Chapter 6 The Elbow and Radioulnar Joints

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Chapter 6 The Elbow and Radioulnar Joints. Dr. Bud Cooper, ATC, CSCS. Bones. Ulna is much larger proximally than radius Radius is much larger distally than ulna Scapula & humerus serve as proximal attachments for muscles that flex & extend the elbow
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Chapter 6 The Elbow and Radioulnar JointsDr. Bud Cooper, ATC, CSCSBones
  • Ulna is much larger proximally than radius
  • Radius is much larger distally than ulna
  • Scapula & humerus serve as proximal attachments for muscles that flex & extend the elbow
  • Ulna & radius serve as distal attachments for these same muscles
  • Bones
  • Scapula, humerus, & ulna serve as proximal attachments for muscles that pronate & supinate the radioulnar joints
  • Distal attachments of radioulnar joint muscles are located on radius
  • Bony landmarks
  • medial condyloid ridge
  • olecranon process
  • coranoid process
  • radial tuberosity
  • Bones
  • Key bony landmarks for wrist & hand muscles
  • medial epicondyle
  • lateral epicondyle
  • lateral supracondylar ridge
  • Joints
  • Ginglymus or hinge-type joint
  • Allows only flexion & extension
  • 2 interrelated joints
  • humeroulnar joint
  • radiohumeral joints
  • Joints
  • As elbow flexes 20 degrees or more, its bony stability is unlocked, allowing for more side-to-side laxity
  • Stability in flexion is more dependent on the lateral (radial collateral ligament) & the medial or (ulnar collateral ligament)
  • Joints
  • Ulnar collateral ligament is critical in providing medial support to prevent elbow from abducting when stressed in physical activity
  • Many contact sports & throwing activities place stress on medial aspect of joint, resulting in injury
  • Joints
  • Radial collateral ligament provides lateral stability & is rarely injured
  • Annular ligament provides a sling effect around radial head for stability
  • Joints
  • Radioulnar joint
  • Trochoid or pivot-type joint
  • Radial head rotates around at proximal ulna
  • Distal radius rotates around distal ulna
  • Annular ligament maintains radial head in its joint
  • From Seeley RR, Stephens TD, Tate P: Anatomy & physiology, ed 7, New York, 2006, McGraw-Hill; Shier D, Butler J, Lewis R: hole’s human anatomy & physiology, ed 9, New York, 2002, McGraw-Hill.Movements
  • Pronation
  • internal rotary movement of radius on ulna that results in hand moving from palm-up to palm-down position
  • Supination
  • external rotary movement of radius on ulna that results in hand moving from palm-down to palm-up position
  • Muscles
  • Elbow flexors
  • Biceps brachii
  • Brachialis
  • Brachioradialis
  • Weak assistance from Pronator teres
  • Elbow extensor
  • Triceps brachii
  • Anconeus provides assistance
  • Muscles
  • Radioulnar pronators
  • Pronator teres
  • Pronator quadratus
  • Brachioradialis
  • Radioulnar supinators
  • Biceps brachii
  • Supinator muscle
  • Brachioradialis
  • Muscles
  • Anterior
  • Primarily flexion & pronation
  • Biceps brachii
  • Brachialis
  • Brachioradialis
  • Pronator teres
  • Pronator quadratus
  • Muscles
  • Posterior
  • Primarily extension & supination
  • Triceps brachii
  • Anconeus
  • Supinator
  • Biceps Brachii MuscleOrigin: Long Head – supraglenoid tubercle Short Head – coracoid processInsertion:radial tuberosity & bicipital aponeurosisFlexion of elbowSupination of forearmWeak flexion of shoulder joint Weak abduction of shoulder joint when externally rotatedBrachialis MuscleTrue flexion of elbow Brachioradialis MuscleFlexion of elbowPronation from supinated position to neutralSupination from pronated position to neutralTriceps BrachiiMuscleAll heads: extension of elbowLong head: extension of shoulder joint; adduction of shoulder joint;horizontal abductionAnconeus MuscleExtension of elbowPronator Teres MusclePronation of forearm Weak flexion of elbow Pronator Quadratus MusclePronation of forearm Supinator MuscleSupination of forearm
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