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  • 2. CONTENT  INTRODUCTION Need For Energy Conservation  Green Radio  Base Station   METHODOLOGY Resource Allocation Strategies  Interference Management and Mitigation  Energy Efficient Routing and Multihop  APPLICATION  FUTURE SCOPE  CONCLUSION  REFERENCES 
  • 3. INTRODUCTION  NEED FOR ENERGY CONSUMPTION Emission of Green House Gases.  Consumption of non-renewable energy resources.   ENERGY CONSUMPTION APPLICATIONS. IN WIRELESS Energy consumed by the network in operation  Embedded emissions of the network equipment, for example, emissions associated with the manufacturing and deployment of network equipment  Energy consumed by mobile handsets and other devices, when they are manufactured, distributed and used.  Emissions associated with buildings run by mobile operators, and emissions from transport. 
  • 4. Direct Emission of Mobile Industry 2009 Total 245 Mt CO2 12% 4% Device Embedded 13% Device Consumption Network Embedded 71% Network Consumption
  • 5. GREEN RADIO A Project established in 2009 by Mobile Virtual Center of Excellence (VCE).  Its aim is to achieve 100 fold reduction in power consumption over current Wireless Communication Networks.  The Project is focused on two perspectives:  Reduce energy consumption by finding alternative existing cellular network structures.  Reduce energy consumption in base stations and handsets of the networks. 
  • 6. POWER CONSUMPTION AND CO2 EMISSION BY BASE STATIONS CO2 emissions per subscriber per year 9kg CO2 4.3kg CO2 Operation Embodied energy Base station 2.6kg CO2 8.1kg CO2 Mobile
  • 7. MAIN COMPONENTS OF BASE STATION Radio transceivers: The equipment for generating transmit signals to and decoding signals from mobile terminals.  Power amplifiers: These devices amplify the transmit signals from the transceiver to a high enough power level for transmission, typically around 5–10 W.  Transmit antennas: The antennas are responsible for physically radiating the signals, and are typically highly directional to deliver the signal to users without radiating the signal into the ground or sky 
  • 9. POWER USAGE IN BASE STATION Transceiver Idling 9% Power Supply 19% 9% Cooling Fans Power Amplifier 8% Cabling 16% 3% Transmit Power 1% Central Equipment Coupling/Duplexing 22% 13% Transceiver Power Conversion
  • 10. ENERGY MATRICES FOR BASE STATION EFFICIENCY INCREASE  Improvement of the efficiency of the base station is based on its energy matrices:  Energy Consumption Rating (ECR) Matrix: It is the ratio of peak power divided by the maximum data throughput for a base station transmitter.  This metric allows the absolute performance of different wireless networks to be calibrated in ECR.   Energy Consumption Gain (ECG) Matrix: It the ratio (Eb/Et), where Eb is the energy consumed by the baseline system and Et is the energy for the system under test.  The larger the value of the ECG, the more efficient the system under test becomes. 
  • 11. METHODOLOGY  On the basis of ECR and ECG, there are three different energy efficient techniques for Base Stations of Wireless Networks. Resource Allocation Strategies  Interference Management and Mitigation  Energy Efficient Routing and Multihop 
  • 12. RESOURCE ALLOCATION STRATEGIES It is used to describe how the base station transmitter make the decision of how and when to transmit data to different users on the downlink within the cell it is serving.  Such energy reductions could lead to further energy savings through switching off transceiver equipment and base station cooling.  There are two complementary techniques suggested below, aimed at low and high traffic load conditions.  Under low traffic load conditions:  Under high traffic load conditions: 
  • 13. INTERFERENCE MANAGEMENT AND MITIGATION The impact of interference is more severe as users move closer to the boundary region between two cells, leading to significant SINR and data rate reduction.  One way to reduce interference in cellular systems is to coordinate the multiple antennas of the adjacent base stations to form a distributed antenna system (DAS).  This permits the interference to users on the cell edge to be effectively controlled and mitigated by coordinated transmit beamforming at all of the participating base stations. 
  • 14.  The following three schemes can be used by coordinating downlink beamforming: The user is served by the base station providing the highest SINR while other base stations avoid transmitting signal energy toward that user.  All users are served by multiple base stations using multiple antenna beamforming and coherent user-end combining (i.e., full exploitation of the interference suppression capability offered by the DAS).  Users are allocated to one or more base stations based on their position.   An alternative scheme to DAS is to apply interference cancellation techniques at a multiple- antenna receiver.
  • 15.  There are two complementary strategies being considered, as shown in Figure, distributed antenna systems and receiver interference cancellation.
  • 16. ENERGY-EFFICIENT ROUTING AND MULTIHOP  The use of relays to exchange information between a base station and a mobile terminal may be an efficient way to improve base station energy efficiency. R S D S D R S D Conventional Base Station – Mobile Station Link S D Base Station –Mobile Station Link With Relay
  • 17. The energy efficiency of opportunistic cooperative relaying designed for the multiuser single-carrier frequency-division multiple access (SC-FDMA) uplink (mobile-to-base link) is also a technique to be considered with the aid of a single relay amplify-andforward (AF) scheme.  A joint frequency-domain equalization and combining (JFDEC) aided receiver can also be employed at the base station. 
  • 18. APPLICATION      Vodafone – Group: target to reduce CO2 emissions by 50% by 2020, from 2006/07 levels. Orange: Reduce greenhouse emissions per customer by 20% between 2006 and 2020. Ericsson: has reduced the annual direct CO 2 emissions per subscriber in the mobile broadband base stations it supplies from 31 kg in 2001 to 17 kg in 2005 and to 8 kg in 2007. Nokia Siemens Networks: announced in 2009 a new SM/WCDMA cabinet-based BTS with a power consumption of 790 W, vs 4,100 W for the equivalent model from 2005. Alcatel-Lucent: has developed innovative techniques such as the Dynamic Power Save feature on their GSM/EDGE mobile networking portfolio, which reduces power consumption when the traffic drops with no impact on service quality.
  • 19. FUTURE SCOPE In Resource Allocation : study of the best combination of scheduling techniques from an energy efficiency perspective across the range of traffic loads experienced in future LTE networks.  In Interference Management and Mitigation: more intelligent methods to cancel adjacent cell interference to be studied, along with consideration of the most energy-efficient combination of Interference cancellation techniques at both base stations and mobile terminals.  In Energy Efficient Routing and Multihop: to compare the energy efficiency of relay techniques with the use of femtocells. 
  • 20. CONCLUSION Thus, we have studied the Mobile VCE Green Radio project, for the study novel approaches to reducing the energy consumption of wireless links, in particular the improving the design and operation of wireless base stations.  Also has been studied that base stations have a much higher operational energy budget than mobile terminals.  The three techniques of resource allocation, interference management and mitigation, and energy efficient routing and multihop have been studied and the means by which these methods can lead to energy savings have been described. 
  • 21. REFERENCES      Congzheng Han, et al, “Green Radio: Radio Techniques to Enable Energy-Efficient Wireless Networks”, IEEE Communications Magazine, May 2011. J. Nicholas Laneman, David N. C. Tse, and Gregory W. Wornell, “Cooperative Diversity in Wireless Networks: Efficient Protocols and Outage Behavior”, IEEE Transactions on Information Technology, Vol. 50, No. 12, December 2004 Stefan Videv and Harald Haa, “Energy-Efficient Scheduling and Bandwidth–EnergyEfficiency Trade-Off with Low Load”, IEEE ICC Transactions 2011. K. Bumman, M. Junghwan, and K. Ildu “EfficientlyAmplified”, IEEE Microwave Mag., Vol. 11, No. 5, Aug.2010. Javier Gozalvez, “Green Radio Technologies”, IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine, March 2010.
  • 22.         PA Peter Wright, et al, “A Methodology for Realizing High Efficiency Class-J in a Linear and Broadband”, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 57, No. 12, December 2009 K. C. Beh, C. Han, M. Nicolaou, S. Armour, A.Doufexi, “Power Efficient MIMO Techniques for 3GPP LTE and Beyond”, Proc. IEEEVTC Fall, Anchorage, AK, Sept. 2009. Jiayi Zhang, Lie-Liang Yang and Lajos Hanzo, “Power-Efficient Opportunistic Amplify-and-Forward Single-Relay Aided MultiUser SC-FDMA Uplink”, Proc. IEEE VTC Spring, Taipei, Taiwan, May 2010. T.A. Le M.R. Nakhai, “Throughput analysis of network coding enabled wireless backhauls”, IET Commun., 2011, Vol. 5 Ioannis Krikidis, John S. Thompson, and Peter M. Grant, “Cooperative Relaying with Feedback for Lifetime Maximization”, IEEE Transactions 2010.
  • 23. THANK YOU
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