Boots and shoes in Northamptonshire

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Northamptonshire Archives An Educational resource for Key Stages 1 - 3 Boots and shoes in Northamptonshire Heritage Education at Northamptonshire Archives: Boots and…
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Northamptonshire Archives An Educational resource for Key Stages 1 - 3 Boots and shoes in Northamptonshire Heritage Education at Northamptonshire Archives: Boots and Shoes in Northamptonshire 2013 Copyright © Northamptonshire County Council. Produced by Northamptonshire Archives. This work was undertaken in good faith and to the highest standards, but Northamptonshire County Council and the Archive Service will not be liable for any mistakes, omissions or errors of interpretation or issues howsoever arising. Northamptonshire Archives Wootton Hall Park Mereway Northampton NN4 8BQ www.northamptonshire.gov.uk/heritage The images in this document are copies of original source material held at Northamptonshire Archives. The authors have endeavoured to trace the copyright holders of all images in this publication. The materials in this e-book may be photocopied for classroom use only. Otherwise, all rights are reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying or otherwise without prior permission. 2 Heritage Education at Northamptonshire Archives: Boots and Shoes in Northamptonshire Contents Contents ...................................................................................... 3 What is an Archive?.................................................................... 4 The boot and shoe industry in Northamptonshire ................... 5 What different types of archival records can tell us about the boot and shoe industry in Northamptonshire? ................................. 6 Census returns ........................................................................... 7 Highlights from our collections ................................................................................ 7 Activity Suggestions................................................................................................ 8 Key questions ......................................................................................................... 8 Photographs................................................................................ 9 Highlights from our collections ................................................................................ 9 Activity Suggestions.............................................................................................. 10 Key questions ....................................................................................................... 10 Maps and plans ..........................................................................11 Highlights from our collections .............................................................................. 11 Activity Suggestions.............................................................................................. 12 Key questions ....................................................................................................... 12 Boot and shoe company records .............................................13 Highlights from our collections .............................................................................. 13 Activity Suggestions.............................................................................................. 14 Key questions ....................................................................................................... 14 Other written records ................................................................15 Highlights from our collections .............................................................................. 15 Activity Suggestions.............................................................................................. 16 Key questions ....................................................................................................... 16 Worksheets ................................................................................17 Glossary of technical terms ......................................................23 Going further ..............................................................................24 Useful Websites .........................................................................24 3 Heritage Education at Northamptonshire Archives: Boots and Shoes in Northamptonshire What is an Archive? Archives look after and let you see the documentary and recorded heritage of our past. All organisations and individuals produce records and archives in the course of their daily activities. Archives may be written on paper or parchment; they can be books, maps or plans, photographs or prints, films or videos, or even computer-generated records. Archives are kept because they answer our questions. They can tell us where we come from and how our ancestors lived. They are an important and fascinating source of information for historical research. They also provide vital evidence of rights and obligations, of decisions and judgements. Archives are different from libraries as they hold unique, original and often irreplaceable documents. A Record Office collects archives relating to a specific geographical area, usually relating to a county or city and its people. Archivists catalogue records so that people can easily locate material which may be of interest to them. The archives are preserved and conserved to ensure that items are held in the best environmental conditions and are packaged in appropriate materials. Northamptonshire Archives houses collections dating from the 12th century to modern times relating to the history and heritage of the county and connections with the wider world. 4 Heritage Education at Northamptonshire Archives: Boots and Shoes in Northamptonshire The boot and shoe industry in Northamptonshire ³LWZDVLPSRVVLEOHWRHVFDSHWKHVLJKWVVRXQGVDQG VPHOOVRIIRRWZHDUPDQXIDFWXUH´ Built to last? The buildings of the Northamptonshire Boot and Shoe Industry Northamptonshire has a long, rich history of footwear manufacture. The first reference to shoemakers in the county is Peter the Cordwainer, who is mentioned in early 13th century records. By 1401 Northampton had established a Guild of Shoemakers and from the 16th century an important trade in the industry developed. During the English Civil War a consortium of Northampton Shoemakers were contracted to make six hundred pairs of boots and four thousand pairs of shoes for 2OLYHU&URPZHOO¶VDUP\ In 1725, Daniel Defoe, the author of Robinson Crusoe, said HYHU\RQH¶VVKRHVIURPWKHSRRUHVWFRXQWU\PHQWRWKHPDVWHU, came from Northampton, although this is probably an exaggeration. By the 18th century shoemakers were beginning to store shoes in communal warehouses and shoes were being produced in bulk quantities. Before the introduction of the sewing machine revolutionised footwear manufacture, in the mid 19th century, boots and shoes were made in small workshops at home and sewn together by hand. With new mechanised mass-production methods, footwear manufacture was much faster and cheaper. In towns like Northampton, factoryowners built many rows of terraced housing for their workforce, much of it very close to the centre of the town. By 1871 almost half the men living in Northampton were shoemakers. People were encouraged to work in factories rather than at home, although outworkers existed throughout the 19th century. Northamptonshire shoemakers were often responsible for providing military footwear. During the Napoleonic wars, at the beginning of the 19th century, the Navy Office frequently ordered thousands of pairs of boots and shoes from Kettering shoemakers. Northamptonshire shoemakers were responsible for supplying around fifty million pairs of boots to the allied forces during World War One. In 1905, a group of shoemakers from Raunds negotiated a standard rate of pay for producing army boots when they marched from Raunds to the Houses of Parliament to demand fair pay. In World War Two shoe factories once again produced boots to supply the allied forces. Changes in the latter half of the 20th century meant a decline in footwear manufacture in the county as boots and shoes could be produced more cheaply elsewhere. The boot and shoe industry in Northamptonshire became more specialised. An example of this is the introduction of Dr Marten boots, a style of boot named after a doctor in the German Army, Klaus Märtens. During World War Two Märtens designed improvements to his army boots, with soft leather and air padded soles. British shoe manufacturer R Griggs Group Ltd bought the rights to produce the boots and production moved to Northamptonshire in 1960. The boots proved popular with skinheads in the 1960s, followed by the punk-rock and new wave musicians of the 1970s. They continued to be popular with a range of different customers throughout the 1980s and 1990s and the range expanded to include a variety of colours and styles. However, because of declining sales figures, production moved to the Far East in 2003. In 2007 production returned to the UK when Cobbs Lane factory in Wollaston began producing the vintage line. 5 Heritage Education at Northamptonshire Archives: Boots and Shoes in Northamptonshire What can different types of archival records tell us about the boot and shoe industry in Northamptonshire? Archival Record What it tells us census returns Census returns tell us about the different tasks people working in the boot and shoe industry did, for example shoe finisher and clicker are both specialist roles in the shoe industry. They also tell us about whole families who worked in the same industry. Photographs show us what it was like working in a boot and shoe factory. We can use them to find out what people wore to work in the past and the different tasks people working in the boot and shoe industry had to do. photographs maps and plans Maps and plans tell us where boot and shoe factories were located in the past and what they looked like. They can also tell us how big the factories were. On some maps we can see the houses that were built for the boot and shoe workers in the past. Boot and Shoe company records Boot and shoe company records have lots of LQIRUPDWLRQ)RUH[DPSOHµRUGHUERRNV¶DQG µVDOHVERRNV¶WHOOXVDERXWGLIIHUHQWW\SHVRI footwear and where these were sold. Plans show us how factories would have looked and µVWRFNERRNV¶WHOOus about the raw materials for shoemaking. other written records Other written records include apprenticeship indentures, newspapers and trade directories. They can tell us about people who worked in the boot and shoe trade. Sometimes they include more information about companies or adverts. 6 Heritage Education at Northamptonshire Archives: Boots and Shoes in Northamptonshire Census returns The need to have a clear understanding of the growing population was recognised towards the end of the 18th century. The Census Act 1800 stated that a census should be carried out every 10 years to record the number of people, their occupations, and the numbers of families and inhabited and uninhabited houses. The first official census was on 10 March 1801 and estimated the population of England and Wales to be 8.9 million. With the exception of 1941, the census has been held every decade since this Act, normally on a Sunday, as this was traditionally the day of least population movement. The census returns for 1801 to 1831 were taken by the government for purely statistical purposes and the details of households and individuals were only used to create local summaries and then, supposedly, destroyed. Census returns from 1841 are more instructive to the historian because they contain surviving information about individuals¶OLYHV. From 1851, householders were asked to give the precise place of birth of each resident, to state their relationship to the head of the household, their marital status and the nature of any disabilities from which they may have suffered µblind, deaf-and-GXPELPEHFLOHRUOXQDWLF¶. The information on a census is often used by people researching their individual family histories but also helps with other areas of historical research, such as house and village history. In addition, they can be used as a source for the study of occupations. For example, how many people were domestic servants, agricultural labourers or people described µas of independent means¶? Professions that appear frequently on census returns include agricultural labourers (or Ag lab), lace making and, in Northamptonshire, work associated with the shoe trade. Highlights from our collections At the Northamptonshire Archives we hold census returns on microfilm. Free access to the Ancestry website is available on site at the Record Office and through the Northamptonshire Libraries. This website is particularly useful for searching census records both locally and nationally. Census returns, from 1841 to 1911, can be searched to show the range of specific tasks within the footwear industry, such as clicker and closer, as well as the generic shoemaker. They also show different generations of families engaged in the same trade. 7 Heritage Education at Northamptonshire Archives: Boots and Shoes in Northamptonshire Activity Suggestions Students can investigate the census to find out more about the variety of tasks involved in footwear manufacture and the ages of the people involved. Key questions Find the oldest person. Who is it? How old are they? Find the youngest person. Who is it? How old are they? How many men or boys are there? How many women or girls are there? How many people were born in...? What was -RH%ORJ¶s occupation? Where was Jane Smith born? How many people worked in the footwear industry? Key Stage 1 Children could look at transcripts of census returns and find the names and ages of people working in the boot and shoe industry in their local area in the past. Key Stage 2 Children can investigate the handwriting styles and answer comprehension questions about the census. They could look up the meaning of the different roles and create a footwear glossary. There is a numeracy link where children can sort the information into a two-way Carroll diagram (see worksheet section for an example). Key Stage 3 Students could compare and contrast census returns from 1851 and 1911 to see how the footwear industry had developed. They could look for evidence of outworking or investigate issues such as the role of women in the footwear industry; whether they could trace generations of shoemaking families through the census; how far people travelled from their place of birth to find work, etc. 8 Heritage Education at Northamptonshire Archives: Boots and Shoes in Northamptonshire Photographs Photographs are a good source of finding out about the past. It is not just what we know about the image but the internal evidence that archivists use to date an unknown photograph. The clothes people wear and the types of transport they use tell us more about the time in which the photograph was taken. Photographs of the footwear industry reveal information about what it was like to work in a shoe factory, both on the shop floor and in the office, or what a shoe shop looked like in the past. Highlights from our collections Within the boot and shoe collections held at the Northamptonshire Record Office there are photographs of the footwear industry. We have a collection of thirty five photographs taken inside the C. E and Lewis Shoe factory in Northampton in the early 20th century. We also hold twenty nine photographs from the Lotus Shoe Factory in Northampton, taken in 1929, that show all aspects of work inside the factory, including office scenes complete with rows of type writers, where in the modern workplace we would see computers. The Manfield collection includes photographs of their shoe shops in Calcutta (India), Dublin (Ireland) and Manchester (England) taken in 1910. Please contact Northamptonshire Archive Service for more information about how to obtain copies of these images. Please note some images may have copyright restrictions. Alternatively, Northampton Museum uploaded some images of their boot and shoe collection on flikr: www.flickr.com/photos/northampton_museum 9 Heritage Education at Northamptonshire Archives: Boots and Shoes in Northamptonshire Activity Suggestions Students can use photographs to investigate how the footwear industry looked in the past. They can use the internal evidence of the photographs to find out more about the lives of people involved in the footwear industry. It is worthwhile drawing the students attention to the clothes people wore and the high quality formal footwear you can often see people wearing to work. There is an opportunity to discuss the difference between casual and formal footwear in modern society and how this links to the development of the boot and shoe industry. Key questions What does this photograph tell us about the footwear industry in the past? What is happening in the photograph? Can you see any special tools used in the footwear industry in the photograph? What sorts of clothes are people wearing? What do you think it would be like working in a shoe factory? What makes you think this? Key Stage 1 Children may not be aware of the large numbers of people who worked in footwear factories. They can also investigate what people wore such as protective aprons. They can look at photographs of a shoe shops around the world at the beginning of the 19th century and compare these with images of shoe shops today. Key Stage 2 Pupils can investigate the photographs and use the images as a stimulus to write a multisensory setting description, saying what it may have been like in a particular room within the shoe factory. A scaffold for multisensory writing is included in the worksheets section. Key Stage 3 Students could investigate photographs of an Office in the early 20 th century and compare this with a modern office. For example, investigating what an office environment was like before computers became common place. They can also investigate how fashions have changed and what people wore for work. 10 Heritage Education at Northamptonshire Archives: Boots and Shoes in Northamptonshire Maps and plans When studying the history and heritage of the footwear industry in the local area, it is worth considering where the factories were situated and what they looked like. Some of the actual buildings that were once part of the footwear industry have now been converted for other uses or are in a state of disrepair, others are still in use. Historic maps and plans can show where these buildings were located in the past. Large scale Ordnance Survey mapping of Great Britain begun in the mid 19th century. Before World War Two, surveys were carried out county by county rather than using the National Grid system we use today. The earliest OS maps of Northamptonshire are from the 1880s. The majority of these maps are either six inches to one mile (1:10000) or twenty five inches to one mile (1:2500). 25 inch OS maps of the local area often show the location of boot and shoe factories and the associated leatherwear industry. It is also possible to see the layout of the houses some of the factory owners built for their workers in the Victorian period and earlier. Plans and other architectural drawings show the layout of different factories and rooms where different activities such as clicking and finishing were carried out. Some of these plans include elevations of the building, showing large windows that allowed plenty of light was able to enter the building. This provided a well lit working environment. Highlights from our collections At Northamptonshire Archives ZHKROG´26PDSVFRYHULQJWKHFRXQW\GDWLQJIURP the 1880s to just before World War Two. The specific editions vary depending on locality. Plans of boot and shoe factories in Northamptonshire include plans of Jaques and Clark Ltd, Rushden in 1942; elevatio
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