Genetics of glaucoma

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1. ‘The term glaucoma describes a group of disease that can lead to blindness by damaging the optic nerve.’ The human eye continuously produces a fluid, called the…
  • 1. ‘The term glaucoma describes a group of disease that can lead to blindness by damaging the optic nerve.’ The human eye continuously produces a fluid, called the aqueous, that must drain from the eye to maintain healthy eye pressure. The increased pressure, called intraocular pressure, can damage the optic nerve, which transmits images to the brain.
  • 2. The front part of the eye is filled with a clear fluid called intraocular fluid or aqueous humor, made by the ciliary body. Proper drainage helps to maintain normal eye pressure.
  • 3. Glaucoma most often occurs in adults over age 40, but it can also occur in young adults, children, and even infants. You are at an increased risk of glaucoma if you: Are over age 40 Have a family history of glaucoma Have poor vision Have diabetes Take certain steroid medications Have had trauma to the eyes
  • 4. Seeing halos around lights Vision loss Redness in the eye Eye that looks hazy (particularly in infants) Nausea or vomiting Pain in the eye Narrowing of vision
  • 5. There are several types of glaucoma. Open angle glaucoma Angle closure glaucoma Normal tension glaucoma Secondary glaucoma Congenital glaucoma
  • 6. Open-angle glaucoma, the most common form of glaucoma, accounting for at least 90% of all glaucoma cases: Is caused by the slow clogging of the drainage canals, resulting in increased eye pressure Has a wide and open angle between the iris and cornea Develops slowly and is a lifelong condition Has symptoms and damage that are not noticed
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  • 8. Angle-closure glaucoma, a less common form of glaucoma: Is caused by blocked drainage canals, resulting in a sudden rise in intraocular pressure Has a closed or narrow angle between the iris and cornea Develops very quickly Has symptoms and damage that are usually very noticeable Demands immediate medical attention
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  • 10. Also called low-tension or normal-pressure glaucoma. In normal-tension glaucoma the optic nerve is damaged even though the eye pressure is not very high. it is still unknown why some people’s get damaged their optic nerves even though they have almost normal pressure levels.
  • 11. It develops as secondary to, or as complications of, other conditions, including:  cataracts diabetes eye trauma eye surgery or tumors
  • 12. Congenital glaucoma — also referred to as Childhood glaucoma or infantile glaucoma — occurs in babies and young children. It is usually diagnosed within the first year of life. This is a rare condition that may be inherited, caused by incorrect development of the eye’s drainage system before birth. This leads to increased intraocular pressure, which in turn damages the optic nerve.
  • 13. Glaucoma is detected through a comprehensive dilated eye exam that includes the following: Visual acuity test: This eye chart test measures how well you see at various distances. Dilated eye exam: In this exam, drops are placed in your eyes to dilate, the pupils. A special magnifying lens is use to examine your retina and optic nerve
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  • 17. Glaucoma treatment may include:  prescription eye drops  laser surgery  microsurgery
  • 18. prescription eye drops: These either reduce the formation of fluid in front of eye or increase its outflow.  laser surgery: Laser surgery for glaucoma slightly increases the outflow of the fluid from the eye in open-angle glaucoma or eliminates fluid blockage in angle- closure glaucoma.  microsurgery: In an operation called a trabeculectomy, a new channel is created to drain the fluid, thereby reducing intraocular pressure that causes glaucoma
  • 19. Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness There is no cure (yet) for glaucoma Everyone is at risk for glaucoma There may be no symptoms to warn you
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