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r this page and then this cover and their final version of the extended essay to their is are not must CQVef !O!Tr·,;:,roncN use Examiner 1 Examiner 2…
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r this page and then this cover and their final version of the extended essay to their is are not must CQVef !O!Tr·,;:,roncN use Examiner 1 Examiner 2 Examiner 3 A research 2 2 B introduction 2 2 c 4 4 D 4 4 E reasoned 4 4 F 4 4 G use of 4 4 H conclusion 2 2 formal 4 4 J abstract 2 2 K holistic 4 4 and evaluation An investigation into the synthesis of vanillyl alcohol through the reaction of vanillin and sodium borohydride based --------~------·__on--~-!~ ~!!__~!!~!!!is!~Y-~!!n ~!1~!-~~------------------Name: Subject: Chemistry Candidate number: Supervisor: Word Count: 3990 Abstract Paul Anastas, director of Yale University's centre for Green Chemistry and Green engineering, first proposed the concept of Green Chemistry. Anastas and Warner (1998) proposed 12 Green Chemistry Principles (Appendix 1) which encouraged the design of chemical processes that minimize the use and generation of hazardous substances. 1 In the synthesis of vanillin alcohol from vanillin the aldehyde motif is prone to the nucleophilic attack by hydride ions present in reducing agents to form alcohols. The reaction between van:illin and sodium borohydride uses excess of the reducing agent. However, sodium borohydride is hazardous and has a serious potential health effect (Appendix 2- MSDS sheet). Hence, the use of sodium borohydride, according to Green Chemistry principles1, should be minimised. The focus of my experiment is to determine the compromising amount of sodium borohydride used in this reaction based on the two factors: the conversion and efficiency of the reaction, and how the reaction follows the principles of Green Chemistry. The extended essay investigates the research question What is the compromising reaction stoichiometry in a green synthesis of vanillyl alcohol from the reduction of vanillin using sodium borohydride? Reactions with 5 different amolmts of sodium borohydride were conducted. In each reaction, samples of the reacting mixhlre were taken out at regular time periods and analysed by thin layer chromatography. It was found that all reactions achieved full conversion of vanillin. It was proposed that the compromised amount of sodium borohydride used in the production of vanillyl alcohol lies towards 0% to 50% excess, i.e. the compromising stoichiometry in terms of vanillin to sodium borohydride is 4:1 to 4:1.5. Word count: 267 2 Contents Abstract .......................................................................................................................................... 2 Glossary and Abbreviations ......................................................................................................... 4 Introduction ................................................................................................................................... 6 Reaction Mechanism ............................................................................................................................ 8 Nucleophilic attack by 'hydride' on vanillin as an aldehyde .................................................... 8 Addition of Hydrochloric acid to stop the reaction ................................................................... 10 Overall Chemical Equation ............................................................................................................... 10 Atom Economy of a reaction ............................................................................................................ 11 Hypothesis ................................................................................................................................... 13 Results and Discussion ............................................................................................................... 14 Development of methodology .......................................................................................................... 14 Design of methodology .................................................................................................................. 14 Procedure as it was carried out .................................................................................................... 15 Synthetic results .................................................................................................................................. 15 Further investigation to confirm the identity of the product.. ..................................................... 22 Conclusion ................................................................................................................................... 24 Evaluation and Improvements ................................................................................................... 25 Random Errors .................................................................................................................................... 25 Systematic Errors ................................................................................................................................ 26 Reliability of sources .......................................................................................................................... 27 Unresolved questions ........................................................................................................................ 28 Bibliography ................................................................................................................................ 29 Appendices .................................................................................................................................. 31 3 Glossary and Abbreviations 1. Green Chemistry1 The American Chemistry Society stated that Green chemistry is the design, development, and implementation of chemical products and processes to reduce or eliminate the use and generation of substances hazardous to human health and the environment. 2. Green Chemistry Principle 2- Atom Economy1 Synthetic methods should be designed to maximize the incorporation of all materials used in the process into the final product. 3. Green Chemistry Principle 3- Less Hazardous Chemical Syntheses1 Wherever practicable, synthetic methods should be designed to use and generate substances that possess little or no toxicity to human health and the environment. 4. Green Chemistry Principle 6- Design for Energy Efficiency1 Energy requirements should be recognized for their environmental and economic impacts and should be minimized. Wherever practicable, synthetic methods should be designed to use and generate substances that possess little or no toxicity to human health and the environment. 5. Green Chemistry Principle 12- Inherently Safer Chemistry for Accident Prevention1 Substances and the form of a substance used in a chemical process should be chosen to minimize the potential for chemical accidents, including releases, explosions, and fires. 4 6. Full Reaction Conversion The reaction has reached full conversion when the all reacting reagents, or the limiting reagents, have reacted and been used up. Vanillin is the limiting reagent in the reactions conducted in this investigation, full conversion of the reaction is therefore reached when all vanillin has reacted. 7. Reaction stoichiometry This describes the quantitative relationships among substances as they participate in chemical reactions. 2 The reaction stoichiometry of the reactants in the reaction investigated is 4:1(Stoichiometric ratio of vanillin to sodium borohydride). This means that every four moles of vanillin react with one mole of sodium borohydride. 8. Reaction time In this investigation, the reaction time of each reaction is defined as the time required for a reaction to reach full conversion. The reaction time of reactions in this investigation is the point when all vanillin in the reaction has reacted. Below is the list of abbreviations used to represent the full name of chemicals and technology in this essay: Full name (in order of appearance) Abbreviation Sodium Borohydride NaBH4 Borohydride ion BH4-ion Hydride ion H-ion Hydrochloric acid HClcaq) Thin layer chromatography TLC Retardation factor R£ Liquid Chromatography- Mass Spectrometry LCMS 5 Introduction Vanillin is an aromatic compound with the smell of vanilla, as the primary component of the extract of vanilla beans. It has the chemical formula CsHs03 with carbonyt phenol and ether groups. The reduction of vanillin by sodium borohydride produces vanillyl alcohol. Vanillyl alcohol has many commercial and pharmaceutical applications, including flavouring and as a treatment of Parkinson's disease (Hsu, Wen & Lee, 2009) 3 ã This investigation aims to design a greener pathway to synthesise vanill~l alcohot with respect to the Green Chemistry Principles proposed by Paul Anastas in 19981ã Sodium borohydride (NaBH4), the reducing agent in the reaction, is hazardous. As stated in the MSDS report (Appendix 2), NaBH4 is harmful upon inhalation, irritant upon skin and eye contact, potentially resulting in skin bums. Green Chemistry principles 3, Less Hazardous Chemical Syntheses and 12 Inherently Safer Chemistry for Accident Prevention concern the toxicity and safety of chemicals used (Anastas and Warner, 1998)1ã Furthermore, Green Chemistry principle 2, Atom Economy states that synthesis should be designed to maximise the incorporation of materials used into the final product. With respect to the two principles, a more green synthesis is achieved by using less N aBH4. On the other hand, principle 6 of Green Chemistry (Design for Energy Efficiency) states that it is best to minimise the amount of external energy wasted and applied to the reaction. The reaction between vanillin and NaBH4 takes place at room temperature and pressure. The main concern for this principle would therefore reaction time required. In generat the shorter the reaction, the less external energy, for example, the energy supplied to the magnetic stirrer, is used. 6 In a past research paper on this reaction, Lecher (2007) stated that In practice, it is best to use 50 -100% excess NaBH4 to compensate for any NaBH4 that reacts with the solvent or decomposes from other causes . 4 This means that using over 50% excess NaBH4 should improve the conversion rate of the reaction, which shall then enhance the yield of the reaction. This is also beneficial in achieving a green reaction in terms of principle 6, since using a larger amount of reactant (NaBH4) improves reaction rate and reduces reaction time. However, it is doubtful and ambiguous in Lecher's report whether full conversion can be attained when NaBH4 used less than 50% excess. This is therefore one aspect of my investigation. Although using higher amounts of excess NaBH4 would potentially lead to benefits in the yield and rate of reaction, it is unfavourable to use large amounts of excess NaBH4 based on principles 2, 3 and 12. The conflict between the two aspects leaves an unanswered question as to what the optimum green conditions could be, in terms of amount of NaBH4 used. The focus of my investigation is therefore to achieve a balance between the two conflicts, which seeks to answer the question: What is the compromising reaction stoichiometry in a green synthesis of vanillyl alcohol from the reduction of vanillin using sodium borohydride? 7 Background Information Reaction Mechanism HOtH H 0 (H ~ YO/CH Y 3 OH Struchue 1 - Vanillin molecule 0 /cH 3 OH Structure 2- Vanillyl alcohol molecule Vanillin is a phenolic aldehyde with a carbonyl group outside the benzene ring. The oxygen in the carbon-oxygen double bond is highly electronegative and draws electron density in the double bond towards itself. This results in a delta negative charge on the oxygen and a delta positive charge on the carbon. The carbon, with a delta positive charge, attracts negatively charged nucleophiles, which are BH4- ions in this case. Nucleophilic attack by 'hydride' on vanillin as an aldehyde In organic chemistry, a reduction reaction occurs when there is a gain in hydrogen or electrons. Sodium borohydride, as a reducing agent, has 4 hydrogen atoms and is commonly believed that hydride ions (H-) in NaBH4 serve as nucleophiles. However, since H- has a fullls orbital, it is too small to interact with carbon's relatively diffused 2p orbital in the pi component of the carbon-oxygen double bond (Clayden, Greeves and Warren, 2012). 5 H I_ B H-'f H ~ H Structure 3 8 Structure 4 - Borane In the reaction, the BH4- ion acts as a nucleophile which is attracted to the delta positive carbon. A pair of electrons from the B-H bond, together with the hydrogen in the bond, is transferred to this carbon. This can be regarded as a 'hydride transfer'. The formation of the new carbon bond forces the pi component in C=O bond to break. The bonded pair of electrons is transferred to oxygen. Oxygen now carries a negative charge. 0-tH H + Y 0/H, OH Structure 4 - Borane Structure 3 Structure 5 Since boron does not have a noble gas structure on its outer shell, borane is electron-deficient. The negative oxygen in structure 3 stabilises borane by forming a new B-0 bond. A negatively charged boron centre is regenerated, serving as another nucleophile. Structure 5 4 Structure 6- tetraalkylborate The negative boron centre in Structure 5 donates a hydride ion to another vanillin molecule. This process can continue until all 4 hydrogen atoms in a BH4- ion are transferred, giving structure 6 (Brown et. al., 2009) as the intermediate. 6 9 Addition of Hydrochloric acid to stop the reaction Hydrochloric acid is added to stop the reaction in the end to achieve three functions (Towson, n.d.): 7 1. HCl{aqJ hydrolyses the B-0 bond in the intermediate and protonates the oxygen atom in structure 6, illustrated as follow: Structure 2- Vanillyl alcohol 2. HCl(aqJ destroys any excess NaBH4 that is left in the reaction mixture. It reacts with NaBH4 as follow(Mayo, Pike, Forbes,2010) 8: 4NaBH4 + 2HC1 + 7Hz0 -7 NazB407 + 2NaCl +16Hz Borax, NazB407, is hydrolysed to NazB40r10HzO, which further reacts with HCl(aq): NazB407 10HzO + 2 HC1---*H3B03 + 2NaCl + 5Hz0 Boric acid is formed as a final product of the reaction and hydrogen is produced. 3. HCl(aqJ neutralizes excess sodium hydroxide used as a solvent of NaBH4. The equation is: HCl(aqJ + NaOH(aqJ -7 NaCl(aqJ + H20(gl Overall Chemical Equation In principle, if all 4 hydride ions of BH4- are 'transferred', each BH4- ion could reduce four vanillin molecules. The mole ratio of NaBH4 to vanillin in the stoichiometric equation is therefore 1:4. The overall stoichiometry of reaction is given by the following equation: 10 H.,BO + NaOH ..; ~ Overall Equation of the reaction between vanillin and sodium borohydride However, in reality, the reduction by NaBH4 may not be so effective. Each BH4- ion cannot necessarily transfer all of its /fhydride ions to reduce four vanillin molecules. In addition, NaBH4 sometimes decomposes or reacts with other solvents It is a common practice for chemists to use excess NaBH4 to compensate (Lecher, 2007). 4 Atom Economy of a reaction Green Chemistry Principle 2 introduces the concept of Atom Economy. 9 This describes the conversion efficiency of a chemical process in terms of all atoms involved and desired products produced. Ideally, the amount of reactants equals the amount of desired products generated, so that no atom is wasted. It is calculated by the equation: Percentage atom economy molecular wei.qht of desired product . of all reactants = sum of molecular wetght x 100% Amount of Stoichiometric Sum of molecular Molecular weight of Atom NaBH4in ratio weights of reactants desired product Economy excess (vanillin: NaBH4) 0% 4:1 25% 4:1.25 50% 4:1.5 4 X 152 = 665 75% 4:1.75 100% 4:2 (vanillyl alcohol) 4 X 152 = 646 + 1 X 38 154 23.8% 4x 152 + 1.25 x 38 = 655.5 154 23.5% + 1.5 X 38 154 23.1% 4 X 152 + 1.75 X 38 = 674.5 4x 152 + 2 x 38 = 684 154 22.8% 154 22.5% Table 1 Atomic economy of reactions with different stoichiometric ratios 11 The table above illustrates the range of independent variables, including 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% excess NaBH4. The stoichiometric ratio in terms of vanillin to NaBH4 is varied with respect to the amount of NaBH4 used in each reaction. The reaction with 100% excess NaBH4 has the lowest atom economy since it uses the highest amotmt of reactant (NaBH4). The higher the atom economy, the more green the reaction. This explains why the reaction with 0% excess N aBH4 is the greenest in terms of Principle 2. 12 Hypothesis Conversion and Yield: It is hypothesised that optimum conversion of vanillin would occur in reactions with 50% to 100% excess NaBH4 and reactions may not reach full conversion when NaBH4 is in 0% to 50% excess. Since the yield should be proportional to the degree of conversion of the reaction, it is also hypothesised that optimum yield would be achieved at the highest conversion. Reaction time: It is expected that the reaction with 100% excess NaBH4 would take the shortest time to reach full conversion. According to the collision theory, the concentration of when more amount of NaBH4 reacts, the chance of collisions between BH4-ions and vanillin molecules is higher. 13 Results and Discussion Development of methodology Design of methodology The method of the experiment was mostly based on that of the Lecher's (2007) experiment conducted on the same reaction. 4 Some amendments were made to cater the focus of my investigation as well as the scope of chemicals and apparatus in my school laboratory. Below is a table comparing my methodology to Lecher's methodology. 4 Lecher's Methodology My methodology (Appendix 3) The amount of NaBH4 used Since the independent variable of my investigation is the was constant throughout the stoichiometric ratio of the vanillin to NaBH4, the amount of of NaBH4 used in each reaction from 0% excess, 25% excess, experiment. 50% excess, 75% excess and 100% excess. Each amount of N aBH4 used corresponds to the stoichiometric ratios of vanillin to NaBH4: 4:1, 4:1.25, 4:1.5, 4:1.75 and 4:2, where the 4:1 ratio is the original reaction stoichiometry. Infrared and NMR My school laboratory did not have these instruments. spectroscopies were used to Ultraviolet-visible identify the product spectrometer and Thin layer chromatography analysis were used instead. In addition, since the reaction time of each reaction is the dependent variable of my investigation, thin layer chromatography on samples taken at regular time periods was conducted. This obtained information regarding the progress of conversion of vanillin over time. 14 Procedure as it was carried out The reaction with 100% excess NaBH4 was first carried out. The time given for the reaction to occur was 10 minutes with samples of the reacting mixture collected at 2-minute intervals. The results of the TLC indicated vanillin was still present in the final product. Not all vanillin had been converted to vanillyl alcohol given the time of reaction (Appendix 5). In the investigation, the reaction with 100% excess NaBHd1as the most reactant of NaBH4. The reaction should attain the highest conversion rate and the fastest reaction rate compared to the other reactions. The failure of this reaction to reach full conversion was attributed to the insufficient time for vanillin and NaBH4 to react. I lengthened the reaction time of each reaction from 10 minutes to 18 minutes so that reactions could attain a higher reaction conversion rate. Samples were still taken at 2 minute intervals as indicated in step 14 of the methodology. Furthermore, the reaction time for the reaction with 0% excess NaBH4 was extended to 90 minutes. This was done to testify whether the reaction with 0% excess NaBH4 would reach full conversion. Whether all the vanillin would be reacted given the NaBH4 used, according to the original reaction stoichio
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