Allusions as cross-cultural links in the novels

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This article considers the precedent texts in two novels, namely in James Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (1916) and Joseph Heller's Portrait of an artist as an old man (2000), exploring poetics and intertextual ties.
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  Allusions as cross-cultural links in the novels by James Joyce and Joseph Heller   LIUDMYLA KAZAKOVA Docent of Foreign Languages DepartmentSouthwest State Universit! Kurs"! #ussia l_kazakova@mail.ru    ABSTRACT  $his artic%e consi&ers the prece&ent te'ts intwo nove%s! name% in (ames (oce)s  A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man  *+,+-. an& (oseph/e%%er0s  Portrait of an artist as an old man  *1222.!e'p%oring poetics an& interte'tua% ties3 /e%%er0snove% is c%ear% a&&ressing to his great pre&ecessor0s wor"3 4esi&es! each 5oo" is focuse&on creative process an& se%f6i&entification! &eve%opsref%ective thin"ing in a form of interior mono%ogue34oth writers view cu%ture as a co&e! 5eing a%so the"e to the past3 Interte'tua%it is viewe& as anarrative strateg as we%% as semantic one toresearch the nature of &ia%ogica% an& mu%tinationa%fie%& of cu%ture3  Keywords:  interte'tua%it! intercu%tura%&iffusion! prece&ent te't! a%%usion3   I3  I  7$#ODU8$IO7  *  H   EADING  1 .I  7   $/IS   A#$I8L9  / 9LL9#  0 S    7OV9L   IS   8O7SID9#9DAS   A7   ALLUSIO7   O7  ( OY89 0 S    7OV9L 3 $ /9S9   $:OLI$9#A$U#9   :O#KS   8OM;OS9   A7   ILLUSIV9   A7DDOU4L9   ;#989D97$   S;A89   AS   A   $#U9;/97OM97O7   49I7<   ;9#S;98$IV9   FO#    S8I97$IFI8#9S9A#8/ 3 3   :hi%e creating cu%tura% va%ues ever nation pro&uces prece&ent phenomena3 ;rece&ent te't isconsi&ere& as =a comp%e' sign! or the sum of thecomponents! ever of which is not e>ua% to itsmeaning? @! 1+BC3 $hrough the centuries thenum5er of prece&ent te'ts changes regu%ar%3 $henew ones are appearing whi%e the %inguisticcontinuum is &eve%oping3 =Defining characteristicsof prece&ent te'ts! their cu%tura%! emotiona% an&cognitive va%ue? we &efine our menta%it! customs!views an& 5e%iefs pertaine& to our societ! our nation3 =;rece&ent te'ts are we%%6"nown an& ofteninterprete& an& re6interprete& 5eing various%repeate& in the other te'ts? @! 1+,C3 ;rece&ent ma 5e artistic narratives! paintings or other art forms!we%% "nown within their native cu%ture an& in theintercu%tura% space3Stu&ing pre6te'ts we shou%& mention theso6ca%%e& =phi%o%ogica% vertica% conte't3? For e'amp%e! an a%%usion has such semantic features as=&ua% semantics a surface one that is &eve%ope& onthe narrative %eve% *p%ot %eve%.! an& the &eeper one&eve%ope& in the su5te't? @! ++1C3 An a%%usion! as atrue phenomenon of intercu%tura% communication! is pro%ific &ue to a5i%it to generate a&&itiona%meanings! creating new specific su5te't at thecross6point of severa% spaces *see ta5%e +.34ase& on mth as an archetpe! prece&e& 5the 5i%ingua% epigraph from Ovi&! comprising a p%ura%it of a%%usions to re%igious te'ts! havinginserte& terms an& constructions from foreign%anguages! the ear% (oce0s nove% is e'treme%  interesting an& perspective3 Its starting point was ashort essa  Portrait of the Artist  ! written in +,23 Itwas trans%ate& 5 Sergei KhoruEh an& pu5%ishe& in#ussia much %ater! in 122 @+1! C3 $his essa 5ecomes a true pre%u&e to a%% the su5se>uent wor"s 5 (oce! prece&ing the appearance of new greattechni>ues an& genre forms3 KhoruEh comments(oce0s narrative in the preface artic%e =Life! fe%t&eep% 5 the artist himse%f an& em5o&ie& in art 5ecomes 5oth the artist)s %ife an& an art form! that isthe artist0s portrait? @,! -G2C3 $he tit%e with &efiniteartic%e confirms auto5iographica% genre  A Portrait of the  Artist as a young man. Sharing some 5iographica% features with the author! StephenDe&a%us o5tains &efinite &ou5%e nature 5eing a portrait an& a mas"! 5ehin& which the true author comments on the events3In various countries across &ifferentcenturies great writers ma"e attempts to create portrait of the oung generation3 (oce0s 5iographer #3 9%%man mentione& that (oce initia%% inten&e& tocreate an auto5iographica% nove%3 /owever! a portrait of the inner wor%& of a oung writer shares&esires an& hopes with the who%e oung generation!inc%u&ing the &enia% of re%igious &ogma an&ina5i%it to overcome them comp%ete%! protestagainst tra&itions! the &esire for se%f6rea%iEation! thesearch for new %ife va%ues =:e never so%& our faith? @,! +BC3 =I can0t serve what I &o not 5e%ievean more! whether it wi%% 5e m home! m countror m re%igion? @,! BC3In Septem5er +,2H (oce in one of hisinforma% %etters commente& on the nove% 5Lermontov =$he on% 5oo" I "now! that remin&sm one is his  Hero of our time 3 I see simi%arit in its purpose! the tit%e! an& sometimes 6 in iron 333 /is*Lermontov0s. merci%ess iron remin&s me mine?@,! -2C3 (oce0s Stephen as a centra% character ref%ecte& his writer0s searches an& contra&ictions! 5ut in fact he &oesn0t 5ecome (oce0s twin6cop3Stephen is an e'amp%e of intercu%tura% character ref%ecting the tren&s an& inf%uences of &ifferentcu%tures an& 5eing create& in the process of cross6cu%tura% interaction34right American nove%ist (3 /e%%er0s posthumous 5oo" is often consi&ere& as unfinishe&! 5ecause the manuscript was han&e& over for  pu5%ication 5 the re%atives of the writer! he &i&n0t&o it himse%f3 $he 5oo" receive& a negative reviewfrom Michi"o Ka"utani! one of the most inf%uentia%American critics in the fie%& of contemporar%iterature an& art =333 Most of these a5ortive effortsare simp%e testaments to ;ota)s fai%ure of imagination3 $here are wear attempts to rewritec%assic wor"s of %iterature? =$here is something sa&a5out ;ota)s &i%emma! 333 Unfortunate% it)s evensa&&er that Mr3 /e%%er shou%& cap his own inspire& 6an& sometimes 5ri%%iant 6 career with  Portrait of an Artist, as an Old Man ! =an antic%imactic 5oo" thatis! at 5est! a poor imitation of a nove%? @+C3 :e%%!%ast /e%%er0s nove% %oo"s poorer than !losing "ime *+,,. an& much worse that his 5ri%%iant !at#h$%% *+,-+.3 4ut cou%& it 5e an tric" to repeat thescan&a%ous success of the &e5ut wor"J ;erhaps themster of this nove% is not so%ve& 5 critics an&rea&ers3 $his chance %oo"s pro5a5%e! especia%% if we remin& the &istinctive features of st%e pertaine&to great humorist an& nove%ist (oseph /e%%er! hisfantastic sense of humor! his 5ri%%iant para&o'es!e'periments an& inte%%ectua% p%a with the rea&er3 So! %et0s suppose that %ast /e%%er0s tric" ishi&&en in an i&ea to create a new mu%ti%eve%e&a%%usion within the artistic space of his nove%mirroring (oce0s nove% an& 5eing opposite to it atthe same time3 /e cou%& tr to para&ise an& &eve%op(oce0s i&eas to reca%% an& mirror the o%& past3 4ut&i& he para&ise the ear% centur or its fina%&eca&esJ :e%%! two nove%s rea%% have someoppositions oung ages  o%& ears! first 6 %astnove%! the 5eginning  the en& of writing career!romantic pathos  iron an& sarcasm3 8onsi&eringinterte'tua%it as 5oth narrative an& semanticstrateg! opposition of two nove%s can 5e viewe& asa &ia%ogue 5etween their wor%&s! each of which!than"s to interte'tua%it! is a%so 5eing in &ia%oguewith its cu%ture3 Semantics of the prece&ent te'tscan0t 5e seen comp%ete% on the narrative %eve%3 Itshou%& 5e rea& with interte'tua% associations an&meanings3 $hus! the &ia%ogue of two nove%ists ise'pan&ing in a spira% &eve%oping as a cross6cu%tura%communication3 In /e%%er0s narrative the centra% character isBH6ear6o%& writer 9ugene ;ota3 /is name is anacronm of the phrase  Portrait of the Artist  ! as it iswritten in the fina% %ines @G! 11,C3 In the tit%e /e%%er   changes &efinite artic%e to in&efinite one  Portrait of  an  artist, as an old man.  $hus! ;ota has some 5iographica% features an& at the same time he is nota cop! 5ut 5oth a %iterature character an& a mas"3So! the character 5ecomes an a%%usion to (oce)swor"! whi%e nove%0s tit%e is rather a hoo" to catch area&er or a tr to p%a in a nove%3 7ames an& characters as a%%usions arenumerous in /e%%er)s nove%3 For e'amp%e! in thescene of ;ota0s %ecture at the Universit of South8aro%ina3 ;ota names his %ecture =Literature of &espair? @G! +-1C3 $he narrator comments areironica% to show character0s narcissism =;ota pause& with a %oo" of mi%& surprise as though atrai%ing remar" was a spontaneous afterthoughtwhich in&ee& it ha& 5een! an& waite& for the %owchuc"%e to come in response an& recognition? @G!+-C3 $e%%ing a5out tragic fates of such writers as8onra&! 8heever! 4rautigan! Vonnegut! Dic"ens an&man others the narrator changes ironic pathos totragic one3 uotes an& a%%usions to the wor"s of famous Ang%o6American writers form a specificintercu%tura% &iscourse emerging in the conte't of the su5ectiviEe& narrative3 So! /e%%%er0s narrative isan e'amp%e of auto&re#edent te't  ! penetrate& 5 thenarrator0s an& the author0s iron3 uotes an&a%%usions to his ear%ier te'ts prove metate'stua%ita%ong with name% interte'tua%it! that in&icates thevaria5i%it of interte'tua% re%ations3 In /e%%er)s nove% there are some a%%usivecharacters6 On the p%ot %eve% in the sstem of images;o%% 6 $om)s Aunt an& ;o%%  ;ota0s wife6 On the p%ot %eve% 5eon& the sstem of images ;ota at certain e'tent is /e%%er0s twin! 5ecause he is from 8one Is%an&! he wrote !at#h$%% ! an& the 5oo" a5out 5i5%ica% King Davi&3 $omSawer is not on% the we%%6"nown $wain0scharacter! 5ut a%so an aspire& writer an& a character in /e%%er0s nove%3$he &ua%it of the artistic conception ise'presse& 5 co6presence of auto5iographica%narrative an& game! the re%ia5i%it of the &etai%scoinci&es with su5ectivit of its interpretation! aswe%% as the fact that rea%istic image is accompanie&with iron or even sarcasm in the author)sassessment3 $he nove%0s structure resem5%es#ussian Nmatresh"a0 *princip%e of N&o%%s0 whenever new one emerges from the previous.3 A%ongwith p%ot stor it comprises severa% s"etches! amongwhich ;ota is %oo"ing for the 5est i&ea for his newan& %ast nove% (e'ual )iogra&hy of my *ife  insevera% fragments!  E+es Diary ! "om (a*yer, theno+elist  ! an& some others3 Leitmotif shows an artistat wor" to &epict the process of writing3 $he 5oo"  5ecomes a twin to =e%%ow pa&? of the o%& writer3$he rea&er can fin& everthing in it various notes!snippets! comments! mths mi'e& with the truefacts3 $his structure ma"es an open &ia%ogue 5etween the rea&er an& the author with a%% his i&eas!where the rea&er is invite& to &eve%op his in&ivi&ua%view3 Montage an& stop6ca&re techni>ues a%%ow totrace the snthesis of &ifferent arts %iterature! fi%man& photograph as another form of &ia%ogue! inwhich its genre form 5ecomes 5%urre&! showingsuch pertaine& to metanove% characteristics asf%e'i5i%it an& &ecentration3 7umerous% fragmentiEe& posthumous/e%%er0s nove% reca%%s (oce0s mentione& a5oveear% essa *+,2.3 Let us remin& that (oce wasgoing to pu5%ish his essa 5ut got a refusa% from thee&itor! 5ecause of narrative0s &efragmentation38ritics sco%&e& this 5oo"! writing that the =+,2  Portrait   essa is meaning%ess in an other conte'tthan that of (oce0s artistic an& imaginative&eve%opment an& even in that conte't it is fe5ri%ean& o5scure? @++! +C3 ;rece&e& 5 5i%ingua% epigraph an& havingnumerous a%%usions! >uotes from Latin! (oce0snove% &eve%ops parate'tua% re%ationships3 $he storof Irish writer Stephen De&a%us has mu%tip%ea%%usions an& >uotes from re%igious an& %iteraturete'ts! repetitions! metaphorica% images an& sm5o%s3A%%usions on music te'ts &eve%op a particu%ar semantic %ocus! where the voice mo&us of the au&ioinformation is not %ess important than the ver5a%one3 Music an& soun& &iscourse as if enve%ops thespace itse%f aroun& the %iterar te't an& creates!aroun& the =rea&6te't? e%usive =te't6message?  =eterna% present! s%ipping out of power an further statements? @-! BC3 So! the "e i&ea of creative&eve%opment is em5o&ie& into narrative 5einge'presse& 5 wor&s! 5 te't structure an& in soun&s 5ecause of musica% su5te't3 (oce0s narrative hasoften 5een interwoven with >uotes an& paraphrasesfrom fo%" songs3 In Stephen0s inner mono%ogue  >uotes form popu%ar an& fo%" songs are inserte&more an& more often in fina% chapters3 Music mar"shis mature sou% as =a sign of progress an& creativegrowth? @,! +C3 #hthmica% organiEation of narrative with changing rhthms through three partson the nove% a%so proves that soun& mo&use is a true"e to revea% author0s thoughts an& artisticconception3  ISSUES  Mu%timo&a%it is an essentia% characteristicof (oce0s artistic wor%&3 Mu%timo&a%it is a popu%ar strateg in the mo&ern wor"s of %iterature3 It refersto   &eve%oping i&eas an& senses in severa% mo&uses! 5 soun& or in co%or! as we%% as 5 wor&s3 In theear%  centur (oce was rea%% a5%e to %oo" forwar& the tren& of the I one3 $hus! even(oce0s nove% itse%f is a true &ia%ogue across thecentur3 /is nove% has an open en&ing as a &ia%ogue 5etween past an& present =:e%come! O! %ifeP I go toencounterQO%& father! o%& artificer! stan& me nowan& ever in goo& stea&? @,! +C3 /e%%er0s nove% isturne& to the past to face his great pre&ecessor an&to &raw rea&er0s attention to the %iterature process!comprising 5oth creative writing an& thin"ing an&to the tremen&ous heritage that %iterature has "ept3Are there some things it is mora%% wrong to ma"e6 5e%ieveJ An e'amination of imaginative resistanceas a measure of the mora%it of pretense3$wo nove%s are in &ia%ogue across the thcentur! invo%ving 9ng%ish an& American cu%tures!as two great 9ng%ish6spea"ing nations3 So! thecreate a new artistic space an& rea%it e'pan&ing in6 5etween @+2C their times an& even getting out3On the upper coi%s of spira%6shape& &ia%oguethe intercu%tura% space is &eve%oping as a resu%t of =cross6cu%tura% &iffusion? @+HC when %inguistic an&e'tra%inguistic factors have mi'e& creating morecomp%e' an& 5ewi%&ering rea%it3 So! wi&ening thespira%s 5oth writers cou%& fee% themse%ves thecreators an& the victims! an& =the %ogos in honour  5oun& to the cross of our own crue% fiction? @H! ++Cas if in the center of Universe or on the 8ross3 <reatmin&s create impressive an& intricate wor%&s 5 the power of their imagination where past an& presentcan meet an& coe'ist3 "A-E 1. ALLUSIO7S AS 8#OSS6;OI7$S   a3 WORLDS TO BE CROSSED EXAMPLES  cu%tura% an& %inguistic fie%&s 5i%ingua% a%%usion  Et ignotas aninum in artes  *Ovi&. @+2C=  Per as&era ad astra ? @,! p3 GH Chistorica% an& cu%tura% wor%&san a%%usion on a historica% person! historica%&ocument or perio&ica%s Michae% 8usac" @,! p3 B- C $om Sawer @G C! etc3thin"ing an& imaginationassociation an& figurative image= the ange% of morta% outh an& 5eaut? @+2! p3-,C =the gre 5%oc" of trinit? @,! BBC Ye%%ow 5ir&6e%%ow pa&6 %ast nove% @GC! etc3Literature an& musicFo%" songs  /osie O0Grady  @,! C = O, illie, *e ha+e missed you ? @,! GC 2"is youth and folly  = @,! 1,HC#e%igious music a &ea& mess @,! 1GC <o& save the ueen @,! 1H2C;agan an& 8hristianwor%&sStephen De&a%us 6 De&a% 53 Samp%e of a $a5%e footnote3 3"a)le footnote4   Referenes @+C 4%och! R3Y3 Di"tema in the %eve% structure of the%anguage  uestions of Linguistics! 12223 6 T3  ;3 H-6-B@1C <enieva! 93Y3 (ames (oce an& A ;ortrait of the Artist as aoung man Universe3 6 iev Soviet :riter! +,BH! T -3 6 ;3+1,6++@C KaEa"ova! L373 From mu%ti%eve%e& artistic wor%& to theinteraction of genre forms (oce0s  A Portrait of the Artist as a young man   (3 /e%%er0s  Portrait of an artist, as an old man American mo&ernism conte't! persona%ities3;ostpostmo&ernist view3 American Literature Stu&ios inU"raine3 WX[\  Kiev Fact! 122G3  ;3 2, +,3@C rau%ov! Y373 #ussian %anguage an& #ussian spea"er3 R3!122B3  H2 p3@HC 9co! U3 ;oetics 5 (oce3  R3 ]st! 12+H3  H p3@-C 4arthes! #3 $he &eath of the author! +,BB3  7Y! 122 p3@BC <i%5ert St3 Letters of (ames (oce3 6 73 Y3 Vi"ing ;ress!+,HB! vo%3 13  +-2 p3 @GC /e%%er! (3 ;ortrait of an artist! as an o%& man3  Lon&onSimon ^ Schuster UK Lt&!  12223  1 p3@,C (oce (3 Du5%iners3 A ;ortrait of the Artist as a oung man3  R3 _X`X\bb3  +,G13  HG1 b3@+2 C /unter! L3! Fos%! ;3S3 4eing in65etween ;erformance stu&ies an& processes for sustaining inter&iscip%inarit8ogentArts an& /umanities! 12+H3 T 1@++C (oce! (3 $he 8ritica% :ritings3 9&3 4 #3 9%%mann3 6 73Y3! +,H,3  11 X3@+1C KhoruEh! S3   ;reface  (oce3 (3 Stephen /ero3  L3$hames ^ /u&son! 122H3  B22 p3@+C #ogers! 93M3! /art :343! Mii"e Y3! /a%% 9&war& $3 an&the histor of intercu%tura% communication the Unite& Statesan& (apan3 8ommunication review! 1223  T 13  ;3  1-3@+C Ka"utani! M3 4oo"s of the times (oseph /e%%er)s Va%e&ictor /o%&s a Mirror to /imse%f$he 7ew Yor" $imes! 1222 httpwww3ntimes3com12222H25oo"s5oo"s6of6the6times6oseph6he%%er6s6va%e&ictor6ho%&s6a6mirror6to6himse%f3htm%@+HC   Moran! M3 #ethin"ing cu%ture A cu%tura%6materia%ist account of socia% space8ogent Arts an& /umanities3  12+3  T+3
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