Env Mg 0680 Matrix | Atmosphere Of Earth | Human Impact On The Environment

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Abstract of syllabus for the Cambridge Examination 0680 (Environmental Management IGCSE)
    LITHOSPHERE RESOURCESHow does the naturalsystem work?DEVELOPMETHow do !eo!le usenatural resour es?IMP#CTHow does de$elo!ment han%e the en$&ronment?M##'EMETHow an the en$&ronment(e de$elo!ed susta&na(ly Lithosphere: structure andprocesses  The stru ture o) the EarthCore* mantle and rust The ty!es o) ro kI%neous* sed&mentary*metamor!h&  The d&str&(ut&on* ty!es andreser$es o) ma+or m&neralsMetal ores and )oss&l )uels ,o&l*%as and oal- The )ormat&on o) )oss&l )uels The rust . te ton& y lePlate te ton& s* earthmo$ements ,)old&n%* )ault&n%*mounta&n (u&ld&n%-Earth/uakes 0onesVol anoes Elements of soil  The )ormat&on and om!os&t&ono) so&lsM&neral and or%an& ontent1 a&rand water1 role o) so&l or%an&sms*!art& le s&0e , lay* s&lt and sand-1so&l te2tureSo&l as a med&um o) %rowth andland use !otent&alutr&ents* !H* !ore s!a e*aerat&on* dra&na%e Human activity and thelithosphere  The methods o) sear h ande2tra t&on o) ro ks* m&nerals and)oss&l )uels The use o) ro ks and m&nerals &nIndustr&al !ro esses3 Ty!es o) ener%y !rodu t&on )rom)oss&l )uels and nu lear )uels The lo at&on o) the ma&n entreso) m&n&n% and ener%y !rodu t&on&n relat&on to ma+or entres o) !o!ulat&on and &ndustryMa&n su!!ly and demand onstra&ns &n e2!lo&t&n% m&neralresour es'eolo%& al )a tors* de!let&onrates* l&mat& )a tors* trans!ort*4u tuat&ons o) !r& es The e onom& as!e ts andl&m&tat&ons o) earth/uake and$ol an& 0ones The &m!l& at&ons o) the !atters o) %lo(al trade &n m&nerals andener%yHow &ndustr&al de$elo!ment &sused to a h&e$e so &al ande onom& %oals Lithosphere in crisis  The &m!a t o) m&nerale2!lo&tat&on on the en$&ronmentand on human a t&$&ty andhealth The %lo(al e onom& onse/uen es o) the o$er5e2!lo&tat&on and de!let&on o) m&neral and )oss&l )uel reser$es The &m!l& at&ons &n so &al*e onom& and en$&ronmentalterms o) d&6erent ty!es o) ener%y !rodu t&on7oss&l )uels om!ared w&thnu lear The &m!a t o) earth/uakes and$ol an& eru!t&ons on human ommun&t&esDama%e* loss o) l&)e* dan%er tohealth &n a)termath* e onom& d&slo at&on The &m!a t o) &ndustr&alde$elo!ment on theen$&ronment and on humana t&$&ty and health3Causes and onse/uen es o) land !ollut&onSal&nat&on* to2& waste* nu learwaste* domest& waste* harm)ule6e ts o) !est& &des and)ert&l&sers1 %roundwater ontam&nat&on3 Health r&sks3 Action on the lithosphere Conser$at&on s hemes )ordama%ed en$&ronments8lands a!&n%* restorat&on*re lamat&on* 9ltrat&on* wastemana%ement3 Te hnolo%&es and $&a(&l&ty o) alternat&$e ener%y sour esSolar* w&nd* wa$e* %eothermal*hydro5ele tr& * (&omassStrate%&es )or onser$at&on andmana%ement o) m&neral and)oss&l )uel resour es3 In reasede: &en y &n use1 &nsulat&on*re y l&n%* !ower )rom waste*new te hnolo%&es3Strate%&es )or mana%&n% the&m!a ts o) earth/uakes and$ol an& a t&$&ty3Plann&n% s&te o) settlement ,landuse 0on&n%- and stru ture o) (u&ld&n%s1 d&saster rel&e)3Industr&al mater&als8 te hnolo%&esand a!!roa hes wh& h an ontr&(ute to sol$&n%en$&ronmental !ro(lems8mon&tor&n%* remed&al a t&on*re y l&n% ,!ro ess&n% wastes and&ndustr&al !rodu ts at end o) l&)e-*low waste te hnolo%y,de$elo!&n% leaner !ro essesand !rodu ts* onser$at&on ande: &en y-  H;DROSPHERE RESOURCESHow does the naturalsystem work?DEVELOPMETHow do !eo!le usenatural resour es?IMP#CTHow does de$elo!ment han%e the en$&ronment?M##'EMETHow an the en$&ronment(e de$elo!ed susta&na(ly The water cycle How the water y le o!eratesHow the natural a$a&la(&l&ty o) water $ar&es )rom !la e to !la e The role o) the water y lew&th&n e osystemsL&nks (etween ra&n)all*$e%etat&on and so&ls1&nter e!t&on* &n9ltrat&on* sur)a erun5o63 The oceans  The role o) the o ean as anen$&ronment )or &nterde!endente osystems The resour e !otent&al o) theo eans The d&str&(ut&on o) o ean urrents and the&r e6e ts on l&mate and 9sher&esRe$ersal o) o ean urrents1 e3%3El &<o and &ts e6e ts Human intervention in thewater cycle Colle t&on and ontrol o) water)or a $ar&ety o) uses=ater su!!ly ,stora%e* trans)er*dams* reser$o&rs,Industry and domest& use=aste d&s!osal* !ower*a%r& ulture ,&rr&%at&on-Com!et&n% demands )or waterM&smat h (etween water su!!lyand demand The ways &n wh& h !ro esseso!erat&n% w&th&n the water y lea6e t de$elo!mentCauses and e6e ts o) 4ood&n%and drou%ht3 Exploitation of the oceans  The en$&ronmental and human)a tors &n the d&str&(ut&on ande2!lo&tat&on o) the world>s o ean9sher&es7a tors that l&m&t )ull e2!lo&tat&ono) the o ean>s !otent&alresour es Water hazards  The auses and onse/uen es o) water !ollut&onIm!a t on natural e osystems*the !hys& al en$&ronment*human a t&$&ty and healthContrasts &n a$a&la(&l&ty o) water&n terms o) /ual&ty* /uant&ty anda ess (etween ur(an and rural ommun&t&es* and (etween ountr&es The y le o) water5relatedd&seases and the&r &m!a t onhuman a t&$&t&es andde$elo!ment=ater5(ases ,(&lhar0&as-* water5(orne ,ty!ho&d* holera-* water5(red ,malar&a- The oceans at risk   The &m!l& at&ons o) un ontrollede2!lo&tat&on o) mar&ne resour es7&sh&n%* ont&nental shel) anddee! seaM&neral resour esCauses o) mar&ne !ollut&on and&ts &m!a t on the mar&nee osystem and on oastal 0onesRaw sewa%e* hea$y metals* o&l Clean safe water strate!ies =ays o) &m!ro$&n% water/uant&ty* /ual&ty and a essPollut&on ontrol1 &m!ro$edsan&tat&on1 d&str&(ut&on )or moree: &ent water use* desal&nat&onStrate%&es to ontrol anderad& ate water5related d&seasesDru%s* $e tor ontrol anderad& at&on* &m!ro$ed san&tat&on* lean water su!!ly* hlor&nat&on ana!in! the oceans Strate%&es )or the susta&na(lehar$est&n% o) o ean 9sher&eset ty!es and s&0es* /uotas* onser$at&on laws* terr&tor&al&tyMar&ne !ollut&on ontrols andremed&al a t&onInternat&onal oo!erat&on andle%&slat&onDeal&n% w&th o&l s!&llsMana%&n% raw sewa%e  and !last& s #TMOSPHERE RESOURCES How does the naturalsystem work? DEVELOPMET How do !eo!le use naturalresour es? IMP#CT How does de$elo!ment han%e theen$&ronment? M##'EMET How an theen$&ronment (ede$elo!ed susta&na(ly The atmospheric system  The Sun as an ener%y sour e1$ary&n% rates o) sur)a e&nsolat&on The )a tors wh& h ontr&(uteto solar heat (alan e o) earthand atmos!here1 rad&at&on*a(sor!t&on* re4e t&onthe stru ture and om!os&t&on o) theatmos!here&m!ortan e o) the o0onelayero2y%en* ar(on d&o2&de andwater $a!our &n the a&r3 The (alan es wh& h ma&nta&ntheEarth>s atmos!here as am&2ture o) %asesHow the elements o) weatheraremeasured* re orded* and&nter!reted1 Tem!erature*!re &!&tat&on* atmos!her& !ressure* w&nd* sunLo at&on o) ma+or l&mat& ty!es and the&r ma&n hara ter&st& s throu%h&nter!retat&on o) l&mat& Human activity and theatmosphere =ater* solar and w&nd as!ower resour esUse o) the atmos!here as ad&s!ersalmed&um )or waste %asesSmoke !art& les and e2haust)umesIntera t&on (etween l&mateand human a t&$&ty1 shelter*)arm&n% The d&6erent ty!es andsystems o) )arm&n%1 ro!lands* %ra0&n% lands*&ntens&$e* e2tens&$e*su(s&sten e* ommer &al The en$&ronmental*te hnolo%& al* e onom& andso &al )a tors wh& h &n4uen ethe d&str&(ut&on o) d&6erentty!es and systems o) )arm&n%ew a%r& ultural te hn&/ueswh& h &n rease y&elds8&rr&%at&on* (&olo%& al ontrols*(ene9ts o) hem& als,)ert&l&sers and !est& &des-*me han&sat&on* a!&talsu(s&des Atmosphere in crisis Human a t&$&t&es wh& h alter the om!os&t&ono) the atmos!here and l&mate1de)orestat&on* (urn&n% o) )oss&l )uels*&ndustr&al and $eh& le em&ss&on* use o) C7CsCauses o) atmos!her& !ollut&on8 ar(ond&o2&de* C7Cs* methane* sul!hur andn&tro%en o2&des* lead3Dama%e to the o0one layer and l&nks toatmos!her& !ollut&on The e6e ts o) !ollut&on on atmos!her& ond&t&ons3 # &d ra&n* the %reenhouse e6e t*tem!erature &n$ers&on3 The &m!l& at&ons o) han%es &n theatmos!here and l&mate3 E6e ts on health*)ood !rodu t&on* water su!!ly* e osystems The &m!a t o) l&mat& ha0ards on human ommun&t&es1 dama%e* loss o) l&)e* dan%er tohealth &n a)termath* loss o) !rodu t&on A!riculture: conse#uences of development  The &m!a t o) &nd&s r&m&nate a%r& ultural!ra t& es1 o$eruse o) !est& &des and&nor%an& )ert&l&sers* ro!s re/u&r&n%&rr&%at&on* trad&t&onal ro! $ar&et&esd&sa!!ear&n%* o$er!rodu t&on and waste &nde$elo!ed ountr&es* on entrat&on o) land &n Action on theatmosphere Strate%&es to redu eatmos!her& !ollut&on and l&mat& han%e1 C7C re!la ement*redu t&on o) !ollutantem&ss&ons* re)orestat&on3 The need )or &nternat&onala t&on and han%&n%att&tudes to deal w&th the auses and onse/uen eso) the dama%e to theatmos!hereStrate%&es to redu e thene%at&$e &m!a t o) l&mat& ha0ards1 &m!ro$ed)ore ast&n%* a!!ro!r&atesettlement !atters and(u&ld&n%s* d&saster rel&e)3 ana!in! a!riculture Strate%&es )or susta&na(lea%r& ulture8 !lant (reed&n%*&nte%rated !est ontrol*m&2ed ro!!&n%* %ene(anks* new ro! stra&ns*tr& kle dr&! &rr&%at&on*  %ra!hs and ma!s8 Tro!& al1e/uator&al1 sa$anna1 drydesert1 tem!erate1 tundraCl&mat& ha0ards8 auses ando urren e3 Cy lone* 4ood*drou%ht3 The )a tors wh& h &n4uen ethe !atters o) a%r& ulturalout!ut and trade1 orth5South trade &n ommod&t&es8Cash ro!s $ersus )ood ro!shands o) )ewer owners* en$&ronmentaldama%e ,!ollut&on* so&l eros&on- The ad$anta%es and d&sad$anta%es o) the%reen re$olut&on>or%an& alternat&$es to&nor%an& )ert&l&sersHar$est&n% ener%y )roml&$&n% resour es to !ro$&de!ower8 (&omass* (&o%as,methane-* )uel )romor%an& waste3 @IOSPHERE RESOURCESHow does thenatural systemwork?DEVELOPMETHow do !eo!le usenatural resour es?IMP#CTHow does de$elo!ment han%e the en$&ronment?M##'EMETHow an the en$&ronment (ede$elo!ed susta&na(ly $iomes  The on e!t o) ane osystemOr%an&0at&on w&th&n ane osystem1 !o!ulat&on* ommun&ty* ha(&tat*n& he3Phys& al )a tors8tem!erature* hum&d&ty*water* sal&n&ty* l&%ht* !H*so&ls* nutr&ents* w&ndRelat&onsh&!s o) l&$&n%or%an&sms8 !rodu ers* onsumers* )ood ha&nsand we(s* om!et&t&on*!redat&on* !oll&nat&on*d&s!ersal* $e%etat&onsu ess&on3Ener%y 4ow8!hotosynthes&s*res!&rat&on* )ood ha&ns*)ood we(s3utr&ent y l&n%8 ar(onand n&tro%en y le The resour e !otent&al o) (&od&$ers&ty as a %enet& resour e and as a )ood The chan!in! role of people inthe environment How d&6erent ty!es o) humanso &ety use and $alue the&rnatural en$&ronment1 hunter5%atherer* nomad& !astoral&sts*)arm&n%* &ndustr&al* tour&sm The &n reas&n% a(&l&ty o) humank&ndto reate art&9 &al en$&ronmentsas aresult o) e onom& andte hnolo%& alde$elo!ment and so &al and ultural han%e1 e3%3 domest& at&on o) !lants and an&mals* moderna%r& ultural methods* %enet& en%&neer&n% Human population Po!ulat&on %rowth1 rates o) (&rth*death* )ert&l&ty* l&)e e2!e tan y*&n)ant mortal&tyPo!ulat&on stru ture1 !o!ulat&on!yram&ds1 youn% and a%e&n%!o!ulat&on3 M&%rat&on8 !ush.!ull1 Ecosystems at risk  Ha(&tat destru t&on* loss o) (&od&$ers&ty*%enet& de!let&on3 The e6e t o) loss o) ha(&tat on w&ldl&)e and on the )ood ha&n1dra&n&n% o) wetlands* &m!ound&n% water*de)orestat&on* &ntens&$e a%r& ultural!ra t& es3 The &m!a t o) tour&sm3 %eople in crisis So &al* e onom& and en$&ronmental&m!l& at&ons o) !o!ulat&on %rowth ratesand stru turesMeasures o) world !o$erty and the orth5South d&$&de1 !er a!&ta &n omes*&nade/ua y o) hous&n%* le$els o) d&seaseand nutr&t&on The &m!l& at&ons o) the y le o) !o$erty as&t a6e ts &nd&$&duals and ommun&t&es* )orthe en$&ronment3 Ur(an&sat&on auses ,!ush.!ull )a tors-*!ro(lems ,hous&n%* on%est&on* !ollut&on*loss o) a%r& ultural land* !ro$&s&on o) ser$& es- Land at risk  Causes and onse/uen es o) ra!&dand !ro%ress&$e de)orestat&on1 learan e Conservation of the ecosystem Strate%&es )or onser$at&on o) (&od&$ers&tyand the %enet& resour e1 susta&na(lehar$est&n% o) w&ld !lant and an&mals!e &es* nat&onal !arks* w&ldl&)e reser$es*world (&os!here reser$es* %ene (anks3=orld onser$at&on strate%&es andle%&slat&on3 The work o) or%an&sat&ons su has UEP* IUC* ==7* CITES3 %opulation mana!ement Strate%&es )or mana%&n% !o!ulat&on%rowth1 )am&ly !lann&n%* &m!ro$ed healthand edu at&on* nat&onal !ol& &es1 strate%&es)or mana%&n% the ur(an and ruralen$&ronments1 !lann&n%* en$&ronmental&m!ro$ement* ommun&ty !art& &!at&on3Strate%&es )or o$er om&n% world&ne/ual&t&es3 Im!ro$ed trade and a&d ond&t&ons1 %o$ernmental and non5%o$ernmental a&d1 )ood a&d3 Mana%&n%tour&sm8 nat&onal !arks* e otour&sm3 ana!in! the land Strate%&es )or so&l onser$at&on8 tree!lant&n%* terra &n%* ontour !lou%h&n%* dryland )arm&n%* w&nd (reaks* &nte%rated rural
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