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ORIGINAL ARTICLE www.djas.co.in ISSN No-2321-1482 DJAS 2(II), 84-90, 2014 All rights are reserved of A d v a n c e S t u d i e s EFFECT OF HIGH TEMPERATURE ON COMPOSITE AS POST ENDODONTIC RESTORATION IN FORENSIC ANALYSIS-AN IN VITRO STUDY Krishma Sharda¹, Varun Jindal², Ajay Chhabra³, Damanpreet4, Dilpreet5 Post Graduate student, Department of Conservative Dentistry & Endodontics, Bhojia Dental College and Hospital, Baddi, Himachal Pradesh 2 Reader, Department of Conservative Dentistry & Endo
  EFFECT OFHIGH TEMPERATURE ON COMPOSITEAS POSTENDODONTIC RESTORATION IN FORENSICANALYSIS-ANIN VITRO STUDY Krishma Sharda¹, Varun Jindal²,Ajay Chhabra³, Damanpreet , Dilpreet 54 12 Post Graduate student, Department of Conservative Dentistry & Endodontics, Bhojia Dental College and Hospital, Baddi, Himachal PradeshReader,³Prof. and Head,Department of Conservative Dentistry & Endodontics, Bhojia Dental College and Hospital, Baddi,of Conservative Dentistry & Endodontics, Bhojia Dental College and Hospital, Baddi,Sr. Lecturer, of Conservative Dentistry & Endodontics, Bhojia Dental College and Hospital, Baddi,Sr. Lecturer, Dept. of Conservative Dentistry & Endodontics, Bhojia Dental College and Hospital, Baddi, 45 Himachal PradeshDepartment Himachal PradeshDepartment Himachal PradeshHimachal Pradesh CorrespondingAuthor: Krishma ShardaMobile: +91-9816772674E-mail:dr_kari2006@yahoo.co.inReceived: 26 July 2014Accepted: 19 Aug 2014Online: 20 Sept 2014 ththth ORIGINALARTICLE  www.djas.co.inISSN No-2321-1482  DJAS 2(II), 84-90, 2014 All rights are reserved  of A d v a n c e S t u d i e s ABSTRACTAim:Methodology:Results:Conclusion:Keywords: Thepresentstudywasdonetoevaluateandcomparetheeffectofdifferenttemperatures(400 C,800 Cand 1000 C) on Composite as post endodontic restoration using Naked eye, Digital camera andRadiovisiography (RVG) in forensic analysis. An in vitro study was conducted on 42 humanteeth with composite as post endodontic restoration exposed to three temperature ranges: 400°C, 800°C and1,000°C. Composite material studied in the present research offered great resistance to hightemperatures,withoutexhibitingconsiderablemacrostructurevariation,insuchawaythatphysicalchanges(dimensional stability, fissures, cracks, fractures, texture, color, carbonization and incineration) can beidentified and associated to each specific temperature range. Dental tissues and materials offer great resistance to the effect of high temperatures. Moreover, they present specific changes (color, texture,fissures, cracks fractures, fragmentation) which might contribute to the process of identifying a corpse, or  burned,incineratedorcarbonizedhumanremains.Composite,Forensicanalysis,Incineration. INTRODUCTION The dentition represents one of the mostresilientstructuresinthehumanbodyandcan survive extreme conditions.Destruction of a body by various means-fire, desiccation, decomposition, prolonged water immersion-can make itunrecognizable, while teeth-the mostindestructible components of the human body-may continue to provide a methodforpositivepersonalidentification.Human identification by forensicodontological analysis is a well-established and reliable method. Dentalidentification plays a major role in theidentificationofcorpseswithpostmortemalterations such as advanced stages of  putrefaction or burning, mass casualtieseither from natural disasters or due toarmed conflicts. Dental antemortem/ 1234  postmortemcomparisonbyodontologistscontinues to be the major scientificmethod for identification andradiographic images of dental structuresare utilized in image comparison tosupportodontologist'sconclusions.Fire remains one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality throughoutworld. Knowledge of the mechanical properties of teeth and dental materialscommonly used in restorations followingexposure to high temperatures can prevent unintentional destruction of theevidence as well as increase the chancesofapositiveidentification.Somedentalmaterialslikeamalgamhavealready been studied with regard to their resistancetohightemperatures.However,in modern dentistry, the placement of  5,6,32 84  amalgam restorations is dwindling with 30% decreasein the use of amalgam in last 10 years. This directionwill inevitably continue as patients becomeincreasingly esthetic conscious and preferringcomposite resins even for posterior placement. Thereis not much information in the literature about theeffects of high temperatures on composite resins,however.Most of the features of damage to the oral tissues anddental restorations can be observed directly by thenaked eye but additional microscopic investigation,either optical or electronic, is very useful in studyingthe finer details of the dental tissues and anydistinguishing traits in the restorative materials present.India is a disaster prone country with an average of eight major natural calamities a year. During all thesedisastersthebodiesofmostofthevictimsaremutilated beyond recognition by visual or any other methods.Under these situations forensic dental identification isextremely valuable. It is thus necessary to conductnew studies using different kinds of analysis whichwould explain the macrostructural changes based onthe microstructural ones; accordingly, it would beappropriatetoanalyzethebehaviourofthematerialsof dentaluse.Atotal of 42 extracted non-carious single rooted intactteeth were collected from the Department of Oral andMaxillofacial Surgery, Bhojia Dental College andHospital, Baddi. After the extraction, the teeth werewashed with Normal saline in order to eliminate blooddeposits, and were placed in a fixing solution 5%Chloramine T (100 grams of sodium Tosilcloraminediluted in 2 liters of water) for a week. The teeth werethen stored in a saline solution which was changedeverytwoweeksuntiltheprocedurewasinitiated.AnaccessopeningwaspreparedusingaroundburandEndo Z bur and the canal patency was checked using No.10Kfile.Thentheworkinglengthwasdetermined 718910 MATERIALSANDMETHOD  by substracting 1 mm from where the No. 10 K file protrudedfromtheapicalforamen.Thebiomechanical preparation was done using the hybrid technique. Theglide path was prepared using hand file (no 15 K file).Then the canal was prepared in crown-down approachusing hyflex rotary file system and the canal wasirrigated copiously using 5.25% sodium hypochloriteand normal saline and recapitulated regularly. TheapicalenlargementwasdonetillNo40Kfile.Now,allteeth were obturated using lateral condensationobturation technique using conventional gutta perchacones and zinc oxide eugenol as sealer and postendodonticrestorationwasdonewithcomposite.Thenthe teeth were randomly divided into three groups andweresubjectedtothreedifferenttemperatures(14teethateachtemperature):GroupA.400ºCGroupB.800ºCandGroupC.1000ºC Now,theradiographsandpreincinerationimagesofallthe samples were taken. Teeth of a specific subgroupwere placed in a ceramic crucible and subjected for 15mins to temperatures of 400ºC, 800ºC and 1000ºC in a burn out oven. Once the target temperature wasreached, the teeth were removed from the furnace.While the teeth were cooling down, they were sprayedwithhairsprayinordertoprovidethemwithsomelevelof resistance and to facilitate their handling. Again,after incineration post-incineration radiographs andimagesweretaken.The incinerated material was then examined for thechangesandresistancetotemperatureusingNakedeyeexamination, digital camera and RVG for forensicanalysis.Resultsderivedfromthestudyaretabulatedasfollows: OBSERVATIONSANDRESULTS 85 Dental Journal ofAdvance Studies Vol. 2 Issue II- 2014  at 400°Cat 800°Cat 1000°C Figure 1: Digital Camera evaluation of the samples at different temperatures Dental Journal ofAdvance Studies Vol. 2 Issue II- 2014 86  at 400°Cat 800°Cat 1000°C Figure 2: Radiovisiography of the samples at different ranges Dental Journal ofAdvance Studies Vol. 2 Issue II- 2014 87
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