Chp. 1 Introduction to Forensic Science

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Chp. 1 Introduction to Forensic Science. “In school, every period ends with a bell. Every sentence ends with a period. Every crime ends with a sentence.” —Stephen Wright, comedian. Answer on notebook paper. 5 things you “know” about forensics
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Chp. 1Introduction to Forensic Science“In school, every period ends with a bell. Every sentence ends with a period. Every crime ends with a sentence.” —Stephen Wright, comedianAnswer on notebook paper
  • 5 things you “know” about forensics
  • 4 things you’ve heard about forensics
  • 3 things you’ve NEVER heard of (look through book)
  • 2 Questions about forensics
  • 1 thing you “MUST” know about forensics
  • What 3 units would you like to learn about in forensic science?
  • What 3 units would you not like to learn about in forensic science
  • Look at your book for this question.
  • Please Do NowWhat does forensic science mean to you?Please write at least 5 lines in your composition book.Count the F’sFinished files are the result of years of scientific study combined with the experience of many years.There are 6!Finished files are the result of years of scientific study combined with the experience of many years.Forensics
  • Forensic science has come to mean the application of the natural and physical sciences to the resolution of conflicts within a legal setting.
  • The study and application of science to matters of law
  • Includes the business of providing timely, accurate, and thorough information to all levels of decision makers in our criminal justice system.
  • Comes from the Latin forensus, meaning “of the forum”
  • In Ancient Rome, the forum was where governmental debates were held, but it was also where trials were held (it was the courthouse)
  • I. Definition of Forensic ScienceThe application of science to the criminal and civil laws that are enforced by police agencies in a criminal justice system.CriminalisticsEngineering scienceGeneralJurisprudenceOdontologyPathology/ Biology7. Physical Anthropology8. Psychiatry and Behavioral Science9. Questioned Documents10. ToxiologyScope of Forensic ScienceThe 10 sections of The American Academy of Forensic Science (the largest forensic science organization in the world) are:Scope of Forensic ScienceThe list of professions of The American Academy of Forensic Science is not exclusive. It does not encompass skills such as:
  • Fingerprint examination
  • Firearm and tool mark examination
  • Computer and digital analysis
  • Photography
  • Mathieu Orfila father of forensic toxicology (the study of the adverse effects of chemicals or physical agents on living organisms) (1814)II. History and Development of Forensic SciencePlease Do NowRead the article “Toxicology on Trial” and answer the following in your composition book:Was Marie Lafarge found innocent or guilty? Why?II. History and Development of Forensic ScienceAlphonse Bertillon(Father of Criminal Investigation) Devised the first scientific system of personal identification through anthropometry in 1879Photo showing the measurement of the cubit (from the tip of the middle finger to the elbow) from the 1893 World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago.Figure 1–3   Bertillon’s system of bodily measurements (anthropometry) as used for the identification of an individual. Courtesy Sirchie Finger Print Laboratories, Inc., Youngsville, N.C., www.sirchie.comBertillon ActivityUse measuring tapes to measure :
  • The length of torso from the top of your head to the bottom of your seat in a chair
  • The length of your arm from elbow to tip of middle finger
  • The hand from wrist to tip of middle finger
  • Record the data on a piece of notebook paper in a data table and find averages for males and females in the class
  • Bertillon Activity con’t.
  • Was there a difference between the male and female average measurements? Why or why not?
  • Do any two people in the class have exactly the same three measurements? If yes - who. Explain why or why not?
  • Would you want to have to take 9 different measurements for 10 000 people? Why or why not.
  • II. History and Development of Forensic ScienceSir Arthur Conan Doyle wrote Sherlock Holmes—uncanny ability to describe scientific methods of detection years before they were actually discovered and implemented1887 - A Study in ScarletII. History and Development of Forensic ScienceFrancis GaltonConducted the first definitive study of fingerprints and their classification(1892)Galton displayed his own fingerprints as part of his title pageII. History and Development of Forensic ScienceHans GrossCredited with coining the term “criminalistics”Wrote first treatise describing the application of scientific principles to the field of criminal investigation(1893)II. History and Development of Forensic ScienceDr. Karl LandsteinerIdentifies human blood groups- A, B, AB and O(1901)II. History and Development of Forensic ScienceAlbert S. OsbornDeveloped the fundamental principles of document examination(1910) Author ofQuestioned DocumentsII. History and Development of Forensic ScienceEdmond LocardFather of criminalisticsBuilt the world’s first forensic lab in France(1910)Locard’s Exchange PrincipleWhen two objects come into contact with each other, a cross-transfer of materials occurs. “Every Contact Leaves a Trace”II. History and Development of Forensic ScienceLeone LattesDeveloped a procedure to determine blood type from dried bloodstains(1915)II. History and Development of Forensic ScienceCalvin GoddardUsed a comparison microscope to determine if a particular gun fired a bullet(1929)Goddard with comparison microscopeWorked on the St. Valentine’s Day massacreII. History and Development of Forensic ScienceWalter McCroneUsed microscopy and other analytical methodologies to examine evidence(1916-2002)Worked on Shroud of Turin(controversy with results)II. History and Development of Forensic ScienceSir Alec JeffreysDeveloped the first DNA profiling test in1984HOMEWORKRead CRIME LABORATORIES pages 14 to 23Answer Review Questions #11 to 22III. The Crime LabKatie Woodward, a forensic scientist at the Washington State Patrol Crime Lab, examines a coat for blood spatter. When found, she removes it for DNA analysis. (March 22, 2003) Crime Lab History
  • First police crime lab in the world was established in _______ in 1910 by __________________
  • First police crime lab in the U.S. opened in 1923 by _____________________________
  • The first FBI crime lab opened in _________
  • (now the world’s largest forensic lab - performing more than ___________ examinations per yearFranceEdmond LocardLos Angeles Police Department1932one millionPlease Do Now "Only two things are infinite, the universe and human stupidity, and I'm not sure about the former" -- Albert EinsteinDevelopment of Crime Labs
  • Characterized by a rapid growth accompanied by a lack of national and regional planning and coordination.
  • Current system of crime labs in U.S. is best described as decentralized
  • Approximately 350 public crime laboratories operate at various levels of government—federal, state, county, and municipal.
  • Growth of Crime Labs since 1960
  • Supreme Court decisions in the 1960s responsible for police placing greater emphasis on scientifically evaluated evidence. (suspect must be advised on their rights - less confessions as a result)
  • Staggering increase in crime rates.
  • All illicit-drug seizures must be sent to a forensic lab for confirmatory chemical analysis before going to court.
  • The advent of DNA profiling. (expected to add ~10,000 forensic scientists in coming years due to DNA profiles)
  • Major Crime Labs in the U.S.
  • FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation)
  • DEA (Drug Enforcement Administration)
  • ATF (Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives)
  • U.S. Postal Service
  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
  • International Crime Labs (more than 100 countries have at least 1 forensic science lab)
  • Great Britain has a national system (in contrast to U.S. independent local labs) of regional labs under direction of the government’s Home Office.
  • Canada has 3 government-funded institutes:
  • 6 Royal Canadian Mounted Police regional labs
  • The Centre of Forensic Sciences in Toronto
  • The Institute of Legal Medicine and Police Science in Montreal
  • Crime Lab—Basic Services
  • Physical Science Unit
  • Chemistry
  • Physics
  • Geology
  • Biology Unit
  • Firearms Unit
  • Document Examination Unit
  • Photography Unit
  • Crime Lab—Basic Services(Physical Science Unit)
  • Applies principles of chemistry, physics and geology to identify and compare physical evidence such as:
  • Drugs
  • Glass
  • Paint
  • Explosives
  • Soil
  • Crime Lab—Basic Services(Biology Unit)
  • Applies knowledge of biological sciences to investigate samples such as:
  • Blood
  • Body fluids
  • Hair
  • Fibers
  • Botanical samples
  • (ex. wood, plants)
  • Crime Lab—Basic Services(Firearms Unit)
  • Examines:
  • Firearms
  • Discharged bullets
  • Cartridge cases
  • Shotgun shells
  • Ammunition of all types
  • Garments and other objects for
  • firearms discharge residues
  • Approximate distance from target
  • to weapon
  • Crime Lab—Basic Services(Document Examination Unit)
  • Studies handwriting and typewriting on questioned documents to determine authenticity and/or source
  • Analyze paper and ink
  • Examine indented writings,obliterations, erasures and burned or charred documents
  • Crime Lab—Basic Services(Photography Unit)
  • Use of highly specialized photographic techniques to make invisible information visible to the naked eye, such as:
  • Infrared
  • Ultraviolet
  • X-ray photography
  • Photographs crime scenes and physical evidence
  • Prepares photographic exhibits for court
  • Crime Lab—Basic Services(Photography Unit)Optional Services Provided by Full-Service Crime Lab
  • Toxicology Unit examines body fluids and organs for
  • the presence of drugs and poisons.
  • Latent Fingerprint Unit processes and examines
  • evidence for latent fingerprints.
  • Polygraph Unit conducts polygraph or lie detector
  • tests.
  • Voiceprint Analysis Unit attempts to tie a recorded
  • voice to a particular suspect.
  • Evidence-Collection Unit dispatches specially trained
  • personnel to the crime scene to collect and preserve physical evidence. Figure 1–10  An envelope containing anthrax spores along with an anonymous letter was sent to the office of Senator Tom Daschle shortly after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. A variety of forensic skills were used to examine the envelope and letter. Also, bar codes placed on the front and back of the envelope by mail-sorting machines contain address information and information about where the envelope was first processed. Courtesy Getty Images, Inc.—LiaisonSpecial Forensic Science Services
  • Forensic Pathology
  • Forensic Anthropology
  • Forensic Entomology
  • Forensic Psychiatry
  • Forensic Odontology
  • Forensic Engineering
  • Forensic Computer and Digital Analysis
  • Special Forensic Science Services(Forensic Pathology) Concerned with determining the cause of death Examines wounds and injuriesA forensic pathologist examines a kidney during an autopsy.Click for autopsy video“This is the place where the dead shall teach the living.”Please Do Now Explain the statement “This is the place where the dead shall teach the living.” in reference to forensic pathology. Please write at least 5 lines in your composition book.Special Forensic Science Services(Forensic Anthropology)
  • Assist in identification of deceased individuals whose remains are decomposed, burned, mutilated or otherwise unrecognizable
  • Special Forensic Science Services(Forensic Anthropology) An anthropologist exhumes an unidentified set of remains from a Sarajevo cemetery. Forensic anthropology teams match these and thousands of other remains from conflicts around the world with DNA samples from family members of missing relatives. Photo by T.J. Grubisha 2002, U.S. State Department.Special Forensic Science Services(Forensic Entomology)
  • Uses insects to help law enforcement determine the cause, location and time of death (TOD) of a human being
  • Insect life cycles act as precise clocks which begin within minutes of death
  • Used to determine the TOD when other methods are useless
  • Insects can also show if a body has been moved after death
  • Special Forensic Science Services(Forensic Psychiatry)
  • Examines relationship between human behavior and legal proceedings is examined
  • Determine if person is competent to stand trial
  • Examines behavior patterns of criminals as an aid to developing a suspect’s behavioral profile
  • Special Forensic Science Services(Forensic Odontology)
  • Helps identifies victims based on dental evidence
  • Bite mark analysis - compare marks left of a victim and the tooth structure of a suspect
  • Bite MarksPattern injury displaying ovoidpattern and central bruisingPattern injury displaying linearinterrupted abrasionsSpecial Forensic Science Services(Forensic Engineering)Concerned with
  • failure analysis
  • accident reconstruction
  • causes and origins of fires or explosion
  • Corrosion Engineering & Failure AnalysisSpecial Forensic Science Services(Forensic Computer Science + Digital Analysis)
  • Identifying, collecting, preserving, and examining information derived from computers and other digital devices, such as cell phones
  • Recovering deleted or overwritten data from a computer’s hard drive
  • Tracking hacking activities within a compromised system
  • CLASSWORK / HOMEWORKRead the article “Making an Impression, Bite-mark study could bolster use as evidence” and answer the questions on a separate piece of paper.What are the 3 major avenues available to police investigators in solving a crime?
  • Confessions
  • Eyewitness accounts by victims and/or witnesses
  • Evaluation of physical evidence recovered from the crime scene
  • Which of the above is free of inherent error or bias?Only PHYSICAL EVIDENCE — WHY? Only PHYSICAL EVIDENCE is free of inherent error or bias— WHY?Because physical evidence MUST undergo scientific inquiryScientific integrity is due to strict guidelines that ensure careful and systematic collection, organization, and analysis of information (this is known as ______________________)The Scientific MethodThe Scientific Method
  • Formulate a question worthy of investigation.
  • Formulate a reasonable hypothesis to answer the question.
  • Test the hypothesis through experimentation.
  • Testing process must be thorough and recognized by other scientists as valid.
  • When the hypothesis is validated by experimentation, it become suitable as scientific evidence, appropriate for criminal investigation and for admission in court.
  • Skills of a Forensic Scientist
  • Applying the principles and techniques of the physical and natural sciences to the analysis of the many types of evidence that may be recovered during a criminal investigation
  • Participate in training law enforcement personnel in the proper recognition, collection, and preservation of physical evidence
  • May provide expert court testimony
  • Expert Witness
  • Must establish his or her credibility through credentials, background and experience
  • One whom the court determines possesses knowledge relevant to the trial that is not expected of the average person
  • Watch a Forensic Expert Witness (#1)TestifyExpert Witness
  • Evaluates evidence based on specialized training and experience that the court lacks the expertise to do
  • Then expresses an opinion as to the significance of the findings
  • Watch a Forensic Expert Witness Testify (#2)Facets of GuiltTry to prove:
  • Means—person had the ability to do the crime
  • Motive—person had a reason to do the crime
  • (not necessary to prove in a court of law)
  • Opportunity—person can be placed at the
  • crimeFederal Rules of EvidenceIn order for evidence to be admissible, it must be:
  • Probative—actually prove something
  • Material—address an issue that is relevant to the particular crime
  • 1923 Frye v. United StatesScientific evidence is allowed into the courtroom if it is generally accepted by the relevant scientific community. The Frye standard does not offer any guidance on reliability. The evidence is presented in the trial and the jury decides if it can be used.NOTE: Frye standard used in Pennsylvania (6/11/04)1993 Daubert v. DowAdmissibility is determined by:Whether the theory or technique can be testedWhether the science has been offered for peer reviewWhether the rate of error is acceptableWhether the method at issue enjoys widespread acceptance.Whether the opinion is relevant to the issueThe judge decides if the evidence can be entered into the trial.Admissibility of EvidenceFrye v. United States, 1923
  • James Frye convicted of second degree murder
  • On appeal, defense counsel said that the court erred when it refused the introduction of a systolic blood pressure deception test and expert testimony on the test as evidence
  • The court stated that, to be accepted in a court of law, the scientific evidence must be generally accepted in the scientific community
  • Systolic pressure deception test was NOT generally accepted by scientific community so not admissible
  • Rule 702 of Federal Rules of Evidence Sets a different standard (from the Frye standard) for admissibility of expert testimonyRule 702 of Federal Rules of Evidence A witness is “qualified” as an expert by knowledge, skill, experience, training or education and may offer expert testimony on a scientific or technical matter if
  • The testimony is based upon sufficient facts or data
  • The testimony is the product of reliable principles and methods
  • The witness has applied the principles and methods reliably to the facts of the case
  • Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc., 1993
  • Two minor children + their parents sued Dow, claiming the children’s serious birth defects were due to a prescription drug marketed by Dow
  • Court ruled evidence didn’t meet the standard of “general acceptance” for admission of expert testimony
  • Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc., 1993
  • On appeal, U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the Frye standard is not the only rule for admissibility of scientific evidence.
  • Admissibility of expert testimony should be controlled by Rule 702 of the Federal Rules of Evidence
  • It need not be generally accepted in the the scientific community, rather it should be admitted if it rests on a reliable scientific foundation and is relevant to the issue at hand
  • Daubert rule only applies to federal courts, but states are expected to use the decision as a guideline in setting standards
  • 1923 Frye v. United StatesScientific evidence is allowed into the courtroom if it is generally accepted by the relevant scientific community. The Frye standard does not offer any guidance on reliability. The evidence is presented in the trial and the jury decides if it can be used.1993 Daubert v. DowAdmissibility is determined by:Whether the theory or technique can be testedWhether the science has been offered for peer reviewWhether the rate of error is acceptableWhether the method at issue enjoys widespread acceptance.Whether the opinion is relevant to the issueThe judge decides if the evidence can be entered into the trial.Admissibility of EvidenceKumho Tire Co., Ltd. v. Carmichael, 1999
  • Court unanimously ruled that the “gatekeeping” role of the trial judge applied not only to scientific testimony, but to ALL EXPERT TESTIMONY
  • Coppolino Case Study(whiteboard the following)
  • What was Coppolino charged with?
  • What was the result of the trials?
  • If you were the forensic expert on this case wo
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