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RSE-08076; No of Pages 16 Remote Sensing of Environment xxx (2011) xxx–xxx Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect Remote Sensing of Environment journal…
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RSE-08076; No of Pages 16 Remote Sensing of Environment xxx (2011) xxx–xxx Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect Remote Sensing of Environment journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/rse Monitoring land subsidence and its induced geological hazard with Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry: A case study in Morelia, Mexico Francesca Cigna a,⁎, Batuhan Osmanoğlu a, 1, Enrique Cabral-Cano b, Timothy H. Dixon a, 2, Jorge Alejandro Ávila-Olivera c, Víctor Hugo Garduño-Monroy d, Charles DeMets e, Shimon Wdowinski a a Division of Marine Geology and Geophysics, University of Miami, 4600 Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami, FL 33149-1098, United States Departamento de Geomagnetismo y Exploración, Instituto de Geofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 México D.F., Mexico Instituto de Investigaciones Sobre los Recursos Naturales, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Av. San Juanito Itzícuaro s/n, 58330, Morelia, Michoacán, Mexico d Instituto de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Ciudad Universitaria, Edif. U, 58030 Morelia, Michoacán, Mexico e Department of Geoscience, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1215 Dayton, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, United States b c a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 15 March 2011 Received in revised form 7 September 2011 Accepted 8 September 2011 Available online xxxx Keywords: SAR Interferometry InSAR Persistent Scatterers Subsidence Tectonics Groundwater GPS Morelia Mexico a b s t r a c t Twenty three ENVISAT Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images acquired in 2003–2010 were processed with conventional SAR Interferometry (InSAR) and Persistent Scatterer Interferometry techniques, to investigate spatial and temporal patterns of land subsidence in Morelia, Mexico. Subsiding areas are distributed as either concentrated circular patterns corresponding to intense groundwater extraction (e.g., Rio Grande meander area; maximum deformation of 7–8 cm/yr) or as elongate patterns oriented along NE–SW or E–W directions and parallel to major faults (i.e. La Colina, La Paloma and Central Camionera; maximum deformation of 4– 5 cm/yr). High subsidence rates are also measured on the hanging wall of major normal faults, where the thickest sequences of compressible Quaternary sediments crop out. Strong contrasts in subsidence rates are identified across major faults, suggesting that these faults act as barriers to horizontal movement of groundwater. Subsidence rates show a weak positive correlation with the total thickness of compressible deposits, while there is no correlation with either water extraction rates or changes in static water level. Timelapse analysis of ground deformation with conventional InSAR reveals temporal variations of subsidence north of the La Colina fault and the Rio Grande meander area. For this latter area, cross sections and 3D perspectives of InSAR measures, and analysis of subsidence rates through time, show an acceleration of subsidence velocities since 2005, corresponding to recasing of the Prados Verdes II well, whose location is centered in the area of highest subsidence. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Many urban areas in Mexico derive all or part of their fresh water from local aquifers. Some of these cities have experienced significant population growth in the last few decades, and/or declining rainfall and reduced aquifer recharge. Without careful management, this can result in over-exploitation of the groundwater resource, leading to ⁎ Corresponding author at: Department of Earth Sciences, University of Firenze, Via La Pira 4, 50121 Firenze, Italy. Tel.: + 1 305 421 4660, + 39 055 2055300; fax: + 1 305 421 4632, + 39 055 2055317. E-mail addresses: a class= __cf_email__ href= /cdn-cgi/l/email-protection data-cfemail= 7f190d1e111c1a0c1c1e511c1618111e3f0a1116 [email protected] /a script data-cfhash='f9e31' type= text/javascript /* ![CDATA[ */!function(t,e,r,n,c,a,p){try{t=document.currentScript||function(){for(t=document.getElementsByTagName('script'),e=t.length;e--;)if(t[e].getAttribute('data-cfhash'))return t[e]}();if(t&&(c=t.previousSibling)){p=t.parentNode;if(a=c.getAttribute('data-cfemail')){for(e='',r='0x'+a.substr(0,2)|0,n=2;a.length-n;n+=2)e+='%'+('0'+('0x'+a.substr(n,2)^r).toString(16)).slice(-2);p.replaceChild(document.createTextNode(decodeURIComponent(e)),c)}p.removeChild(t)}}catch(u){}}()/* ]] */ /script fi.it, a class= __cf_email__ href= /cdn-cgi/l/email-protection data-cfemail= 620410030c01071101034c010b050c0322050f030b0e4c010d0f [email protected] /a script data-cfhash='f9e31' type= text/javascript /* ![CDATA[ */!function(t,e,r,n,c,a,p){try{t=document.currentScript||function(){for(t=document.getElementsByTagName('script'),e=t.length;e--;)if(t[e].getAttribute('data-cfhash'))return t[e]}();if(t&&(c=t.previousSibling)){p=t.parentNode;if(a=c.getAttribute('data-cfemail')){for(e='',r='0x'+a.substr(0,2)|0,n=2;a.length-n;n+=2)e+='%'+('0'+('0x'+a.substr(n,2)^r).toString(16)).slice(-2);p.replaceChild(document.createTextNode(decodeURIComponent(e)),c)}p.removeChild(t)}}catch(u){}}()/* ]] */ /script (F. Cigna), a class= __cf_email__ href= /cdn-cgi/l/email-protection data-cfemail= 82e0edf1efe3ecede5eef7c2e3eee3f1e9e3ace7e6f7 [email protected] /a script data-cfhash='f9e31' type= text/javascript /* ![CDATA[ */!function(t,e,r,n,c,a,p){try{t=document.currentScript||function(){for(t=document.getElementsByTagName('script'),e=t.length;e--;)if(t[e].getAttribute('data-cfhash'))return t[e]}();if(t&&(c=t.previousSibling)){p=t.parentNode;if(a=c.getAttribute('data-cfemail')){for(e='',r='0x'+a.substr(0,2)|0,n=2;a.length-n;n+=2)e+='%'+('0'+('0x'+a.substr(n,2)^r).toString(16)).slice(-2);p.replaceChild(document.createTextNode(decodeURIComponent(e)),c)}p.removeChild(t)}}catch(u){}}()/* ]] */ /script (B. Osmanoğlu), a class= __cf_email__ href= /cdn-cgi/l/email-protection data-cfemail= f79294969585969bb7909298 [email protected] /a script data-cfhash='f9e31' type= text/javascript /* ![CDATA[ */!function(t,e,r,n,c,a,p){try{t=document.currentScript||function(){for(t=document.getElementsByTagName('script'),e=t.length;e--;)if(t[e].getAttribute('data-cfhash'))return t[e]}();if(t&&(c=t.previousSibling)){p=t.parentNode;if(a=c.getAttribute('data-cfemail')){for(e='',r='0x'+a.substr(0,2)|0,n=2;a.length-n;n+=2)e+='%'+('0'+('0x'+a.substr(n,2)^r).toString(16)).slice(-2);p.replaceChild(document.createTextNode(decodeURIComponent(e)),c)}p.removeChild(t)}}catch(u){}}()/* ]] */ /script fisica.unam.mx (E. Cabral-Cano), a class= __cf_email__ href= /cdn-cgi/l/email-protection data-cfemail= 7a0e121e3a0f091c541f1e0f [email protected] /a script data-cfhash='f9e31' type= text/javascript /* ![CDATA[ */!function(t,e,r,n,c,a,p){try{t=document.currentScript||function(){for(t=document.getElementsByTagName('script'),e=t.length;e--;)if(t[e].getAttribute('data-cfhash'))return t[e]}();if(t&&(c=t.previousSibling)){p=t.parentNode;if(a=c.getAttribute('data-cfemail')){for(e='',r='0x'+a.substr(0,2)|0,n=2;a.length-n;n+=2)e+='%'+('0'+('0x'+a.substr(n,2)^r).toString(16)).slice(-2);p.replaceChild(document.createTextNode(decodeURIComponent(e)),c)}p.removeChild(t)}}catch(u){}}()/* ]] */ /script (T.H. Dixon), a class= __cf_email__ href= /cdn-cgi/l/email-protection data-cfemail= deb4bff0bfa8b7b2bfb1b2b7a8bbacbf9eb9b3bfb7b2f0bdb1b3 [email protected] /a script data-cfhash='f9e31' type= text/javascript /* ![CDATA[ */!function(t,e,r,n,c,a,p){try{t=document.currentScript||function(){for(t=document.getElementsByTagName('script'),e=t.length;e--;)if(t[e].getAttribute('data-cfhash'))return t[e]}();if(t&&(c=t.previousSibling)){p=t.parentNode;if(a=c.getAttribute('data-cfemail')){for(e='',r='0x'+a.substr(0,2)|0,n=2;a.length-n;n+=2)e+='%'+('0'+('0x'+a.substr(n,2)^r).toString(16)).slice(-2);p.replaceChild(document.createTextNode(decodeURIComponent(e)),c)}p.removeChild(t)}}catch(u){}}()/* ]] */ /script (J.A. Ávila-Olivera), a class= __cf_email__ href= /cdn-cgi/l/email-protection data-cfemail= bccadbd1d3d2ced3c5fcc9d1d5dfd492d1c4 [email protected] /a script data-cfhash='f9e31' type= text/javascript /* ![CDATA[ */!function(t,e,r,n,c,a,p){try{t=document.currentScript||function(){for(t=document.getElementsByTagName('script'),e=t.length;e--;)if(t[e].getAttribute('data-cfhash'))return t[e]}();if(t&&(c=t.previousSibling)){p=t.parentNode;if(a=c.getAttribute('data-cfemail')){for(e='',r='0x'+a.substr(0,2)|0,n=2;a.length-n;n+=2)e+='%'+('0'+('0x'+a.substr(n,2)^r).toString(16)).slice(-2);p.replaceChild(document.createTextNode(decodeURIComponent(e)),c)}p.removeChild(t)}}catch(u){}}()/* ]] */ /script (V.H. Garduño-Monroy), a class= __cf_email__ href= /cdn-cgi/l/email-protection data-cfemail= c2a1aab7a1a982a5a7adaeada5bbecb5abb1a1eca7a6b7 [email protected] /a script data-cfhash='f9e31' type= text/javascript /* ![CDATA[ */!function(t,e,r,n,c,a,p){try{t=document.currentScript||function(){for(t=document.getElementsByTagName('script'),e=t.length;e--;)if(t[e].getAttribute('data-cfhash'))return t[e]}();if(t&&(c=t.previousSibling)){p=t.parentNode;if(a=c.getAttribute('data-cfemail')){for(e='',r='0x'+a.substr(0,2)|0,n=2;a.length-n;n+=2)e+='%'+('0'+('0x'+a.substr(n,2)^r).toString(16)).slice(-2);p.replaceChild(document.createTextNode(decodeURIComponent(e)),c)}p.removeChild(t)}}catch(u){}}()/* ]] */ /script (C. DeMets), a class= __cf_email__ href= /cdn-cgi/l/email-protection data-cfemail= 6a191d0e051d03041901032a1819070b194407030b0703440f0e1f [email protected] /a script data-cfhash='f9e31' type= text/javascript /* ![CDATA[ */!function(t,e,r,n,c,a,p){try{t=document.currentScript||function(){for(t=document.getElementsByTagName('script'),e=t.length;e--;)if(t[e].getAttribute('data-cfhash'))return t[e]}();if(t&&(c=t.previousSibling)){p=t.parentNode;if(a=c.getAttribute('data-cfemail')){for(e='',r='0x'+a.substr(0,2)|0,n=2;a.length-n;n+=2)e+='%'+('0'+('0x'+a.substr(n,2)^r).toString(16)).slice(-2);p.replaceChild(document.createTextNode(decodeURIComponent(e)),c)}p.removeChild(t)}}catch(u){}}()/* ]] */ /script (S. Wdowinski). 1 Present address: Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, 903 Koyukuk Dr., Fairbanks, Alaska 99775-7320, United States. 2 Present address: Department of Geology, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Avenue, SCA 528, Tampa, FL 33620–8100, United States. declining groundwater levels, compaction and loss of porosity in the aquifer, and surface subsidence. If over-exploitation is continued for too long, porosity losses become irreversible and aquifer capacity is permanently reduced. In these cases subsidence can also reach a few meters, enough to cause significant damage to urban infrastructure. Monitoring surface movements associated with groundwater changes can be accomplished with Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) observations acquired by low Earth orbiting satellites. Since conventional SAR Interferometry (InSAR) was first applied in the early 1990s (Massonnet & Feigl, 1998; Rosen et al., 2000), it has been increasingly recognized as a valuable tool for groundwater-related problems, in both the single-interferogram (conventional) and the multi-interferogram (advanced) approaches (e.g., Amelung et al., 1999; Cabral-Cano et al., 2008; Galloway et al., 1998; Herrera et al., 2009; Hoffmann et al., 2001; Osmanoglu et al., 2011; Tomás et al., 2005). One of the challenges in applying the technique is that the observed surface deformation field may be complex, reflecting both tectonic and groundwater-related sources (e.g., Bawden et al., 2001). Multiple groundwater extraction locations, temporally and spatially variable extraction rates, and spatially variable mechanical properties 0034-4257/$ – see front matter © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.rse.2011.09.005 Please cite this article as: Cigna, F., et al., Monitoring land subsidence and its induced geological hazard with Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry: A case study in Morelia..., Remote Sensing of Environment (2011), doi:10.1016/j.rse.2011.09.005 2 F. Cigna et al. / Remote Sensing of Environment xxx (2011) xxx–xxx and consequent variable responses to extraction may further complicate the interpretation. Since the early 1980s the city of Morelia in Central Mexico has experienced subsidence associated with groundwater extraction in excess of natural recharge from rainfall. The surface deformation field reflects both tectonic and groundwater influences (e.g., GarduñoMonroy et al., 2001). In this paper, we present satellite SAR data for the period 2003–2010, and show that a time series analysis of these data is able to unravel most of the complexity. Specifically, we show that most of the variance of the subsidence signal can be explained by the location of major wells, the thickness of the underlying Quaternary sedimentary fill (the main aquifer) that overlies a faulted Miocene basement, and proximity to major faults. While some specific regions in the city show rapid subsidence and in some cases recently developed subsidence features, a larger part of the city does not yet exhibit extreme subsidence rates, suggesting that improved water resource management has the potential to greatly reduce or eliminate long term subsidence. 2. Geological and historical background Morelia is the capital of the state of Michoacán in central Mexico. The original city center was built in the 16th century and is now a UNESCO World Heritage site. Beginning in the 1980s, Morelia experienced differential land subsidence, causing faulting and damage to urban infrastructure. Subsidence is commonly induced by consolidation of clay-rich lacustrine and fluvio-lacustrine sediments in response to over-exploitation of groundwater (e.g., Ávila-Olivera & GarduñoMonroy, 2010; Cabral-Cano et al., 2008; 2010b; Garduño-Monroy et al., 1999; 2001; Lermo-Samaniego et al., 1996; Martínez-Reyes & Nieto-Samaniego, 1990; Osmanoglu et al., 2011; Trejo-Moedano & Martinez-Baini, 1991; Trujillo-Candelaria, 1985). Morelia is located in the Guayangareo Valley, at an elevation of 1850–2100 m a.s.l. The valley is a lacustrine region, with sedimentary sources both south and north of the valley. To the south, the Sierra de Mil Cumbres (SMC) or Santa María Region comprises a Middle Miocene sequence of rhyolitic pyroclastic flows, andesites and breccias. To the north, monogenetic volcanoes and lava cones of the Michoacán– Guanajuato volcanic field occur as part of the Mexican Volcanic Belt. In the urban area, the following units are defined (Fig. 1; Ávila-Olivera et al., 2010a): Miocene andesites, overlain by a sequence of ignimbrites and pyroclastic flows of the “Cantera de Morelia”, also of Miocene age, overlain by Miocene–Pliocene andesites and dacites belonging to the volcanic sequence of Cerro Punhuato. These are overlain by Miocene– Pliocene fluvio-lacustrine deposits and pyroclastic flows, and Pleistocene–Holocene andesites and basalts from Quinceo (2787 m a.s.l.) and Las Tetillas (2760 m a.s.l.) volcanoes, part of the Michoacán–Guanajuato volcanic field. The uppermost units are sedimentary deposits and cemented tuffs of Quaternary age, forming the major aquifer. Morelia's 16th century buildings have survived remarkably well and represent a type of “strain marker”. Until recently, they suggested relative stability of the urban land surface. However, since the 1980s, structural problems began to appear in newly urbanized areas. Differential land subsidence was first recognized in 1983, when small gashes evolved to form a network of normal faults, with average vertical displacement rates of 4–6 cm/yr (Garduño-Monroy et al., 2001). Today, nine major NE–SW and E–W normal faults can be recognized within the urban area: La Colina, Central Camionera, La Paloma, Chapultepec, Torremolinos, El Realito, La Soledad, Cuautla and Ventura Puente (Fig. 1). The orientation of these faults coincides with regional tectonic faults. As described by Garduño-Monroy et al. (1998, 2001), two of these faults, La Colina and La Paloma, have a tectonic origin and are potentially seismic. They are part of the Morelia–Acambay fault system which is in turn related to the Chapala–Tula Fault zone (Johnson & Harrison, 1990). All other faults within the city are likely the result of groundwater extraction, although some may reflect reactivation of pre-existing structures. These latter faults are shallow, mainly affecting Miocene–Pleistocene terrains and sediments but not the underlying ignimbrites. They typically involve narrow damage zones, up to 30–40 m wide (Ávila-Olivera & Garduño-Monroy, 2008; Fig. 1. Location (Google Earth, right inset) and geological map (Ávila-Olivera et al., 2010a) of the city of Morelia, Michoacán, Mexico. Geology is overlaid on a 1998 topographic map (Morelia E14A23; 1:50,000 scale), updated with recent street block information. Location of MOGA and MOIT GPS permanent stations, water wells and cross-section T-T′, as well as of the Rio Grande meander area (a), are also represented. Q = Quaternary; Ps = Pleistocene; H = Holocene; P = Pliocene; M = Miocene. Please cite this article as: Cigna, F., et al., Monitoring land subsidence and its induced geological hazard with Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry: A case study in Morelia..., Remote Sensing of Environment (2011), doi:10.1016/j.rse.2011.09.005 F. Cigna et al. / Remote Sensing of Environment xxx (2011) xxx–xxx 3 Cabral-Cano et al., 2010a) and have begun to seriously affect the urban infrastructure (Garduño-Monroy et al., 1999). Extensive geotechnical surveys, including paleo-seismic, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Seismic Refraction Tomography (SRT) campaigns, and a conventional InSAR study have been carried out in Morelia (Ávila-Olivera & Garduño-Monroy, 2004, 2006, 2008; ÁvilaOlivera et al., 2008, 2010b; Cabral-Cano et al., 2010a; Farina et al., 2007, 2008; Garduño-Monroy et al., 2001). These surveys indicate a complex spatial–temporal pattern of fault motion, subsidence, and infrastructure damage. Delft University of Technology (TU-Delft), and the Automated DORIS Environment (ADORE), developed at the Geodesy Laboratory, University of Miami (Osmanoglu, 2010). Precise orbits from the Delft Institute for Earth-Oriented Space Research (DEOS) were used to minimize orbital errors for all scenes (Scharroo & Visser, 1998), except the three most recent ones. For these, the Precise Orbit Ephemeris from Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (Willis et al., 2006) or, if not available, preliminary orbits (Medium-precision Orbit Ephemeris) from the European Space Agency (ESA) were used. 3. SAR data and interferometric analysis 3.1. InSAR analysis The causes and patterns of ground subsidence are well known for several cities in the Mexican Volcanic Belt. In Mexico City, pioneering studies initiated decades ago using ground-based techniques documented the extent and cause of subsidence (Carrillo, 1948; Gayol, 1925; Ortega-Guerrero et al., 1993). Recent conventional and advanced InSAR investigations have extended our understanding of this process (e.g., Cabral-Cano et al., 2008, 2010b; López-Quiroz et al., 2009; Osmanoglu et al., 2011; Strozzi & Wegmüller, 1999; Strozzi et al., 2002) by providing detailed coverage of the spatial and temporal variations in subsidence. Here we extend these advanced techniques to Morelia. Twenty three radar images acquired by the ASAR (Advanced SAR) sensor on board the European ENVISAT satellite, operating in C-band (wavelength 5.6 cm; frequency 5.3 GHz), were acquired for Morelia (Table 1). These scenes span the time inte
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