IEGC Reference | Information Technology | Outsourcing

of 9

Please download to get full document.

View again

All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
PDF
9 pages
0 downs
9 views
Share
Description
IEGC-II
Tags
Transcript
  1. INTRODUCTION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY  Information technolo!  ( IT ) is the study, design, development,implementation, support or management of infotech . Informationtechnology is a general term that describes any technology that helps toproduce, manipulate, store, communicate, and/or disseminate information.Information refers to data that has been organized and then communicated.Information technology is a broad term used to refer to any form of technology used to create, transfer, or store information in all of its variousforms (text, images, sound, multimedia les). he term I encompasses the methods and techni!ues used in informationhandling and retrieval by automatic means. he means include computers,telecommunications and oce systems or any combination of theseelements.Information technology, #hile stirring thoughts and visions of net#or$s, theInternet, server rooms, rac$s of s#itches and routers, and advanced terms,the %technology% doesn%t necessarily refer only to computer related issues.&ny medium that stores and processes information is also in the category of information technology.  he bac$'story of information technology precedes the invention of thecomputer. he abacus, used by &sians, gyptians, omans, and the *ree$can be termed a source of information technology. +alculators, the rstmechanical one built by *erman polymath ilhelm -chic$ard, or the sliderule, developed in 00 by illiam 1ughtred, also comes under the headingof information technology. &nother example #ould be punch card machines,expanded upon by I23 in the early to mid 455%s, !ualies the terminformation technology. 1.1 re#Hi$tor! of Information Technolo!   *. 2oole developed a mathematics of true values, logic   +harles 2abbage invented a computing machine based on mechanics,e.g. cog#heels   +ountess &da 6ovelace programmed 2abbage7s invention8 %r$t&rorammer   6ooms #ere automated in the 9 th  century  &s time progressed along #ith the advances of inventions and applied$no#ledge, computing too$ shape and became useful in a variety of #aysother than calculations. +omputer science became an academic specialty,creating computer science departments and classes. &s these classes too$shape, separate branches of computer science became distinct areas of study. oday, Information echnology departments use computers, datacenters, servers, database management system, specialized soft#areapplications and more, managed by system and database administrators. 1.' A()ent an( De)elo&ment of Information Technolo! inIn(ia  oday India is $no#n #orld over as a leader in Information echnology. hishas not happened over a short period of time. & sustained e:ort by theIndian *overnment, corporate houses, and universities has made thispossible. It all started #ith a small group of initiators #ithin the governmentand entrepreneurs outside the government sensing the opportunities inInformation echnology. &fter a certain passage of time the governmentcame up #ith full support to change the environment for I. hus began aseries of steps that transformed I from being ;ust a sector to an Industry.  ransformation of Information echnology< From To I as a sectorI as an Industry=roviding satisfactory services toexisting increases in demand&dding value to sustain the gro#th*overnment controlledinfrastructure and technology*overnment facilitatedinfrastructure and technologyI for specialistsI for masses>ullling external demand+reating internal demand he most important thing that came out from this #as the advent of information technology as an industry. In the beginning I #as treated at par#ith conventional manufacturing industry, but later on it started receivingthe necessary support as a non conventional service industry. ?ational&ssociation of -oft#are and -ervice +ompanies (?&--+13) #as establishedin 499 as the business strategist of Infoech for the *overnment of India.?&--+13 is dedicated to framing policies that focus on the interdependence  of business opportunities and social environment. he main focus of ?&--+13 for I is to ã &dd value to I as an industry ã  a$e I to the massesven before this time, during the erst#hile license ra;, ata +onsultancy-ervices 6td #as established #ith 3r. > + @ohli at the helm. 3r. @ohli is manytimes referred to as the father of Indian -oft#are Industry. 3r. @ohli #as therst person to tal$ about andem, rst to import an I23 A545, rst tomaintain that mainframes are not dead, and to !uestion the openness of open systems'even before most of the #orld addressed these concerns.  he birth of soft#are industry in India began in 4B5 #ith the entry of ata+onsultancy -ervices 6td (+-) into the domain of outsourced applicationmigration #or$. In the late 457s ata7s created +- as a central servicecenter for && group companies. & fe# 3I trained Indian professionals#ere recruited and a large computer system #as imported. ith I23 havingbeen thro#n out of India, the concept of outsourcing applicationdevelopment #or$ had become a necessity for Indian companies. Ctilizing itsexcess computer capacity, +- began doing outsourced application #or$ fororganizations such as +entral 2an$ of India and 2ombay elephones. ithin afe# years +- began sending young Indian engineers to a ;oint venturepartner in the Cnited -tates, 2urroughs for training. he trainee engineersexcelled at doing platform conversions and +- started earning conversionassignments for its engineers in *ermany and else#here. >ollo#ing thesuccess of +- many ne# companies #ere set up in India. During the years49'49E, four type of companies interlin$ed in direct and indirect #ays tofacilitate body shopping (Indian engineers going overseas to do soft#areprogramming onsite). here #ere established companies li$e +- and Infosys echnologies #hich supplied programmers to large multinationals in Iprimarily in the C-. hese multinationals also recruited programmers throughlocal C- companies established by Indians living in the Cnited -tates. -uchcompanies in turn recruited manpo#er through local search agents (smallcompanies run by Indians living in the Cnited -tates). hese agents fromseveral states in the Cnited -tates #ould contact local agents in India from amultitude of small companies and operators. he responsibility of collectingresumes, for#arding them to C.-. placement agents preparing visa andcontract nalization #ith the programmers #as done by the agents in India. he programmers #ere paid lo# #ages. +ommissions #ere charged by  di:erent members of the supply chain. -ometimes there #ere subagentsspread in di:erent cities and to#ns in India. here #as an interestingnet#or$ among revolving players. =rogrammers #ho returned to India after astint overseas #ould ;oin a pool of soft#are engineers #ho could be hired bythe established companies in India. 1ften programmers sent onsite by largeIndian companies #ould move laterally to another assignment in the Cnited-tates through a local C- agent to prolong their C- experience. 6ater they#ould return to India and be in the mar$et for local Indian agents to hirethem. he Indian Diaspora had played a $ey role in the bodyshoppingexports. -everal reports also suggest several instances #here Indianimmigrants in the Cnited -tates helped C- buyers to locate Indian suppliers.>ield intervie#s #ith C- customers reported that the impetus for outsourcingto India came from employees of Indian origin. 2odyshopping #as andcontinues to be an attractive strategy for ne# entrants into the industry,re!uiring nothing more than $no#ledge and established relations #ith fe#potential clients. 1.* The Era of O+t$o+rcin hile initial development of India7s soft#are industry #as based primarily onbodyshopping #or$ onsite at C- rms, in recent years the trend has beenincreasingly for Indian rms to conduct soft#are development for C.-. clientsFo:shoreG in India. his shift #as the result of a maturing of India7s soft#areindustry and its international reputation over a decade and a half and thedevelopment of necessary infrastructure and communications technologiesin India that has made o:shore #or$ possible. &s the Indian soft#areindustry matured, increasing client condence in Indian capabilities and!uality standards enabled Indian rms to move their #or$ o:shore. ithmaturity has come a goal to move up the value chain. 3any ne# companies#ere set up in the 4957s by entrepreneurs #ith ambitions of creating #orldclass soft#are development centres. >irms #hich had started primarily assubcontractors for technical manpo#er gradually shifted to managingcomplete parts or phrases of pro;ects and then to delivering completesolutions from India. During this phase most companies made signicante:orts to assimilate good practices in pro;ect management and !uality andto ac!uire internationally recognized !uality standards certication.?&--+13 played an aggressive role in promoting the India brand abroad. Insome #ays, during this period, India #as building a launching pad for theeventual ta$e o: of its soft#are service industry.
Related Search
Advertisements
Similar documents
View more...
Advertisements
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks