Climate Change Effects on Lakes | Food Web | Human Impact On The Environment

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  CLIMATE CHANGE EFFECTS ON LAKESPENGARUH PERUBAHAN IKLIM PADA DANAU  Thorsten BlencknerBaltc Nest Instt!te Stockhol# Reslence Centre Stockhol# Un$erst% Stockhol# S&e'en Intro'!cton  The (lo)al en$ron#ental chan(es that are a**arent to'a% are #anl% anthro*o(enc'!e to the (ro&n( h!#an *o*!laton an' ts h(h act$t% o+ reso!rce cons!#*ton, Pen'ah!l!an Per!)ahan ln(k!n(an (lo)al %an( -elas saat n ter!ta#a antro*o(enk karena *o*!las #an!sa t!#)!h 'an akt$tas %an( tn(( 'ar kons!#s s!#)er'a%a,  The #ost o)$o!s tren's concernn( ecos%ste# #*acts are the anthro*o(enc chan(es n )olo(cal '$erst% an' alteratons n the str!ct!re an' +!nctonn( o+ the +oo' &e), Kecen'er!n(an %an( *aln( -elas #en(ena 'a#*ak ekosste# a'alah *er!)ahan antro*o(enk ' keanekara(a#an ha%at 'an *er!)ahan 'ala# str!kt!r 'an +!n(s -arn( #akanan  Cl#ate chan(e s one o+ the #ost #*ortant +actors &thn the (lo)al chan(e ss!es an' there+ore the #*act o+ cl#ate on ecos%ste#s has )een &'el% teste' !sn( hstorcal 'ata e.*er#ents an' #o'el s#!latons, , Per!)ahan kl# #er!*akan salah sat! +aktor %an( *aln( *entn( 'ala# s! *er!)ahan (lo)al 'an karena t! 'a#*ak kl# terha'a* ekosste# telah )an%ak '!- 'en(an #en((!nakan 'ata hstors eks*er#en 'an s#!las #o'el, In te#*erate a/!atc ecos%ste#s #ost o+ the ecolo(call% #*ortant characterstcs are n0!ence' )% cl#ate chan(e s!ch as chan(es n te#*erat!re e$a*otrans*raton +re/!enc% an' #a(nt!'e o+ *rec*taton &n' stor# an' 1re e$ents len(th o+ the ce2+ree season an' the 'e*th o+ the #.e' la%er, Dala# ekosste# *eraran se'an( se)a(an )esar karakterstk *entn( secara ekolo(s '*en(ar!h oleh *er!)ahan kl# se*ert *er!)ahan s!h! e$a*otrans*ras +rek!ens 'an )esarn%a c!rah h!-an an(n )a'a 'an ke)akaran *erst&a *an-an( #!s# )e)as es 'an ke'ala#an la*san ca#*!ran  In (eneral #an% &ater /!alt% *ro)le#s #a% &orsen )% cl#atc chan(e *artc!larl% those relatn( to e!tro*hcaton s!ch as )otto#2o.%(en 'e*leton, , Secara !#!# )an%ak #asalah k!altas ar 'a*at #e#*er)!r!k *er!)ahan kl# ter!ta#a %an( )erkatan 'en(an e!tro1kas se*ert *en*san )otto#2oks(en,  Ho&e$er an e.tre#e !ncertant% e.sts at an% case2s*ec1c le$el &hch s relate' o+ten to s*ec1c characterstcs o+ lakes 3e,(, 'e*th retenton t#e4 an'5or catch#ents s!ch as lan' !se *atterns,  Na#!n ket'ak*astan %an( ekstr# a'a *a'a seta* kas!s s*es1k tn(kat %an( sern( terkat 'en(an karakterstk kh!s!s 'ar 'ana! 3#saln%a ke'ala#an &akt! retens4 'an 5 ata! DAS se*ert *ola *en((!naan lahan, In the +ollo&n( +o!r *h%scal res*onses &ll )e 'sc!sse' +ollo&e' )% *resentn( an o$er$e& o+ ecos%ste#2&'e chan(es an' the *otental e6ects o+ no 'rect2relate' 'r$ers, Berk!t n e#*at res*on 1sk akan ')ahas 'k!t 'en(an #en%a-kan (a#)aran *er!)ahan ekosste#2le)ar 'an *otens 'a#*ak 'ar t'ak a'a *en'oron( lan(s!n( terkat,Ice co$er  The t#n( o+ ce +ree7e an' )reak!* one o+ the lon(est an' &'es*rea' l#nolo(cal$ara)les has )een !se' o+ten as an n'cator +or re(onal cl#ate chan(e, La*san Es8akt! *e#)ek!an es 'an *ecahn%a salah sat! $ara)el L#nolo(cal ter*an-an( 'an l!as telah sern( '(!nakan se)a(a n'kator *er!)ahan kl# re(onal  D!raton CLIMATE CHANGE EFFECTS ON LAKES 9:; o+ ce co$er s 'r$en )% se$eral #eteorolo(cal $ara)les o+ &hch ar te#*erat!re has )een sho&n to )e the #ost #*ortant one, , D!ras EFEK PERUBAHAN IKLIM PADA LAKES 9:; 'ar la*san es ''oron( oleh )e)era*a $ara)el #eteorolo( %an( s!h! !'ara telah ter)!kt #en-a' %an( *aln( *entn(, A lon(2ter# tren' to&ar' shorter *ero's o+ ce co$er '!e to a later +ree7n( an' an earler ce )reak!* has )een re*orte' +or lakes aro!n' the northern he#s*here,  Tren -an(ka *an-an( terha'a* *ero'e %an( le)h *en'ek 'ar la*san es karena *e#)ek!an ke#!'an 'an *er*sahan es se)el!#n%a telah 'la*orkan !nt!k 'ana! ' sektar )elahan )!# !tara,  The tren' o+ an earler ce2o!t ncreases the ce2+ree *ero' an' rases lake te#*erat!res n s*rn( n #an% re*orte' st!'es +ro# (lo)al 'str)!te' lakes, Kecen'er!n(an 'ar se)el!#n%a es2o!t #enn(katkan *ero'e )e)as es 'an #en#)!lkan s!h! 'ana! ' #!s# se# ' )an%ak 'la*orkan *eneltan 'ar 'ana! ''str)!skan (lo)al  In Northern E!ro*e the '!raton o+ the ce co$er *ero' an' the t#n( o+ +ree7e an')reak !* (reatl% a6ect lake s%ste#s n *artc!lar the s!ccesson e$ents n *lankton an' *artl% !n'er&ater *lant '%na#cs, , D Ero*a Utara '!ras *ero'e la*san es 'an &akt! *e#)ek!an 'an *!t!s san(at #e#*en(ar!h sste# 'ana! kh!s!sn%a *erst&a s!kses ' *lankton 'an 'na#ka tana#an se)a(an ' )a&ah ar,8ater te#*erat!re S!r+ace &ater te#*erat!res o+ten sho& a stron( coherent ncrease +ollo&n( the &ar#n( o+ ar te#*erat!re across E!ro*ean lakes, s!h! ar S!h! ar *er#!kaan sern( #en!n-!kkan *enn(katan %an( koheren %an( k!at setelah *e#anasan s!h! !'ara ' 'ana! Ero*a,   A +aster te#*erat!re rse n the s*rn( 3'!e to earler ce2o!t 'ates4 *rece'e' the )e(nnn( o+ s*rn( strat1caton &hch #a% n0!ence n!trent c%cln( an' *h%to*lankton '%na#cs, Kenakan s!h! le)h ce*at ' #!s# se# 3karena es2kel!ar le)h a&al4 #en'ah!l! a&al #!s# se# strat1kas %an( 'a*at #e#*en(ar!h )erse*e'a 'an 1to*lankton 'na#ka hara  Conse/!entl% e6ects o+ h(her &ater te#*erat!res on the lake #.n( re(#e co!l' lea' to '#ctc lakes 3+!ll% #.e' t&ce a %ear4 t!rnn( nto &ar# #ono#ctc lakes, , Ak)atn%a e+ek 'ar s!h! ar le)h tn(( ' Dana! *enca#*!ran re7# 'a*at #en%e)a)kan 'ana! '#ctc 3*en!h ca#*!ran '!a kal setah!n4 )er!)ah#en-a' 'ana! #ono#ctc han(at, O$erall te#*erat!re a6ects all *h%solo(cal *rocesses there)% n0!encn( the (ro&th o+ or(ans#s, Secara kesel!r!han s!h! #e#*en(ar!h se#!a *roses 1solo(s sehn((a #e#*en(ar!h *ert!#)!han or(ans#e  The #a(nt!'e n &hch *h%solo(cal rates chan(e &th res*ectto te#*erat!re s (enerall% n (oo' a(ree#ent &th an Arrhen!s +or#!laton, , Besarn%a '#ana tar+ 1solo(s )er!)ah 'en(an hor#at s!h! !#!#n%a 'ala# *er-an-an %an( )ak 'en(an +or#!las Arrhen!s,  For e.a#*le 7oo*lankton +o!n' n lakes can tolerate +arl% h(h s!##er te#*erat!res )!t s#all ncreases n the &nter te#*erat!re Msaln%a 7oo*lankton 'te#!kan ' 'ana! 'a*at #entolerr s!h! %an( c!k!* tn(( #!s# *anas na#!n *enn(katan kecl 'ala# s!h! #!s# 'n(n  n so#e lakes s(n1cantl% relate' to the t#n( o+ ce )reak!* can stron(l% a6ect the o$er&ntern( an' seasonal '%na#cs o+ 7oo*lankton s*eces s!ch as Da*hna an' E!'a*to#!s thro!(h a stron( te#*erat!re2'e*en'ent (ro&th rate, ' )e)era*a 'ana! terkat 'en(an &akt! es *ecah )sa san(at #e#*en(ar!h #!s# 'n(n t!n(a! 'an 'na#ka #!s#an s*eses 7oo*lankton se*ert Da*hna 'an E!'a*to#!s #elal! tn(kat *ert!#)!han )er(ant!n( *a'a s!h! %an( k!at,  The s!r$$al an' (ro&th o+ 1sh s*eces +or e.a#*le 'e*en's o+ten on te#*erat!re,  Ther#al l#ts o+ so#e 1sh s*eces altere' )% (lo)al &ar#n( can n'!ce chan(es ns*atal 'str)!ton, Kelan(s!n(an h'!* 'an *ert!#)!han s*eses kan #saln%a sern( ter(ant!n( *a'a s!h!, Batas Ter#al )e)era*a s*eses kan '!)ah oleh *e#anasan (lo)al 'a*at #en%e)a)kan *er!)ahan 'ala# 'str)!s s*asal  Te#*erat!re2n'!ce' chan(es n the (ro&th rate o+ *re'ator% 1sh #a% res!lt n casca'n( e6ects thro!(h the entre +oo' &e), , Per!)ahan s!h! %an( 'n'!ks 'ala# tn(kat *ert!#)!han kan *re'ator 'a*at #en(ak)atkan e+ek Casca'n( #elal! sel!r!h -arn(an #akanan,Strat1caton Most te#*erate 'ee* lakes are strat1e' '!rn( s!##er &th a &ar# s!r+ace &ater 3e*l#non4 an' col' 'ee* &ater 3h%*ol#non4, strat1kas  Ke)an%akan 'ana! )erkl# 'ala# %an( )ertn(kat sela#a #!s# *anas 'en(an ar han(at *er#!kaan 3e*l#non4 'an ar 'ala# 'n(n 3h%*ol#non4,  The #ost cr!cal tr((ern( +actors +or the t#n( o+ *h%to*lankton )loo#s are l(ht an' t!r)!lence &hch are )oth n0!ence' )% strat1catonan' there+ore 'rectl% a6ecte' )% cl#atc $araton an' chan(e, Faktor *e#c! %an( *aln( *entn( !nt!k &akt! 1to*lankton #ekar rn(an 'an t!r)!lens %an( ke'!an%a '*en(ar!h oleh strat1kas 'an karena t! lan(s!n( '*en(ar!h oleh $aras kl# 'an *er!)ahan,  Conse/!entl% stron( relatonsh*s )et&een the t#n( an' the &nter cl#ate &ere +o!n' n E!ro*ean lakes, Ak)atn%a h!)!n(an %an( k!at antara &akt! 'an kl# #!s# 'n(n %an( 'te#!kan ' 'ana! Ero*a ,  D6erences n the n'$'!al lake res*onse 'e*en' o+ten on the #or*ho#etr% o+ the lake, For e.a#*le n Lake Constance 3Ger#an%4 < a lar(e an' 'ee* lake &hch (enerall% s not co$ere' )% ce n &nter < the s*rn( )loo# onl% occ!rs !n'er strat1e' con'tons )eca!sere'!ce' #.n( ncreases l(ht a$ala)lt% +or *h%to*lankton, , Per)e'aan res*on 'ana! sern( ter(ant!n( *a'a #or+o#etr 'ana!, Msaln%a ' Dana! Constance 3=er#an4 2 'ana! )esar 'an #en'ala# %an( !#!#n%a t'ak tercak!* oleh es ' #!s# 'n(n 2 #!s# se# #ekar han%a ter-a' 'ala# kon's )ertn(kat karena )erk!ran( *enca#*!ran #enn(katkan keterse'aan caha%a !nt!k 1to*lankton,  Generall% an enlar(e' #.n( 'e*th ncreases the *ro*orton o+ nco#n( l(ht &hch s atten!ate' a)otcall% &thn the #.e' la%er, U#!#n%a ke'ala#an *enca#*!ran '*er)esar #enn(katkan *ro*ors caha%a %an( #as!k %an( 'le#ahkan a)otk 'ala# la*san ca#*!ran,  Ths lea's to a 'ecrease n *h%to*lankton *ro'!cton a$era(e' o$er the #.e' la%er&th ncreasn( #.n( 'e*th,  Hal n #en%e)a)kan *en!r!nan *ro'!ks 1to*lankton rata2rata ' atas la*san ca#*!ran 'en(an #enn(katn%a *enca#*!ran ke'ala#an  B% contrast n shallo& lakes &th a lo&er #.n( 'e*th the *h%to*lankton s*rn( )loo# s o+ten assocate' &th ce co$er 'sa**earance 3'eter#ne' )% &nter cl#ate4 n0!encn( the l(ht a$ala)lt% as o)ser$e' +or e.a#*le n Lake M>((elsee Ger#an% an' Lake Erken S&e'en, , Se)alkn%a ' 'ana! 'an(kal 'en(an ke'ala#an *enca#*!ran %an( le)h ren'ah 1to*lankton #ekar #!s# se# sern( 'katkan 'en(an hlan(n%a la*san es 3'tent!kan oleh kl# #!s# 'n(n4 %an( #e#*en(ar!h keterse'aan caha%a se*ert %an( 'a#at #saln%a ' Lake M>((elsee =er#an 'an Dana! Erken S&e'a,  Later n the %ear con'tons n the lake a**ear to )e #ore co#*le. an' strat1caton )eco#es the *re'o#nant tr((ern( +actor,
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