ADVANCED TASER M26. Certification Lesson Plan. AIR TASER Model And

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Certification Lesson Plan AIR TASER Model And ADVANCED TASER M26 P.O. Box * Scottsdale, Arizona USA * (480) * Fax (480) TABLE OF CONTENTS Course
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Certification Lesson Plan AIR TASER Model And ADVANCED TASER M26 P.O. Box * Scottsdale, Arizona USA * (480) * Fax (480) TABLE OF CONTENTS Course Outline 1 Detailed Lesson Plan 2 A detailed guide to conducting the certification course in conjunction with the powerpoint presentations supplied on CD-ROM. Pre-Deployment Checklist 20 A checklist of preparations which should be completed prior to deploying the AIR TASER or ADVANCED TASER in a law enforcement agency. User Certification Checklist 21 A checklist of procedures to certify end users in the use and care of the AIR TASER model series and the ADVANCED TASER M-series. Certification Test 23 This test must be completed by each end user prior to certification. Certification Test Answers 29 Answer key for use by instructors in grading certification tests. Instructor Application 31 This application outlines the procedures necessary to certify an instructor to teach TASER International Certification courses to end users. This application requires the applicant first complete the user certification as outlined in the User Certification Checklist, then complete the oral examination as part of the instructor application process. This application must be filed under signature of a TASER International certified instructor trainer. Use of Force Report 35 Example of a use of force report developed by the Chandler, AZ police department. This report is included as an aid for new departments in developing reporting procedures. Heart Safety Perspective 39 A letter of opinion prepared for the Ottawa police by the University of Ottawa Heart Institute regarding the medical safety of the ADVANCED TASER. COURSE OUTLINE OVERVIEW: This class will cover the techniques for preper deployment of and certification of end users in the use of the AIR TASER and ADVANCED TASER less-lethal weapons. A. TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVES. Given person(s) to be trained and a lesson plan, instruct person(s) in the proper deployment and safety of the AIR TASER and ADVANCE TASER. B. ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVES. Without the aid of references, in accordance with the detailed lesson plan and manual, a certified trained user will without aid or reference accomplish the following: 1. Pass the written test, and demonstrate sufficient proficiency in the function and use of the AIR TASER or ADVANCED TASER. 2. Understand how the AIR TASER or ADVANCED TASER overrides and controls the central nervous systems of a combatant subject. 4. Know proper finger position for aiming and firing. 5. Be able to reload in a safe and proper manner. 6. Control unit adequately when commanded Arm - Spark - Off at random (understands safety switch and trigger fully). 7. Know when the AIR TASER or ADVANCED TASER is armed and ready to fire. 8. Know how to properly check battery power in the Power Handle, remove and reinstall batteries correctly. 9. Know how to utilize the laser sight. 10. Understanding of probe placement. 11. FOR AIR TASER CERTIFICATION a. Draw AIR TASER and hit target at 8 foot distance without laser sight activated. b. Draw AIR TASER hit target at 8 feet, reload, hit 2 nd target at 8 feet with laser sight (time limit 10 seconds) 12. FOR ADVANCED TASER CERTIFICATION a. Draw ADVANCED TASER and hit target at 12 foot distance without laser sight activated. b. Draw ADVANCED TASER hit target at 8 feet, reload, hit 2 nd target at 12 feet with laser sight (time limit 10 seconds) 13. Know how to properly and safely remove probes from subject. C. METHOD / MEDIA. This class will be taught by the lecture / demonstration method. D. EVALUATION. Topics from this class will be evaluated via written tests, oral tests (instructors only) and via performance checklist during the practical application conducted during the class. E. COURSE TIME. 1. INSTRUCTOR CERTIFICATION COURSE: 8 Hours 2. USER CERTIFICATION COURSE: 4 Hours TASER INTERNATIONAL LESSON PLAN p. 1 DETAILED OUTLINE INSTRUCTOR NOTE: The visual slides which accompany this lesson plan can be found on the TASER International version CD-ROM version 4.0. To access the presentation, double click on the file begin_here in the root directory of the CD-ROM. Then, click on the Police section of the menu to access the training materials resource area. There are two versions of the certification program on this page: one for Microsoft Powerpoint (version 97 or greater) and one which is viewed through your internet browser. INTRODUCTION INSTRUCTOR CERTIFICATION ATTENTION GAINER: The most important decision an officer can make is whether or not to engage deadly force upon a person. With the new remarkable advances in technology we can now serve and protect people and communities with less than lethal means. Slide 2 TASER technology was developed to reduce injuries to officers and suspects by stopping threats from a safe distance. Slide 3 Video. Now we have the technology to stop that individual who is combat trained, mentally deranged, or under the influence of drugs and alcohol. TRANSITION: Having covered the learning objectives, let s discuss the history and theory behind TASER Technology and why departments are deploying it. 1. BODY Slide 4 A. DEFINITIONS: AIR TASER and ADVANCED TASER are less-lethal Conducted Energy Weapons that use propelled wires to conduct energy to a remote target, thereby controlling and overriding the central nervous system of the body. AIR TASER and ADVANCED TASER are brand names associated with specific Conducted Energy Weapons manufactured by TASER International. Slide 5 Instructor s Note: Give brief overview of slide. Point out how the probes are launched, connecting the wires to the target and conducting the TASER wave energy through the wires into the subject through up to 2 of clothing PSI = 1800 pounds per square inch from compressed and inert nitrogen capsules located inside the Air Cartridge. Each cartridge is disposable after firing. Slide 6 VIDEO OF PROBES LAUNCHING B. TECHNOLOGICAL THEORY - WHY IT WORKS Slide 7 TASER INTERNATIONAL LESSON PLAN p. 2 Slide 8 Slide 9 Slide History of technology development a. During the development of the TASER non-lethal weapon ( ), it was discovered that very short duration (microseconds), high energy, predominately D.C. (Direct Current) pulses were non-lethal and non-injurious, but had a profound physiological and psychological effect upon both men and animals. b. Original TASER is a 7 Watt Stun system with 86% effectiveness in field use. c. In the period, tests on volunteers were done under the supervision of Dr. Frank Summers with two cardiologists, a physiologist, EKG and other instrumentation at St. Joseph s Hospital in Orange County, CA. d. The AIR TASER was developed as a non-firearm version of the TASER (the older TASER uses a black powder charge propellant) made of high impact sonic welded polymer. It s output and effects are based upon the continued research of TASER International. Their combined efforts added immense technological changes and decreased the size and weight of the unit while adding performance enhancements such as controlled cycle time and builtin battery indicators for maximum effectiveness. 1. Why it works a. Conducted Energy Weapons are effective because they override the central nervous system of the human body. The human nervous system communicates by means of simple electrical impulses. The ADVANCED TASER sends out short duration, high voltage electrical waves or TASER-Waves or T-Waves that overpower the normal electrical signals within the nerve fibers. b. If you look at a scope reading of the wave signals used by nerves to communicate within the body, the T-Wave is very similar to the one used by the nerves. Hence, these T-Waves create extra noise within the nervous system much like static on the phone lines of the human body. Discuss how the body's communication is analogous to having a conversation on a telephone where signals are sent from one phone to another via electrical signals. Should a third person pick up this phone line and begin to scream (analogous to a TASER- Wave in the body), the other two persons can no longer hear communication. Just as important, when the screaming stops, communications begins again without damage to the phone line. c. In the Gulf War, communications jamming technology immobilized the Iraqi forces, allowing the Allies to obtain victory with minimal loss of life. Conducted Energy Weapons work in the same concept within the human body by jamming the central nervous system and overriding neuromuscular control of the body -- without causing long-term damage. d. Result of using TASER technology: The officer gains control of the situation with minimum injuries to the suspect and minimum risk to the officer. TRANSITION: Having covered the basics of how the system works, let s discuss the issues of safety and medical risks. Slide 11 STUN systems jam the central nervous system with electrical noise. The AIR TASER is a stun system. This only affects only the sensory nervous system i.e. stun systems cause a TASER INTERNATIONAL LESSON PLAN p. 3 Slide 12 Slide 13 tremendous amount of noise to be fed into the brain sensations which can be overwhelming to most people. But stun systems do not cause a direct physical effect. Power: 5-15 Watts. EMD (Electro-Muscular Disruption) systems override the central nervous system AND take direct control of the skeletal muscles. The ADVANCED TASER is an EMD system and affects the sensory AND motor nervous system. Like a stun system, EMD systems flood the nervous system with signals. However, these systems go one step further by directly causing the muscles to contract. Hence, even someone whose sensory nervous system is impaired by drugs will have involuntary muscle contractions. Power: Watts INSTRUCTOR S NOTE: Stun systems act by stunning the target with a high level of electronic stimulation. However, highly focused individuals may not be incapacitated by the stun effect. EMD systems use a more intense wave-form to directly cause contraction of the muscles and override the central nervous system. Hence the EMD systems not only stun the target, they physically debilitate the target by contracting the muscles. At a high level, stun systems effect the sensory nervous system (i.e. it creates very intense sensations which will stun the target) whereas the EMD systems effect the motor nervous system and muscles causing direct physical incapacitation. Watts are the key, not volts. The Watts are the broadcast power that the weapon transmits into the nervous system of the target. Voltage only measures how far a spark can arc through the air. VIDEO DEMONSTRATION OF STUN vs. EMD. INSTRUCTOR S NOTE: The test subject in this video was given the goal to reach out and grab the fist in front of him. The probes were taped to his lower chest and upper thigh. You can hear the energy sparking on the film for both systems. This is an exceptional individual. The stun systems stop 86% of combatants. However, it is important that students see what happens when you run into the 14% of the population who are not incapacitated by the 7 Watt systems. When deploying a 7 Watt stun system, it is important that you plan for the worst case scenario. As can be seen in the video, the subject is debilitated and would be vulnerable to a variety of control techniques such as hair control techniques or leg sweeps while being hit. The 26 Watt EMD has a much stronger, physically incapacitating effect. C. MEDICAL SAFETY AND FINDINGS 1. It s not the Volts that are dangerous, it s the amps. 2. The electrical output of the AIR TASER and ADVANCED TASER is 50,000 Volts. The voltage may seem high, however, the amperage on both systems is well below safe limits. 3. AIR TASER amperage is 57mA Irms. (57 ma = Amps) 4. ADVANCED TASER M26 is 162mA Irms. (162 ma = Amps) Irms is Root Mean Square Body Current and is one of several ways of measuring current. Hence 57 ma Irms = 57 milliamps root mean square body current. INSTRUCTOR S NOTE: Water does not affect the output of the AIR TASER or ADVANCED TASER. The amount of energy out of the weapon is determined inside the weapon, regardless of target conditions. The president of TASER International was shot with the AIR TASER while standing in a pool of water to demonstrate this effect. The weapon is safe to use in rainy or wet conditions. TASER INTERNATIONAL LESSON PLAN p. 4 Slide 14 Slide 15 Slide 16 Slide Underwriters Laboratories, Inc. (electrical fence safety guideline) proven safe for people between 2-75 years of age. IEC 479 is a safety standard commonly used in Europe. Studies have shown there are no long-term effects from being shot by TASER. A study performed at the University of Southern California Medical Center concluded that in addition to its non-lethality, the TASER leaves 0% long-term injuries. 3. Tests of AIR TASER have found: a. No effect on heart rhythms b. No effect on pacemakers (pacemakers must be designed to withstand cardiac defibrillators) c. No long-term effects d. Minor skin irritation similar to sun burns e. Does not cause urination or defecation 4. Tests of ADVANCED TASER have found: a. No effect on heart rhythms (tested on animals) b. Tested on over 70 human volunteers - 100% incapacitation in less than a second - No long-term effects c. The electrical outputs are still well within the safe levels defined by international standards d. Direct muscle stimulation -- causing physical incapacitation e. Minor skin irritation similar to sun burns 5. Heart Failure: In tests performed at the University of Missouri, both the ADVANCED TASER M26 and the AIR TASER were applied directly to the chest of test animals. Using worst case scenarios, two leading experts in cardiac safety found neither system caused interference with the heart rhythms -- even when the animal subjects under test were given drugs which make the heart more susceptible to electrical stimulation. 6. Dr. Paul Hendry, Co-Director of the Pacemaker Clinic at the University of Ottawa Heart Institute concludes that, With regard to its medical safety (M26), based on the information that was provided to me I cannot see that it should provide any increased risks to patients with either pacemakers or implantable defibrillators. Slide 18 Slide 19 Slide The designs of modern pacemakers withstand the electrical defibrillators several hundred times stronger than TASER pulses from either the M26 or series. 8. Studies have shown there are no long-term effects from being shot by TASER. 9. A study performed at the University of Southern California Medical Center concluded that in addition to its non-lethality, the 7 Watt TASER leaves 0% long term injuries. 10. Testing of over 120 human volunteers with the ADVANCED TASER also found 0% injuries. TASER INTERNATIONAL LESSON PLAN p. 5 INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Instructor to review actual injury data from original TASER TE-86 as deployed at LAPD. This data is from the older model TASER (not manufactured by TASER International), and does not include feature enhancements such as the battery indication and automatic timing in the AIR TASER and ADVANCED TASER. Slide Case Law for TASER manufactured by Tasertron: Mateyko v. Felix (1997), awarded $19,680 for inadequate training. (No existing case law concerning TASER International as of 10/99) a. TASER International has never been sued for product liability (with over 100,000 units sold since 1995). b. No deaths contributed solely to TASER (other factors such as gun shot wounds or drug overdoses are seen in autopsy reports). c. One death occurred due when shot on rooftop of skyscraper and fell to the ground -- subject shot with TASER while standing near edge of roof. Slide 23 **** Break **** Use Of Force D. Force Continuum Slide Placing TASER Technology (Conductive Energy Weapons) on the use of force continuum is the responsibility of the police department management. The recommendations here are to assist departments in developing a sound policy. 2. Highlight placement of AIR TASER or ADVANCED TASER on Continuum 3. Explain why it is placed between on par with chemical sprays (fewer injuries and no aftereffects) E. Review Department Policies 1. Policy 2. Procedures for treatment of victim shot by AIR TASER or ADVANCED TASER 3. AIR TASER or ADVANCED TASER use of force report review INSTRUCTOR NOTE: During this portion of the training, it is important that the instructor hand out copies of department SOP s to the users and review the content. Also, it is strongly recommended that the department create a policy for declaring a TASER deployment to prevent sympathetic shootings. Many departments use either Code Zebra or Code 100 or Code TASER as an allband broadcast prior to deployment to alert other officers arriving on scene that the TASER is being deployed (so that the pop from the TASER shot is not mistaken for a gun-shot). Also, many departments train officers to shout TASER, TASER prior to, or during the firing of the weapon to reinforce with all on-scene officers that a less-lethal weapon is being deployed. F. Case Studies Slide Prime Example of Potential Use - CASE 1 Chandler PD, AZ Sept lbs. Male Irate, Out of Control, Unarmed TASER INTERNATIONAL LESSON PLAN p. 6 Slide 26 Slide 27 Claiming HIV + Small Room, Enclosed Environment Result: In Swarm - Officer Bitten, Suspect Broken Jaw Note: TASER Technology could have significantly reduced injuries to officer and suspect without contamination in a close quarter battle scenario. 2. Successful Patrol Use - CASE 2 Harrison County Sheriff, TX July 98 Suicidal Mental Subject Meat Cleaver One hour stand off, suspect charged officers Result: AIR TASER used to disarm and apprehend. No injuries resulted. 3. Successful Correctional Use - CASE 3 Mecklenburg County Sheriff, NC Aug officers injured by inmates in past year Rioting seriously damaged new jail AIR TASER successfully deployed in 6 cell extractions We now have the most peaceful jail in North Carolina Laser sights are commonly used now for deterrence without need to fire weapon F. Functional Overview Slide 28 Slide INSTRUCTOR S NOTE: Demonstration: Review probe placement as it relates to ballistics. (8 degree spread) a. Use foil target b. Fire AIR TASER w/laser INSTRUCTOR NOTE: For any department which has used older TASERS, note that the 8 degree spread provides increased effective range relative to the older 12 degree spread in the original model. c. Demonstrate AIR TASER or ADVANCED TASER back-up touch stun. d. Point out that AIR TASER or ADVANCED TASER will always fire a live cartridge, if there is a live cartridge in place. Both units can be used as a touch stun system with an expended cartridge in place, or without a cartridge in place. Both the AIR TASER and the ADVANCED TASER M26 have the same touch stun feature (except for the duration of the pulse 30 seconds in AIR TASER and 5 seconds in ADVANCED TASER M26). 2. Function and Familiarization Slide 30 a. Nomenclature (Overhead) TASER INTERNATIONAL LESSON PLAN p. 7 Review AIR TASER Nomenclature Slide 31 Review ADVANCED TASER M26 Nomenclature Slide 32 Slide 33 b. Load Status demonstrate both and M26. c. Air Cartridge Types - Color of blast door determines if live, practice or inert. 1. Yellow is Live 15 Foot Cartridge 2. Yellow and Black Stripe is live 21 Foot Cartridge 3. Blue and Black (empty) is a non-functioning inert dummy cartridge. However, the front of the Air Cartridge is live touch stun contact. 4. Pressure release buttons 5. Reversible design cannot jam cartridges INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Hand out units for students. Slide 34 Slide 35 Slide 36 Slide 37 d. Installing Battery in Model Prior to installing or removing the battery, ensure the Air Cartridge has been removed. 2. Demonstrate how to install battery (open/close battery cap). Warning, do not smash or hit battery cap into place as it may damage the battery catch. 3. Only use Energizer or Duracell ULTRA 9V batteries. e. Installing Battery Magazine in M26 1. Prior to installing
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