Abstract. Keywords: root modality, institutional discourse, root modal adjectives and adverbs, deontic modal verbs

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ISSN Online ISSN KALBOTYRA DOI: Verbal and Non-Verbal Markers of Root Modality in EU Maritime Affairs and Fisheries vs. Agriculture
ISSN Online ISSN KALBOTYRA DOI: Verbal and Non-Verbal Markers of Root Modality in EU Maritime Affairs and Fisheries vs. Agriculture and Rural Development Reports and Studies: An Overview Silvia Molina-Plaza, Technical University of Madrid Department of Applied Linguistics C/ Arco de la Victoria, Madrid, Spain Abstract This paper examines different options used by writers in reports and studies to control information from two departments of the European Commission: EU Maritime Affairs and Fisheries and Agriculture and Rural Development, using the web as corpus. These two Directorates or Commissions have the power of initiative, are responsible for policy formulation and policy implementation. Two comparable sub-corpora of reports and studies have been selected from the two Directorates. Fifteen markers related to key areas of root modal expression are presented: modalevaluative adjectives like essential, necessary, suitable and appropriate (Van linden 2012); the semi- modals (e.g. have to, be able to, be supposed to, need to) (Leech et al. 2009); the emerging modal want to (Verplaetse 2010) and expressions with comparative adverbs (e.g. had better, would rather) (van der Auwera et al. 2013). The study of these markers reveals that shared norms and action in these two EU areas are constantly collectively established. Root modals are one of the rhetorical strategies of legitimization and persuasion used in EU s political discourse by the different parties involved. Keywords: root modality, institutional discourse, root modal adjectives and adverbs, deontic modal verbs 1 Introduction: Root Modals and Expert Writer s Stance Root modality covers both deontic and dynamic values (Coates 1983; Sweetser 1982, 1990). In other words, it is about the non-epistemic sense of modals, which deals 45 with obligation, permission, ability etc. that refer to powers of volition and make a representation that the world has to match. Pragmatic values of root modals may include commissives (i.e. promises and threats), directives (requests, commands, instructions) and volatives (desires, wishes, fears). These speech acts are not the focus of this study, which deals with semantic values of root modal adjectives, adverbs and verbs. 1 Root modals are used to manifest expert writer s stance. Hyland (2005, 2009) explains that stance involves positioning, or adopting a point of view (in this case about fishing, maritime affairs, agriculture and rural development issues) in relation to both the issues discussed in the text and to others who hold similar or different points of view. Report writers express their judgments, feelings or viewpoint about something (Hyland 2005, 174) and relate to the EU common value system and they are influenced by different epistemological assumptions and permissible criteria of justification common to the EU institutional contexts. Stance allows report writers to present themselves as fully committed in Fisheries and Agricultural arguments. 2 Aim, Method and Research Issues The aim of this article is to explore how root modality is expressed in the reports and studies of two Directorates of the European Commission, namely Fisheries & Maritime affairs and Agriculture and Rural Development (http://ec.europa.eu, agriculture/index_es.htm) from a quantitative and qualitative point of view, obtaining the quantitative results with its search engine: An electronic search was carried out to ensure that all the root items could be identified. The examples found in texts were then analysed and classified according to the dimensions identified below. The data were submitted to further analysis for quantitative results. I have concentrated on a restricted number of root markers, bearing in mind that there could be other adjectives (proper, needful, vital), adverbs (properly) and verbs expressing root meanings (will, can), although with apparently lower occurrence (below 100 tokens 1 For the reader interested in speech acts, Molina s paper (2014) has some results about the use of directives and commissives in EU Fisheries. Generally speaking, directive verbs are clearly addressee-oriented and they state duties and obligations for the EU Fisheries stakeholders. The EU desires certain state of affairs to come true and uses different degrees of imposition to achieve its goals. Writers do not use direct performatives and prefer indirect performatives instead for solving problems (Searle 1975, ). According to Leech (1983, 36 40), the use of this intentional indirectness reflects politeness considerations. The profuse use of request outnumbering by far the rest of directives reflects that writers show a clear preference to convey a middle imposition and the addressor (the EU) desires that the addressees do the intended propositions. The most noticeable feature of the verb promise in the corpus is that there is an overall preference for using it in declarative sentences. Another relevant feature is the overuse of the adjective promising in the sense of give grounds for expectations, found in 75 examples. 46 in each sub-corpus). The majority of items were selected following previous studies on root modality. All the examples considered come from reports in two important EU Directorates or Commissions. The first Commission belongs to the Directorate-General for Maritime Affairs and Fisheries, which manages two policy areas: integrated maritime policy and common fisheries policy. The second manages the EU s common agricultural policy. This article explores the uses of adjectives, adverbs and semi-modals as rhetorical devices that EU Institutional reports use to control EU Fishing and give relevance to their plans. These results are then compared to those reports and studies found in the EU Directorate Agriculture and Rural Development to ascertain if there are genre differences in these two types of institutional discourse, two different ways of acting (Fairclough 2000). The hypothesis is that there are genre specific features due to internal dynamics of each Directorate. Genre is understood here as operationalised discourses and styles (Fairclough 2000). They would show different preferences in the choice and frequency of root markers, reflecting different stance styles. The most frequent 14 root markers found in these sources (130 reports and studies from Maritime Affairs and Fisheries and 142 from Agriculture and Rural Affairs) were selected for the quantitative search. The pragmatic purposes of these interpersonal mechanisms within their contexts of use will be outlined in the qualitative analysis to explore the social norms used in reports by EU Fisheries and Agriculture Directorates. The article addresses the following issues: a) The identification of the most common markers for the expression of root modality. b) What these features show about speaker stance. The analysis of these reports and studies was an iterative process of dialogue between the data and theory, in which the preliminary ideas and interpretations are challenged and revisited. The process started by getting familiar with the data and noting down issues or aspects that catch attention about how to control things in the texts, both in terms of themes as well as single expressions or root markers. The analysis continued through close reading of the texts, paying particular attention to the vocabulary, structure, and arguments used. The observations were then analyzed in relation to the research issues afore-mentioned. The data was not examined is isolation, but all observations and emerging interpretations were contrasted with theoretical literature about modality and findings from prior research. 47 Prior to the analysis of these root markers, the context of production of EU Fisheries and Agriculture reports is briefly discussed. I argue that the way writers present their topics, stake their claims represent careful negotiations and considerations of EU stakeholders. The analysis of root modals can be understood only from the perspective of the social context of production rather than a single writer. They show the traces of social interaction with other EU stakeholders engaged in common pursuit in Agriculture and Fishing issues. 3 Features of EU Discourse For reasons of space, I briefly sketch some of the features of EU political discourse that permeate different institutional documents. I pay attention to three distinctive features: its complexity, discursive trends and interdiscursivity (points 3.1 to 3.3). 3.1 The discourse of the EU is complex, dynamic and fluid, in the sense that is constantly developing (Bhatia 2002, 8). This complexity is reflected in the presence of multiple viewpoints. Elements from the micro-linguistic description contribute to the polyphony of discourses. This study focuses in one of them, root modality. 3.2 The social and political context that impinges in Agriculture and Fishing discourse shows that there are two major discursive trends that dominate the official documents in EU Discourse. They can be labeled as the discourse of integration (Hogan-Brun, Mar-Molinero and Stevenson 2009) and the discourse of liberalization. The first stresses the mutual benefits for EU countries belonging to the EU and highlights their mutual interdependence, encouraging them to overcome conflicting situations and look for long-term jointly beneficial solutions. Key terms here are Community, Integration, Cooperation, Partnership, Interdependence. Liberalization discourse highlights the importance of common efforts for transparency and effective functioning of the shared EU economic activities. It is a discourse of applied usefulness, of social utility (Gibbons et al. 1994). Key terms in this second trend are market access, market reforms, and market rules, liberalization and investments, transparency and effectiveness. These high-status words used in official documents from the European Government included in reports provide a good perspective for understanding the European Union and also control over the physical environment through science and technology. This control carried out by institutional discourse in general and linguistic means in particular-enhances economic development and therefore lies at the heart of power in Europe. 3.3 From a genre perspective, it is also my contention that the areas the EU Fisheries website is divided into different areas of interest for stakeholders (contract and funding, documentation, events, general information, policy, public consultation, reports and 48 studies) which interact and inform one another: for example, certain features of the economic or legal orders of discourse that is, the implicit or explicit relations that a discourse has to other discourses inform many texts dealing with maritime affairs issues. These orders of discourse are the resources available for representing reality. They are fluid and point to the fact that EU discourses are aspects of a social world which comprises other discourses, what Fairclough (1992) calls intertextuality or interdiscursivity. Similarly, there is a pervasive influence of the two afore-mentioned orders of discourse in the Agriculture Directorate texts. Writers create coherent reports borrowing meanings available from economy and legal discourses. Focusing on the linguistic analysis of these two websites, an overview of the distribution of root modals in the two Directorates analyzed illustrates that they share some features in construing their speech events. Both show an overall preference for using modal evaluative adjectives and adverbs over verbal markers (10,398 adjective and adverb tokens in Agriculture and 3,685 in Maritime Affairs; 6,894 verbal tokens in Agriculture and 2,632 in Maritime Affairs), pointing at genre differences (Carretero 2002). This initial pool of data was reduced into a more manageable size. Two specific types of genre or text types were analyzed in each website: reports and studies. These contain many tokens of root modality. The general flow of discourse of this type is binding, obligatory, assertive, and strong. Reports and studies help to design and implement EU Fishing and Agriculture policies in Europe, both on the EU and country level by giving technical and scientific evidence. The report length varied from a little over twenty to almost two hundred pages, altogether adding up to several hundred pages of text. The texts contained interesting statements, accounts of fishing and agricultural activities and scientific evidence backing up current norms and future regulations. I was interested in how EU experts gave meaning to the discourses of integration and liberalization and translate them into meaningful and useful conceptions for the functioning of the EU policies in these two key economic areas. Upon reflection from reading the reports and studies and further reading of academic literature on root modality, interpretations began to emerge. 4 Analysis and Results The distribution of these adjectives and adverbs in the two sub-corpora ( words in Maritime Affairs and Fisheries and words in Agriculture and Rural Affairs) gives us insights of the interactive processes of meaning making, understanding meaning as an interplay between producers (EU writers) and receivers (EU citizens) taking into account both the institutional position, interests, values, intentions and desires of producers and the institutional positions, knowledge, purposes and values of receivers. 49 After this brief commentary on the similarities, some examples of modal evaluative adjectives and adverbs will be analyzed from a semantic and pragmatic point of view. First, evaluative adjectives and adverbs in section 4.1 and verbal forms in section Evaluative Adjectives and Adverbs. Results and Discussion Evaluation, also commonly known as stance (Biber et al. 1999) and appraisal (Martin 2000), is a very complex phenomenon. Evaluation performs three basic functions according to Hunston & Thompson (2000, 6): a) to express the speaker s or writer s opinion, and in doing so to reflect the value system of that person or that community; b) to construct and maintain relations between the speaker or writer and hearer or reader; c) to organize the discourse. These functions are reflected in both EU genres in adjectives and adverbs. According to Biber et al. (1999, 974), these stance markers report personal attitudes or feelings. Some of these stance forms are clearly attitudinal while others mark personal feelings or emotions. Examples of the former are verb+ extraposed complement clause (it is essential that, it is critical, it s important, etc.). The latter category is the favorite means used by EU writers to express their attitudes towards unfolding issues in EU fisheries and agriculture. The comparison of reports and studies in the two directorates of equal importance in the EU renders significant quantitative differences as shown in graph1 below. Maritime M. AFFAIRS AGRICULTURE essential necessary suitable appropriate essentially appropriately important Graph 1. Root adjectives and adverbs. Raw tokens 50 affairs reports have 1,153 raw root modality tokens whereas Agriculture and Rural Development has a significantly lower figure, 178 tokens. The overall figure is 1,331 tokens in the two directorates at the moment of writing (October 2015). Table 1 shows the data in detail with normalized frequencies. The log-likelihood calculation clearly points out that Maritime Affairs reports overuse root adjectives and adverbs relative to Agriculture and Rural Affairs reports and studies. Generally speaking, Maritime affairs writers show a clear preference for using more evaluative adjectives and adverbs than Agriculture. The most usual evaluative adjectives are important, necessary, appropriate and suitable in the Maritime Affairs reports and studies sub-genre and important, appropriate, necessary, and essential in Agriculture. Essentially is the most popular adverb in the two genres, followed by appropriately. M. AFFAIRS AGRI- CULTURE M. AFFAIRS AGRI- CULTURE essential 12,69 2,33 appropriate 21,99 3,76 important 38,19 4,67 essentially 7,22 1,01 necessary 25,39 3,65 appropriately ,71 suitable 18,16 1,93 Table 1. Adjectives and Adverbs. Normalized frequencies per million words The finding that fishing reports contains far more adjectives and adverbs is partly a function of their greater need to elaborate a shared context in Maritime Affairs practices. They establish a common perspective on the reliability of the claims EU experts in Fishing and Maritime Affairs reports. These adjectives and adverbs are used to evaluate and adopt stances, and to create solidarity and affiliation with EU citizens when transmitting knowledge and policies. These few random examples with adjectives give some flavour of this: important It is one of the most common in speech, according to Swales and Burke (2003) and it is also a favourite in both EU genres. Two constructions are found (it is important+ to and it is important that) and the former is far more frequent than the latter (108 and 20 tokens in Fisheries). A similar phenomenon happens in Agriculture (15 and 3 tokens respectively). They introduce the evaluative comments sentence-initially in these two examples of integration discourse: 51 (1) Although it is important to maximise catches, there must be limits (http://ec.europa. eu/fisheries/cfp/index_en.htm) (2) It will be important that they also take account of the Atlantic Action Plan. (http:// ec.europa.eu/maritimeaffairs/policy/sea_basins/atlantic_ocean) necessary It is the adjective with the highest modal strength. It is related to what is needed for a purpose or a reason that must exist or happen and cannot be avoided. There are instances of nominal scope such as the collocation necessary measure (11 raw tokens) with a subjective interpretation as in example (3a) below, where necessary measures allow for infinite interpretations of what is good for the environment: (3a) ( ) Purpose of the MSFD is to establish a framework within which MS shall take the necessary measures to achieve or maintain good environmental status (GES) in the marine environment by the year 2020 at the latest. (http://rod.eionet.europa. eu/instruments/631) The use of this construction with propositional scope is scarce (4 tokens) in the Maritime sub-genre as in example (3b) below and it is only used once in Agriculture and Rural Development reports: (3b) It is necessary that interaction between all sectors is duly coordinated and optimised in order to attain the highest possible revenues in a way that all sectors can benefit. (http://ec.europa.eu/fisheries/documentation/studies/regional_social_ economic_impacts/peniche_en.pdf) essential is another adjective with high modal strength with 10 tokens in the Maritime sub-genre. Two constructions are frequent: a) it is essential + that the pronominal it appears in initial/subject position, followed by the copula be. The use of essential functions to regulate the interpersonal function, by commanding stakeholders to be involved in the formulation of regulations in example (4), another instance of integration discourse: (4) It is essential that stakeholders are fully involved in the formulation of regulations. (http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/maritimeaffairs_fisheries/consultations/ control/contributions/17_nwwrac_en.pdf It is interesting to note that there are also a few nominal scope uses of essential in both sub-genres and it also frequently co-occurs with other evaluative adjectives, adding extra 52 emphasis. Example (5) shows several evaluative adjectives in bold type reinforcing the integration discourse about the formulation of regulations in the Maritime sector: (5) ( ) is deemed to be an essential requirement. A process of testing the workability or practicality of rules prior to their adoption should be developed. 4 It is essential that stakeholders are fully involved in the fo
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