A Normative Model For Sustainable Cultural And Heritage Tourism In Regional Development Of Southern Jalisco

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This study aims to propose a normative model to determine the potential of cultural tourism in the municipalities that comprise the region 6 of the State of Jalisco, territorially delimited in the South of Jalisco. Firstly, it is conducted an
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   Global Journal Of Business Science and Technology (www.gjmst.com) Vol. 1 Issue. 1 February|2012 www.ijbmt.com   Page | 1 A Normative Model For Sustainable Cultural And Heritage Tourism In Regional Development Of Southern Jalisco  José G. Vargas-Hernández, M.B.A; Ph.D.  Profesor Investigador miembro del Sistema Nacional de Investigadores  Department of Administration Centro Universitario de Ciencias Económico Administrativas Universidad de Guadalajara. Periférico Norte 799 Edificio G-201  Zapopan, Jalisco C.P. 45100; México Tel y fax: +52(33) 3770 3340 Ext 25088  josevargas@cucea.udg.mx ,jgvh0811@yahoo.com,jvargas2006@gmail.com Abstract This study aims to propose a normative model to determine the potential of cultural tourism in the municipalities that comprise the region 6 of the State of Jalisco, territorially delimited in the South of Jalisco. Firstly, it is conducted an analysis to determine the demand for cultural tourism to determine the cultural tourist  profile under the assumptions that tourists especially motivated by culture, tend to travel longer distances than most tourists. It discusses the motivations and satisfactions of cultural tourists to establish the potential market in accordance with the characteristics of the target market in the Southern region of Jalisco. Any operation of cultural tourism companies should make the strategic diagnosis, so that explains the use of SWOT analysis as a tool for strategic planning of cultural tourism enterprises. Finally, we propose the development strategies of cultural tourism in this region of Southern Jalisco.  Keywords:  Regional development, tourism companies, Southern Jalisco, cultural tourism 1.   Introduction There is an increasing awareness of culture, arts, festivals, heritage sites natural and cultural, and folklore. Cultural diversity is the base of cultural and heritage tourism.   Cultural tourism has been at the center of the tourism industry in Europe and now other countries are approaching to develop their own activities (Nzama, Magi, & Ngcobo 2005).   Cultural tourism is a tourism product by itself and can have high contributions to regional economic development. Development implies the design, marketing and promotion of new cultural and heritage tourism products and activities while creating a safe and user-friendly atmosphere for visitors and local communities. Despite that the Southern Region of the State of Jalisco in México is considered one of the most culturally rich in manifestations and expressions in Latin American literature, painting, etc., cultural tourism is almost non- existent. Local communities tend not to be actively interested in cultural tourism related issues and do not understand what the benefits could be. Besides, there exists a lack of reliable data on cultural tourism for the Southern Region of Jalisco. Cultural tourism is neither common nor universal . Cultural tourism may not be considered as part of the core interests of an organization, government or community, but they appreciate and understand the consequences and possibilities of tourism (Jamieson, 1998). There is also scarce data and information on practice of cultural tourism activities. Social dynamic changes occurring in the Southern Region of Jalisco, make difficult to obtain useful information to be a reliable input for the design, implementation and effectiveness of cultural tourism policies. The objective of this study is to address the lack of cultural tourism activities and infrastructure on the Southern Region of Jalisco. An aim of this exploratory study is to collect inputs on whether the Southern Region of Jalisco can be transformed into a cultural tourism destination. The concept of cultural tourism can be formulated after understanding the cultural activities offered by a community and considered as an asset to the regional economic development. Cultural tourism is an option to create employment, to improve the quality of life and poverty eradication initiatives.   Global Journal Of Business Science and Technology (www.gjmst.com) Vol. 1 Issue. 1 February|2012 www.ijbmt.com   Page | 2 As a marketing strategy, cultural tourism is one of the latest buzzwords to attract visitors to cultural sites. Cultural tourism destinations offering cultural products and services linked by geography, townships, folklore, history, celebrations, art experiences and performance, can be marketed to local and foreign visitors. Cultural tourism in the Southern Region of Jalisco can offer potential benefits to regional economic development and to visitors as well, because it has the resources. An integrated approach involving all stakeholders must be inclusive and participative to ensure sustainable, holistic and efficient cultural tourism ventures. The term of cultural tourism is heavily influenced by professional approaches to be referred more as a concept than as a particular set of objects, articles or products. The World Tourism Organization (WTO) defines tourism as comprising the activities of persons traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes (WTO, 2000:4). Cultural tourism is defined as the movements of persons for essentially cultural motivations, which includes study tours, performing arts, cultural tours, travel to festivals, visits to historic sites and monuments, folklore a pilgrimages (WTO, 1985). The concept of cultural tourism encompasses a wide range of views embracing a full range of human expressions and manifestations that visitors undertake to experience the heritages, arts, lifestyles, etc. from people living in cultural destinations. Heritage tourism is usually considered to be cultural tourism. Heritage tourism: refers to tourists visiting places of traditional, historical and cultural significance with the aim of learning, paying respect to recreational purposes (Nzama, et al., 2005). The term cultural tourism encompasses historical sites, arts and craft fairs and festivals, museums of all kinds, the performing arts and the visual arts and other heritage sites which tourists enjoy to visit in pursuit of cultural experiences (Tighe, 1985). Heritage tourism as a synonymous of cultural tourism, is an experiential tourism related to visiting preferred landscape, historic sites, buildings or monuments and seeking an encounter, involvement and stimulation with nature or feeling part of the history of a place (Hall & Zeppel, 1990). A cultural tourist is a person who stays more than 40 kilometers away from home for at least one night and has attended a cultural venue, which will include visiting an art gallery, museum, library, music concert, opera and a cinema (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 1997). Hall (1998) defines cultural tourism as tourism that focuses on the culture of a destination, the lifestyle, heritage, arts industries and leisure pursuits of the local population. Cultural tourism is related to the cultural aspects that includes the customs and traditions of people, their heritage, history and way of life. The International Council of Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) defines cultural tourism as “a name that means many things to many people and herein lies its strength and its weakness” (McKercher and Cros, 2002:24). Cultural tourism theory is only beginning to debate issues of gender specialization (Aitchson, 2003). Cultural tourism refers to travel that is directed towards providing opportunities and access to visitors to experiencing the arts and crafts, museums, heritage, festivals, music, dance, theaters, literature, historic sites and buildings, landscapes, neighborhoods and special character of local communities. Cultural tourism relates to the temporary short-term movement of people to cultural destinations outside the place of residence and work, and where their activities at these destinations or facilities cater for their recreation needs (Keyser, 2002). Cultural tourism associates the word "tourist and cultural attraction" with the tangible and intangible cultural heritage. Cultural tourism is the attendance by inbound visitors to one or more cultural attractions such as festivals, fairs, museums, art galleries, history buildings and craft workshops (Bureau of Tourism Research, 2004). Ivanovic (2008) and Cooper, Fletcher, Fyall, Gilbert & Shepherd (2008) sustain that the greatest motivator for travel is to understand culture and heritage, both emerging as contributing to economic development. Ivanovic (2008) argues that cultural and heritage tourism is a recent development in the tourism activities, and with ecotourism is emerging as the predominant forms of tourism and replacing sun-lust mass tourism. Cultural attractions and events play a key role in cultural tourism and hospitality destinations to entice visitors (George, 2001). Cultural tourism is traveling to experience and to participate in vanishing lifestyles that lie within human memory (Goeldner & Ritchie, 2009). The aim of cultural tourism policy is to influence and attract visitors (Williams and Shaw, 1991:263). Tourists with special interest in culture corresponds to the segment of "cultural tourism", ie., size and value are directly attributable to the country's cultural values that encourage tourists to take a trip. Tourists with occasional interest in culture belong to other tourism segments (CESTUR). A special program of incentives for tourism related to   Global Journal Of Business Science and Technology (www.gjmst.com) Vol. 1 Issue. 1 February|2012 www.ijbmt.com   Page | 3 culture or values must recognize contributions that tourism can have for culture and vice versa, to capitalize on the positive and generate synergies for the development of both sectors. Within the designing and developing process, cultural tourism may take many forms. Sharma (2004) adds to the cultural resources debate advocating the economic benefits of developing programs, resources and facilities for the benefit of local communities, creating a balance between the economic imperatives and positive and negative impacts. Cultural tourism activities may have an economic impact on regional development by creating employment and improving the standards of life. Hanekom, & Thornhill (1983:110) describe the activities of cultural tourism as consisting of phenomena such as formulation of policy making, planning and organizing the structure, methods and procedures, recruiting, training, developing and motivating personnel, budgeting and financing operations. The philosophical principles of the tourism discipline must be reconsidered to re-evaluate the fundamentals of cultural tourism.   Cultural and heritage tourism can be considered as a dynamic activity developed through physical experiences, searching and celebrating what is unique and beautiful, represented by our own values and attributes which are worthy to preserve and to inherit to descendents in such a way that communities can be proud of them. 2.   Theoretical background and literature review Theory building and development is needed in order to use it as a foundation for an explanation and understanding of the normative model on cultural tourism for the Region of Southern Jalisco. Theory for cultural tourism has been developed to explain, analyze, evaluate and predict the related phenomena (Moulin, 1989, 1990). However, a cultural tourism theoretical framework to sustain the practice and activities requires availability of data on infrastructure, resources and skills. Easton (1979) developed a normative model of cultural tourism emphasizing the external environments serving the inputs that may influence the goal-achievement, such as the political, economic, socio-cultural, legal, environmental, educational, health, statutory policies, demographics and technological environment, although the numbers and types of possible environments may be unlimited (Ferreira, 1996:403). Each environment requires the adaptation of the conversion mechanism (Easton, 1965: 131-132; Ferreira, 1996:403). After the goal is achieved, the inputs formed by the srcinal external environment generate new needs to be satisfied by achieving a new goal (Easton, 1965:128-129; Ferreira, 1996:404; Cloete and Wissink, 2000:39). An opposing argument underlies conserving and protecting the integrity of the cultural tourism resources, by monitoring overcrowding, overuse of the resource and environmental pollution (McDonald, 1999). Cultural and heritage tourism brings significant economic benefits and development to cultural and heritage sites, townships and communities. An empirical research conducted by Besculides, Lee and McCormick (2002) using a benefits-based approach to examine the perceptions of cultural tourism by Hispanic and non-Hispanic residents, showed that Hispanics felt strongly that living along a cultural tourism byway provide cultural benefits and have greater concern for its management. The philosophical approach to cultural tourism of the stakeholders, providers and policy makers shapes the values and norms of the normative model oriented to develop effective policy around cultural tourism. Local communities developing and promoting cultural and heritage tourism may need as a frame of reference an effective implementation of local and national policies. Cultural and heritage tourism products and services development and promotion require planning and implementing on the basis of policies. Philosophical principles of cultural tourism are required to sustain the design and implementation of a normative model aimed to promote regional economic development policies. The literature on cultural tourism policy is relevant in developing a normative framework. There is a need to develop a policy framework for cultural heritage tourism. The cultural tourism theory “Creative   cities” recommends investing in cultural and heritage goods.  Ximba (2009) analyzed and examined the “variables and principles such as understanding of cultural tourism, development and conservation of culture, provision cultural facilities, participation in cultural tourism, application of tourism policies and practices, and the benefits of cultural and heritage tourism”.  Cultural tourism is based on the participation in deep cultural experiences, whether, intellectual, psychological, aesthetic and emotional (Russo, and van der Borg, 2002) and as specialized cultural tourism focuses on a small number of geographic sites, townships, cultural unities and entities.   Global Journal Of Business Science and Technology (www.gjmst.com) Vol. 1 Issue. 1 February|2012 www.ijbmt.com   Page | 4 The normative model enables to arrange data and information on cultural tourism activities in such a way that can provide the bases to develop a theoretical framework for cultural tourism. Normative theory is concerned with phenomena and questions regarding the role assumed by government and in general, the public sector (Hanekom & Thornhill, 1983:71). A normative model of sustainable cultural tourism developed by Ismail (2008) proposes a normative input-output model with an implementation mechanism to ensure sustainable cultural tourism facilitating initiatives for regional development by creating employment and poverty alleviation. The approach of sustainable cultural and heritage tourism development is aimed to improve the environment by meeting the needs of the present communities without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (WCED, 1987:8). Sustainable cultural and heritage tourism development requires the best-practices (Magi & Nzama, 2002) to meet the needs of present guest visitors and host local communities while protecting and fostering enhanced opportunities for future generations. A sustainable cultural tourism contributes to community development if the tourism stakeholders and business are efficient, fair and environmentally oriented. MacDonald and Lee (2003) examined the cultural rural tourism on a framework considering the roles of culture in community-base partnerships. Their findings suggest that culture in rural tourism development is a valuable resource and community-based partnerships may be very effective. Cultural tourism enhances local community identity and esteem. It provides the opportunity for greater understanding and communication between people of diverse backgrounds (Lubbe, 2003). Sustainable cultural and heritage tourism development is based on the assumption that resources and facilities are finite, limited, some are not renewable, experience degradation and exhaustion, cannot continue to growth to meet the needs of the mass tourism and a growing population (SARDC, 1994). The practice of principle of sustainability of cultural and heritage tourism development is the requirement to share the benefits on a permanent basis between the visitors and residents of local communities. To overcome some problems associated with cultural tourism development and these include taking advantage of all the opportunities, know-how, financial support, community co-participation, etc., to maximize the benefits. Community participation in cultural and heritage tourism development should become a practice as the core of a people-centered approach to incorporate them in the decision making process on the development of cultural and heritage resources and in sharing all the benefits (Magi & Nzama, 2008). Participants in cultural tourism activities expect to get enjoyment, satisfaction or fulfillment from the experience (Shivers 1981). McKercher and Du Cros (2003) test a cultural tourism typology represented by five benefit-based segments tested against a variety of trip, demographic, motivational, preferred activity, awareness, cultural distance and activity variables. They found differences between the groups and suggested that the model presented may be effective in segmenting the cultural tourism market. Co-participation in decision-making, ownership and benefits of all stakeholders involved in sustainable cultural and heritage tourism is the core of the encounter, experience and enjoyment of resources and opportunities available to the tourist or leisure seeker (Torkildsen 2007). Cultural and heritage tourism may be a tool to preserve the culture of host communities. The sustainable cultural and heritage tourist policies must focus and norm activities and best-practices oriented to the restoration, enhancement and conservation of resources for both present and continuing future use and enjoyment by visitors and local people (Keyser, 2002). The maintenance, conservation and preservation’s level of resources is related to the level of cultural tourism infrastructure and facilities. The research undertakes an in-depth literature search to extract a set of normative criteria for cultural tourism and conducted an empirical qualitative survey. From the results of this research, finally a normative model of cultural tourism was designed. The aim of the normative model for sustainable cultural tourism is to facilitate the analysis, design and formulation of cultural tourism policy initiatives. Cultural tourism theory based on normative criteria focuses on formulation, design and implementation of cultural tourism policies. The political external environment influences the governmental tourism policy which in turn, may have an impact on the development of a normative model for cultural tourism. Cultural tourism theory based on normative criteria is necessary for the formulation of cultural tourism policies oriented towards the improvement of regional economic development.   Global Journal Of Business Science and Technology (www.gjmst.com) Vol. 1 Issue. 1 February|2012 www.ijbmt.com   Page | 5 The aim of any cultural tourism policy oriented to the regional development is to influence and attract visitors (Williams and Shaw 1991:263-264) through the generation of demand and the provision of tourism services. Richards (1996) conducted international research on cultural tourism demand and supply and found a rapid increase in both the production and consumption of cultural heritage tourism attractions. The normative criteria incorporated in the model may be the framework of reference of the external macro environment which in turn may influence the social cultural tourism policy. Social cultural tourism factors which influence the external environment can be determined by implementing an appraisal system which benefits all the stakeholders. The implementation of the normative framework for cultural tourism is dependent of the commitment of tourism stakeholders, government agencies, communities, etc., to play their corresponding roles. Thus, the stakeholders in cultural tourism, communities, government agencies, municipal governments, etc., hold the responsibility to implement initiatives to develop infrastructure, cultural facilities, cultural tourism attractions, accommodation facilities, etc. The normative model is appropriate to describe, explain and analyze the activities of cultural tourism in order to design, develop, promote and implement policies oriented towards to create employment and improve better quality of life conditions. A normative model of cultural tourism can be useful to develop strategies and formulate policies to frame the execution of some relevant proposals, recommendations and projects. A normative model for cultural tourism on the Southern Jalisco, flexible and dynamic as a tool, assists in providing the methodological criteria and procedures, policies and strategies to promote regional economic development. 3.   Methods Research on a normative framework for cultural tourism is deemed necessary to address the current dysfunctional economic development of the Sothern Region of Jalisco. A systems approach can be used for the purpose of analyzing and developing a normative framework for cultural tourism (Bayat and Meyer, 1994:83-10). The aim of the normative model for cultural tourism is to analyze the strengths, weaknesses, threats and opportunities in all factors such as infrastructure, facilities, skills, etc. and above all the design and implementation of cultural tourism policies on the Southern Jalisco. The normative is designed as a tool for aiming to change the current situations, policies and strategies into a more dynamic, functional and flexible proposal for regional economic development. The use of a normative model for cultural tourism requires qualitative and quantitative methods of analysis as an approach to conduct research. An analysis of the macro external environment includes the microenvironment, macro environment and marketing environment, representing external forces influencing the decision making processes and goal achievement such as economic, social, political, public policies, demographic, legal, technological, etc. The micro-internal environment   of a normative framework for developing, promoting and sustaining cultural tourism influence suppliers, distribution channels, customers, competitors, community values, local politics, legal requirements, etc. The guiding principles   and policies developed by federal and local governments may be the core criteria for designing and developing the normative framework of reference for cultural tourism on the Southern Jalisco. The goal of the normative model for cultural tourism is to attain effective and efficient criteria and performed to design, develop, maintain, promote and enhance the development of cultural tourism. The feedback mechanism of the normative model senses any possible deficiency and deviation of the ongoing outputs coming from the de normative model of cultural tourism in relation to the macro and micro environmental variables and factors. 4.   Determination of the demand of cultural tourism  A.    Mexican tourism in the hierarchy of the countries of the world in the year 2004.   When you start the twenty-first century, tourism is the most important for economic development and the cornerstone for the development of services with a value estimated at 476 000 million. It is therefore a powerful tool to promote development of villages in terms of leverage. Mexico ranks seventh among the main recipients of international tourism, after France, Spain, United States, Italy, China, UK and Austria.
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