Liver fluke

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1. Fasciola hapetica Presented to:Mrs.Sabiha Fazal Roll no:329 BS-IV(8th Semester) 2. Taxonomy  Kingdom: Animalia  Phylum: Platyhelminthes  Class: Trematoda …
  • 1. Fasciola hapetica Presented to:Mrs.Sabiha Fazal Roll no:329 BS-IV(8th Semester)
  • 2. Taxonomy  Kingdom: Animalia  Phylum: Platyhelminthes  Class: Trematoda  Subclass: Digenea (“two generations”)  Order: Echinostomida  Family: Fasciolidae  Genus: Fasciola
  • 3. Fasciola hepatica  The disease caused by the fluke is called fascioliasis  Fasciola hepatica  Sheep liver fluke  Temperate liver fluke  Common Liver Fluke  Fasciola gigantica  Giant liver fluke  Tropical liver fluke
  • 4. Fasciola hepatica  Mode of transmission is by ingestion of metacercariae found in edible aquatic plants or by drinking water with floating metacercariae  Metacercariae excsts in the duodenum or jejunum and liberate the juvenile fluke  Juvenile fluke penetrates the intestinal wall and reaches the liver capsule  The parasite burrows into the liver parenchyma where it grows and develops  It becomes sexually mature in the bile ducts
  • 5. Fasciola hepatica Adult Worm Large, broad, flat body Leaf shaped Anterior end forms a prominent cephalic cone Small oral and ventral suckers Long and highly branched intestinal caeca
  • 6. Fasciola hepatica and gigantica
  • 7. Fasciola hepatica and gigantica  Definitive host:  Sheep  Cattle  Humans (Accidental)  Other Mammals  Intermediate host Fresh Water Snail
  • 8. Fasciola hepatica Ova Large Hen’s egg shaped Ovoid Operculated Bile stained Unsegmented
  • 9. Life cycle of F.hepatica  The life cycle of Fasciola hepatica starts when a female lays eggs in the liver of an infected human. Immature eggs are discharged in the biliary ducts and taken out in the feces. If landed in water, the eggs become embryonated and develop larvae called miracidia. A miracidium invades an aquatic snail and develops into cercaria, a larva that is capable of swimming with its large tail.
  • 10. Cycle of events in infection The cercaria exits and finds aquatic vegetation where it forms a cyst called Metacercariae. A human eats the raw freshwater plant containing the cyst. The Metacercariae excysts in the first part of the small intestine, duodenum. It then penetrates the intestinal wall and gets into the peritoneal cavity.
  • 11. Fasciola species Life Cycle
  • 12. Fasciola species Pathogenesis and Clinical Manifestations  Fascioliasis  Asymptomatic  Can produce fever  Right upper quadrant abdominal pain  Hypereosinophilia  Acute or invasive phase  Migration from intestine to liver  Traumatic and necrotic lesions in liver parenchyma  Chronic or latent phase  Asymptomatic  Parasite has reached the bile ducts  Obstruction  Stimulates inflammation in the biliary epithelium leading to fibrosis  Obstruction causes Biliary sepsis
  • 13. Fasciola species Diagnosis  Microscopy -demonstration of eggs in the Stool Samples  Yellow-Brown Eggs  Eggs Don’t Show for 4 Months  Duodenal or Biliary Aspirate  Antibody Test  Can detect 2 Weeks After Infection  Ultrasound  Visualize Adults in Bile Duct  CT Scan  Reveals Burrows in Liver
  • 14. Fasciola species Treatment  Bithionol  20-50 mg/kg body weight on alternate days to complete 10 to 5 doses  Triclabendazole  Also a recommended drug of choice due to:  Efficacy  Safety  Ease of use
  • 15. Control  Education  Cheapest and Most Cost Effective Way  Wash Aquatic Vegetables in 6% Vinegar for 5-10 minutes  Better herding practices Keep herds away from aquatic areas  Moluskicide  Controls Intermediate Snail Host
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