Assessing Speaking

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it is about how to assess our student speaking skill and how the English teacher should run their class
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  Assessing Speaking Introduction From a pragmatic view of language performance, listening and speaking are almost always closely interrelated. Speaking is a productive skill that can be directly and empirically observed, those observations are invariably coloured by the accuracy of effectiveness of a test-taker’s listening skill, which necessarily compromises the reliability and validity of an oral production test. The interaction of speaking and listening challenges the designer of an oral production test to tease apart, as much as  possible, the factor accounted aural intake.Another challenge is the design of elicitation techniues. !ecause speaking is product of creative construction of linguistic strings, the speaker make choices of le"icon, structure, and discourses. #f your goal is to have test-taker demonstrates certain spoken grammatical categories.  In receptive performance , the elicitation stimulus can  be structured to anticipate predetermined responses and only those responses.  In  productive performance, the oral or written stimulus must be specific enough to elicit output within an e"cepted range performance such that scoring or rating procedures apply appropriately. For e"ample, in a pictures-series task, the ob$ective of which is toelicit output within a story in a seuence of events, test-takers could opt for a variety of plausible ways to tell the story, all of which might be eually accurate.%. 1. Imitative speaking At one end of a continuum of types of speaking performance is the ability to simple  parrot back imitate a word or phrase or possibly a sentence. This is a purely phonetic of level of oral production, a number of prosodic, le"ical, and grammatically  properties of language may be included in the criterion performance. Test takers are assessed if they have the ability to imitate a word while pronouncing. &owever conveying the meaning is not the purpose. The role of listening here is the short term storage.  'honepass TestA popular test that use imitative production task is phonepass, a widely used, commercially available speaking test in many countries. Among a number speaking task on the test, repetition of sentences occupies a prominent role. #t is remarkable thatresearch on the phonepass test has supported the construct validity of its repetition tasks not $ust for test-takers phonological ability but also for discourse and overall oral production ability (Townshend et al., %))*+!ernstein et al,. + ascallar / !ernstein, 0., The phonepass findings could signal an increase in the future use of repetition and read aloud procedures for the assessment of oral production. !ecause a test-takers output is completely controlled, scoring using speech recognition technology become achievable and practical.%. 2. Intensive Speaking  A second type of speaking freuently employed in assessment conte"t is the  production of short stretches of oral language designed to demonstrate competence in a narrow band of grammatical, phrasal, le"ical, or phonological relationship. The intensive level, teat- takers are prompted to produce short stretches of discourse(no more than one sentence0 through which they demonstrate linguistic ability at a specified level of language.  1irect response TasksThe test administrator elicits a particular grammatical form or a transformation of sentence. Such tasks are clearly mechanical and not communicative, but they do reuire mini al processing of meaning in order to produce the correct grammatical output.  2ead-Aloud Tasks#ntensive reading-aloud tasks include reading beyond the sentence level up to a  paragraph or two. This techniue is easily administered by selecting passage that incorporate test specs and by recording test-takers output+ the scoring relatively easy  because all of test-takers oral production is controlled.  Sentence3 1ialogue ompletion Tasks and 4ral 5uestionnairesTest-takers are first given time to read through the dialogue to get its gist and to think about appropriate lines to fill in.  'icture-ued Tasks4ne of the more popular ways to elicit oral language performance at both intensive and e"tensive levels is a picture-cued stimulus that reuires a description from the test-takers. 'ictures may be very simple, designed to elicit a word or a phrase+ somewhat more elaborated and 6busy7 + or composed of a series that tells story or incident.  TranslationTranslation is a part of our tradition in language teaching that we tend to discount or disdain, if only because of our current pedagogical stance plays down its importance. Translation method of teaching are certainly pass8 in an era of direct approaches to creating communicative classrooms. 9e should remember that in where :nglish is notthe native or prevailing language, translation is a meaningful communicative device inconte"t where the :nglish user is called on to be an interpreter.%. 3. Responsive Speaking 2esponsive assessment tasks include interaction and test comprehension but at the somewhat limited level of very short conversations, standard greeting and small talk, simple reuests and the like. #t helps :nglish language instructors assess students’ ability to engage in discussion with one or more interlocutors. ;ore creativity on the students’ part is reuired.   5uestion and Answer 5uestion and answer task can consist of one or two uestions from an interviewer, or they can make up a portion of a whole battery of uestions and prompts in an oral interview. This form of assessment reuires one person, an interlocutor, to ask the student uestions. Students’ answers can be % sentence responses, or, can entail a more detailed answer depending upon the uestion asked.  <iving #nstructions and 1irectionsThis type of assessment entails a student asking the teacher uestions. :ssentially, the student assumes control over the conversation. This type of assessment reuires students to be able to give directions given a particular situation. Topics should be relevant and of .immediate interest to students.  'araphrasingThis type of assessment reuires students to listen to a = to > sentence paragraph. ?pon finishing the paragraph, instructors prompt students to give a % to  sentence summary of what they $ust heard.%. 4. Interactive Speaking #nteractive speaking is e"tremely similar to responsive speaking, however varying in that an interactive speaking session is much more involved, may include multiple interlocutors, and is commonly found in the :nglish speaking world. #nteractive speaking assessments are important because they allow instructors to evaluate students’ ability in producing fluid, detailed, and in-depth discussions with one or more interlocutors.  #nterview@oral production assessment’ is mentioned the first things that comes to mind is oral interview  a test administrator and a test-taker sit down in a direct face to face e"change and proceed through a protocol of uestions and directives. #nterviews  provide students with chances to use what they have learned in an authentic situation+ they give students the chance to engage in meaningful dialogue.  2ole 'lay2ole playing is a popular pedagogical activity in communicative language-teaching classes. 9ithin constrains sets forth by guidelines, it frees students to be somewhat creative in their linguistic output. 2ole play opens some windows of opportunity for test-takers to use discourse that might otherwise be difficult to elicit. 2ole playing  provides students with a chance to have fun with the :nglish language. ;oreover, it  provides students with mock situations that mimic real-world situations.  1iscussion and onversation  1iscussion and conversation with and among are difficult to specify and even more difficult to score. Assessing the performance of participants through scores or checklist course, discussion is an integrative task, and so it is also advisable to give some cogniBance to comprehension performance in evaluating learners.  <ames<ames are usually the easiest way to get students engaged in learning :nglish. 4ne type of interactive game assessment is information gap grids. #nformation <ap <rids #n this game, students interview each other, in :nglish, to determine the answers to various uestions.%. 5. Extensive Speaking :"tensive speaking tasks involve comple", relatively lengthy stretches of discourse. They are freuently variations on monologues, usually with minimal verbal interaction. :"tensive speaking is e"treme important+ students are left by themselves to produce clear and intelligible speech. There usually is some type of audience  present+ there is no dialogue between presenter and audience members. 4nly the  person presenting speaks during this time.  4ral 'resentations4ral presentations would not be uncommon to be called on to present a report, a  paper, a marketing plan, a sales idea, a design of new product, or method in academic a professional arenas. 4ral presentations give students a chance to use what they have learned in :nglish class by culminating everything into one strong and concise  presentation.  'icture ued Story telling'icture cued story telling is one of the most techniues for eliciting oral production is through visual picture, photographs, diagrams, and charts. The purpose of picture-cued story telling is to provide students with e"amples of how chronology is used in discussions. Also, it is used to illustrate situations.  2etelling StoryThis is type of task in which test-takers hear or read a story or news event that they are asked to retell. #n this form of e"tensive speaking assessment, students re-tell a story they heard. The story can be modified from its srcinal form. 9e have already looked at this elicitation device for intensive tasks, but at this level we consider a  picture or a series of picture as a stimulus for a longer story or description. #f we are eliciting specific grammatical or discourse features, you might add to the directions like 6tell the picture that these pictures describe. ?sing the past tense of verb7 .  Translation  Translation of words, phrases, or short sentences was mentioned under the category of intensive speaking. The longer te"ts are presented for the test-takers to read in native language and translate into :nglish.  ImplementationTe Test Item !ommonl" used %. A. Sentence# $ialogue !ompletion Tasks and %ral &uestionnaires Test-takers are first given time to read through the dialogue to get its gist and to think about appropriate lines to fill in. Then as the tape, teacher, or test administrator  produces one part orally. 'atc tese sentences on te le(t and to te suita)le sentences on te rigt and*  %. A  #f we go out tonightC a. an you help me !  yes, # agree. A  Their performance are very attractive b. 1o you need !  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .D. A  . . . . . . . . . . . . . clean this room, pleaseC c. 1o you agree !  Ees, of course=. A  #’ll go to the party tonight, but # don’t have a blouse. d. ould you borrow me . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .a blouseC !  1on’t worry. A  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . this computerC e. Go, # don’t think so. #t’s boring.!  Thank you so much. # really need it.v The strength of this techniue lies in its moderate control of the output of the test-taker. 9hile individual variations is responses are accepted, the techniue taps into a learner’s ability to discern e"periences in a conversation and to produce sociolinguistically correct language.
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