" social -oll$tion is stronger than religio$s demands and that is h% sec$lar "orces dominate o0er religio$s matters. According to a recent ho$sehold s$r0e% in &arachi, ?(< omen ere "o$nd $naare o" the religio$s conce-t o" h$sand4s oedience. he%, irres-ecti0e o" their age and ed$cation, ere "o$nd constrained in their social and "amil% roles % traditions and social 0al$es o" the time rather than % religio$s 0al$es8>9. Contrar% to the 5$ranic in6$nctions, hich grant similar rights to omen as to men in a 6$st manner, the e2$alit% in the res-ecti0e rights o" the to se/es is denied to the "emales. he 5$ranic commandment gi0es the omen all that the% desire 0iz. the right to ed$cation, -restige, and hono$r, the right to on -ro-ert%, to eing the g$ardian inside the home and e0en to or+ o$tside the home. he -re0ailing le0el o" social -oll$tion in Pa+istan and other co$ntries o" the region as ell as those ith lo CPI ran+ing, does not allo omen to learn "rom the religio$s oo+s as to hat are their rights. his is -rimaril% d$e to an illiterate social en0ironment and its go0ernance % the -s%che o" a male dominated go0erning hierarch%, hich has a semi!literate m$lla in Pa+istan to inter-ret the 5$ranic in6$nctions and a corres-onding religio$s leader in other co$ntries to inter-ret their oo+s. he omen there"ore do not +no as to hat the religio$s oo+s e.g. the #adith ha0e to sa% ao$t $n2$estionale oedience. :hile Islam $-holds the conce-t o" egalitarian decision ma+ing, here the s-o$ses are not liale to $n2$estionale oedience o" each other, the -s%che o" the male dominated societ% denies the same to them in Pa+istan. his has gone to the e/tent o" legalizing hono$r +illing % the legislators o" the recentl% o$sted elected go0ernment.Most -eo-le in Pa+istan and other co$ntries in So$th Asia li0e in small 0illages. he societies in these co$ntries are largel% dominated % strong conser0ati0e 0al$es, e/horted in0arial% % local religio$s leaders. Men ha0e in general een ro$ght $- in a male dominated -atriarchical societ% in hich it is men ho deal ith the o$tside orld and omen are s$--osed to limit their acti0ities to ho$se+ee-ing and child earing. S$6ects other than these are taoo and omen are s$--osed to +no 0er% little i" at all, ao$t them. he% there"ore ha0e nothing to do ith decision ma+ing. Moreo0er, ma6orit% o" the omen o" the region li0ing in r$ral areas is illiterate. he% are, instead o"  eing 0ieed as -rod$cers, considered as de-endent cons$mers. his is the role that has lin+ed them to the 0icio$s circle o" -o0ert%, de-letion o" reso$rces and a deteriorating 2$alit% o" li"e. Modern trend o" mechanization o" agric$lt$re has largel% dis-laced the omen lao$r "orce. his  has red$ced the role o" omen in agric$lt$ral -rod$ction and their increasing de-endence on the males "or "ood -rod$ction. he 0icio$s circle is th$s -er-et$al.Ma6orit% o" the ho$seholds in the region still has a 6oint "amil% s%stem li0ing in small ho$ses and sharing common li0ing areas. Mothers in!la dominate the homes and dictate the li0es o" oth the sons and their da$ghter in!la. #$sands and i0es ha0e 0er% little in terms o" a common gro$nd and 0ies on iss$es that concern their li0es. his is the -hiloso-h% o" li"e that has dominated the regional societies thro$gho$t m$ch o" recorded histor%. Conser0ati0e and traditional norms generall% dictate that omen "ollo a sociall% acce-tale eha0io$r or "ace se0ere social isolation. :omen are generall% not ed$cated and are -ermitted to ha0e onl% limited moilit%, restricted to "amil% gro$-s and ho$ses. In man% -arts o" Pa+istan and other co$ntries ith a highl% traditional societ% it is $ncommon "or omen to tra0el alone or to go "or -$rchases in the azar itho$t ha0ing a male accom-an%ing her. Man% o" the traditional omen ha0e acce-ted that their onl%  -$r-ose in li"e is to -rod$ce children. Prod$cing a large n$mer o" children is there"ore a norm rather than an e/ce-tion. Families o" small size and "eer children are considered % the traditional societ% to e anormal or at least a""licted % -h%sical or "inancial -rolems.Social str$ct$re o" the traditional societ% is s$ch that omen are ad0ised to li0e a li"e o" sacri"ices im-osed $-on them % their h$sands, scolded i" the demands are not met, ha0e to ear children, raise them and ha0e to res-ond to the re2$irements o" all in the "amil%. his the% ha0e to do itho$t e/-ecting a reard. I" a -$nishment is "orthcoming instead o" a reard, it is highl% "r$strating. :hen %o$ng omen are married, the% are ta$ght to -$t $- ith their in!las. heir on -arental "amil% does not s$--ort them e0en in di""ic$lt times. he "amil% s%stem as is still in e/istence, o--resses omen or at least -$ts them $nder serio$s stress.raditional societ% o" the region e/-ects omen to gi0e irth to o%s, and hen girls are orn the mother ho as $nder stress "or the -ast nine months, has to "ace dee-er "r$stration and ma% e tort$re. Sons are still considered a matter o" -ride in the societies, irres-ecti0e o" their eing trial or $ran. A large n$mer o" sons is -restigio$s e0en hen e are ao$t to enter the ne/t milleni$m. he "ather is considered to gather strength "rom ha0ing a large n$mer o" sons and not da$ghters, hose larger n$mer -$ts the "ather to shame and "orces him to marr% %et another time. Attem-ts to ha0e a large n$mer o" sons generall% leads to a large "amil%. Since agric$lt$re is %et to e mechanized in "$ll, it remains largel% animal -oered and re2$ires man$al handling. his re2$ires man% or+ing hands and hence it is good eno$gh reason to ha0ing a large "amil%. Po0ert% is %et another "actor, hich demands more children $nder the same roo" to increase the n$mer o" or+ing hands. #oe0er, health conditions in the -ast ere not ade2$ate hich as ca$se "or high child mortalit% rate. he onl% a% to ha0e sons as to ha0e a large n$mer o" children. here has  een a grad$al im-ro0ement in health care "acilities $t the s%stem has not reached the grass root le0el and the r$ral as ell as $ran -o-$lation is not %et s$re that the s%stem ill -ro0ide the  ene"it to them. hings in the $ran centres are not e/actl% the same as has een 6$st stated "or the r$ral areas. Remar+ale change is noticed in the attit$de o" men toards the omen hen the% mo0e to the cities. his is -artl% d$e to ed$cation $t largel% d$e to e/-os$re and economic necessities. Both ha0e ca$sed acce-tale eha0io$r to e 2$ite di""erent "rom hat it as )( to 3* %ears ago. At that time omen sat together itho$t the -resence o" men and tal+ed ao$t their -rolems. his
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