Clinical Psychology

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Clinical Psychology. Concepts. Different approaches have different ideas about what causes psychological disorders to develop Most psychological disorders are caused by multiple factors. Bio-psycho-social model. Concepts.
Clinical PsychologyConcepts
  • Different approaches have different ideas about what causes psychological disorders to develop
  • Most psychological disorders are caused by multiple factors.
  • Bio-psycho-social model
  • Concepts
  • Treatment is shaped by one’s understanding of the causes of the problem
  • Eclectic approaches combine ideas from the different approaches/schools within psychology
  • The Field of Clinical Psychology
  • Research
  • causes of psychological disorders
  • effective treatment approaches
  • Application of theories/research findings to help clients
  • Concepts
  • It can be difficult sometimes to draw the line between “abnormal” & “normal” behavior.
  • Useful criteria:
  • Atypical
  • Maladaptive
  • Disturbing
  • Unjustifiable
  • Are depressed, angry, anxious feelings always bad?
  • Concepts
  • Psychological disorders are real problems that affect real people.
  • Research into the causes & treatment of psychological disorders is critically important.
  • Process of making a diagnosis is difficult
  • Stigma of mental illness creates a great deal of difficulty in our society in terms of people getting the help they need
  • Stigma & Labeling
  • Rosenhan study 1973
  • Purpose of diagnostic labels
  • Diagnostic & Statistical Manual—IV
  • Concensus among professionals—psychiatrists, psychologists, psychiatric social workers, etc.
  • Used in obtaining insurance coverage, treatment, research
  • Schizophrenia & other related psychotic disordersMood disordersAnxiety disordersSubstance Abuse DisordersPersonality DisordersAdjustment DisordersSomatoform disordersSexual & Gender Identity DisordersSleep DisordersEating DisordersDissociative DisordersDiagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders—4th editionSymptoms of Schizophrenia
  • Disorganized thinking
  • Delusions
  • Incoherent Speech—flight of ideas, “word salad”
  • Disturbed Perceptions
  • Hallucinations
  • Inappropriate Emotions & Actions
  • Disturbed Affect
  • Flat Affect
  • Factors that may contribute to development of Schizophrenia
  • Dopamine overactivity
  • Underactivity in frontal lobes
  • Enlarged ventricles
  • Underdeveloped thalamus
  • Possible Prenatal viral infection
  • Genetics
  • Stress
  • Expressed Emotion
  • Treatment of Schizophrenia
  • Psychotropic drugs
  • Most success with treating hallucinations & delusions
  • Recently, some drugs that also can help other symptoms as well
  • Community Support Programs —helping with housing, employment, etc.
  • Family Support — education about the disorder, attempt to reduce expressed emotion
  • Depressed mood most of the day nearly every day
  • Diminished interest or pleasure
  • Weight or appetite loss/gain
  • Sleep disturbances
  • Psychomotor agitation or retardation
  • Fatigue or Loss of Energy
  • Feelings of Worthlessness
  • Concentration problems
  • Suicidal thoughts or thoughts of death
  • Depression also occurs in…
  • Dysthymia: milder, but longer lasting (at least 2 years in adults)
  • Adjustment Disorder with Depressed Mood (less than 6 months)
  • Relatively common—10% of men & 20% of women
  • Rate of depression increasing with each new generation
  • Course: for some, naturally remits, most lasts less than 3 months (even without professional help). For others, without treatment, recurrence becomes more frequent & more severe
  • Alternating patterns of depression & mania
  • Symptoms of mania
  • Abnormally elevated, expansive or irritable mood
  • Inflated self-esteem or grandiosity
  • Decreased need for sleep
  • More talkative than usual
  • Flight of ideas or racing thoughts
  • Psychomotor agitation
  • Distractability
  • Impulsive behavior
  • Delusions
  • Causes of Mood Disorder
  • Bio-psycho-social model
  • Genetics & Neurotransmitter levels
  • Negative thinking
  • Low levels of social support
  • Difference in gender ratio in major depression
  • Anxiety Disorders
  • Post-traumatic Stress Disorder
  • Panic Disorder with or without Agoraphobia
  • Phobias
  • Generalized Anxiety Disorder
  • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
  • Anxiety Disorders
  • Panic Disorder
  • Panic attacks: brief, sudden, recurrent episodes of intense & uncontrollable anxiety
  • Sometimes (but not always) co-occurs with Agoraphobia—avoiding situations in which panic attack might occur
  • One cause may be over attentiveness to physical symptoms
  • Recommended treatment: cognitive behavioral--focuses on helping the person to better understand the symptoms & interpret them in less anxiety-provoking ways
  • Anxiety Disorders
  • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder—
  • Obsessions
  • Compulsions
  • Post-traumatic Stress Disorder
  • Response to traumatic situation
  • Flooding
  • Numbing
  • Autonomic hyperarousal
  • Anxiety Disorders
  • Phobic Disorders—phobia=persistent, irrational, disruptive fear of specific object, activity or situation.
  • Generalized Anxiety Disorder—general, constant & high level of anxiety about multiple areas in one’s life.
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