CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

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Work immersion refers to the part of the Senior High School (SHS) Curriculum consisting of 80 hours of hands-on experience or work simulation which the grades 11 and 12 students will undergo to expose them to the actual workplace setting and to
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  CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Work immersion refers to the part of the Senior High School (SHS) Curriculum consisting of 80 hours of hands-on experience or work simulation which the grades 11 and 12 students will undergo to expose them to the actual workplace setting and to enrich the competencies provided by the school under the supervision of the school head and the designated personnel of the partner. Meanwhile, work immersion is somewhat similar in internship or on-the-job training done by college students. They have things in common like letting students undergo and experience actual works in a particular workplace. On the other hand, they differ in some loads and number of hours they will consume. Therefore, most of the following studies discusses about the on-the-job training. Department of Education (DepEd) Secretary, Br. Armin Luistro quoted “ We want our students to be aware of the importance of choosing a track that suites their interest while at the same time matches the available resources as well as job opportunities that await them. ” He also added that t hrough work immersion, the students are exposed to and  become familiarized with work related environment related to their field of specialization. Specifically, the students are able to: (i) gain relevant and practical industrial skills under the guidance of industry experts and workers; (ii) appreciate the importance and application of the principles and theories taught in the school; (iii) enhance their technical knowledge and skills; and (iv) prepare them to meet the needs and challenges of employment or higher education after their graduation.  Student organizations may be strengthened its function to encourage students’  participation in taking the lead of planning, organizing, directing and implementing the  programs of the department. Students may always be encouraged to join curricular and extra-curricular activities specifically in academic contests to make them more competitive and confident of their skills. Giving learning opportunities to students helps them to expand their knowledge, cultivate their abilities and discover new skills and talents (Britiller et al., 2014). In addition, the response to the academic challenges of national and international significance, higher education system needs to focus on systemic reform to strengthen and make more competitive their output and services (Buted, Felicen & Manzano, 2014). The university may continue to implement the outcomes-based education to further strengthen the capability of the students to compete with the graduates of ASEAN member countries. Most universities in the country are already undertaking some of the educational practices involved in OBE. What they really need now is proper documentation of evidences of assessments and evaluation on the effectiveness of the  program educational objectives which will prove that the graduates are really equipped with essential knowledge, values (behaviour) and skills that can contribute to the development of the community (Laguador & Dotong, 2014). According to Valdez (2010), the curriculum may continue to revisit periodically to align the skills needed by the industry. The curriculum should be designed to prepare the graduates and demonstrate the core competencies expected of them in the workplace. On-the-job training is the best method as it is economical, simple, and effective and everybody can do it. It doesn’t need wide -ranging budgets, complex training courses,  devoted training staffs or absence from the workplace. Its effectiveness can be significantly enhanced by applying a methodical approach based on the UKEssay. Rendering to this, “I mportantly, each on-the-job model has its own merits and weaknesses but they all serve the same purpose of providing the trainees with the opportun ity to “practice and learn by doing”, they added. UkEssays’ researchers relate this to Confucius’ perception; “if all I do is hear, I will forget. If I hear and see, I will remember. If I hear, see and do, I will understand.”  Furthermore, at the individual level, on the job training for students is aimed to increase the employability of graduates in the labor market. They will gain new occupational skills and advance. It is much closer to the increasing adoptability capacity of the labor force. So, this instrument helps to constitute main target of public policy in order to decrease unemployment among graduates. Beside this, on the job training can be a way to find the first job for graduates. Finally, Turkey must encourage and give priority to investment on job training for increasing employability and adoptability of graduates. (Professor Dr. Kuzgun) Corresponding to the Division Memorandum No. 49 s. 2017 of the Technical Working Committee, Region V School Division Office Naga City, it is said that Senior high school (SHS) is a new addition to the basic education curriculum. A good  partnership and communication assist students, parents, stakeholders as well as the  partners in the implementation of the SHS immersion program. However, D epEd’s s tudent immersion program is a work related professional learning opportunities that will allow students to gain important knowledge, skills, and attitude in the chosen field. It will provide a n opportunity to the students to develop  themselves in the workplace in a supervised setting, while also allowing the employer to evaluate their performance and management potential for future possible employment. Ideally, students should aim to gather range of experiences throughout their immersion. They can be assigned in hotel and restaurants services, automotive technology, beauty care and spa and other fields which the competencies and skills are acquired and develop by the students during the exploratory years, grade 11 and grade 12. Similarly, students should attempt to work in more supervisory roles as they progress through their immersion. This partnership is an initiative of DepEd under the social mobilization and networking section to bind with an agreement to competent partners and companies which the competencies and skills of the students will be executed with necessary supervision. Moreover, it is said that on-the-job training is an important example of an investment in human capital. Like any other investment, it has initial costs and returns to these expenditures occur in future periods. This future returns are measured by increase  productivity of the worker during subsequent periods of employment. (Baron, J., 1997) Learning on the job is perceived to be more real life, contextualized and relevant, concer  ned primarily with the ‘how’, efficient though not necessarily correct, more observational and manipulative, more immediate, more time pressures, more ‘just in time’ and improvised, and more incidental and one to one in nature. On the other hand, learning off the job is perceived to be more theoretical and by the book, concerned  primarily with the ‘why’, less up to date in method and equipment, more explanatory,  detached, less time pressured, more detailed and deliberate, broader in scope and more group oriented and paced in nature (Evans., et al., 1992) Additionally, training is a learning process in which people acquire knowledge, skills, experience, and attitudes that they need in order to perform their jobs well for the achievement of their organization’ s goals. Thus employee training is a learning process in which employees acquire knowledge, skills, experience, and attitudes that enable them to achieve their organizational and individual goals. The components, knowledge (K), skills (S), experience (E), and attitudes (A) are introduced here to refer to the ability that a trainee derives from training. Employee Performance Capability = K+S+E+A (Ngirwa, 2006). According to Armstrong (1988) training is a systematic development of knowledge, skills and attitudes required by an individual to perform adequately a given task or job. Training according to Gupta (2000) means “the process of increasing the knowledge and skills for doing a particular job. It is an organized procedure by which  people learn knowledge and skill for a definite purpose. The purpose of training basically is to bridge the gap between job requirements and present competence of employee. Training is aimed at improving the behavior and performance of a person. It is never ending or continuo us process” Training must be not confused with education, so in order to specify what the study means by the word training it is important to differentiate the two terms. Training has direct relationship with the employees’ performance. Basically training is a formal & systematic modification of behavior through learning which occurs as result of education, instruction, development and planned experience (Michael
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