lJ7FG VG[ 8[SGM,MHL

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lJ7FG VG[ 8[SGM,MHL5|SZ6o ( VF56L G{;lU S ;\5l¿ WMZ6o)AFA] 58[,sALPV[;P;LP4ALPV[0f DNNlGX lX1FS lJJ[SFG\N lJnF,IPHl0IFTFoWFG[ZF4 lHoAGF;SF\9FG{;lU S ;\5l¿…
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lJ7FG VG[ 8[SGM,MHL5|SZ6o ( VF56L G{;lU"S ;\5l¿ WMZ6o)AFA] 58[,sALPV[;P;LP4ALPV[0f DNNlGX lX1FS lJJ[SFG\N lJnF,IPHl0IFTFoWFG[ZF4 lHoAGF;SF\9FG{;lU"S ;\5l¿ S]NZTDF\ D/TL AWL p5IMUL J:T]VM VG[ 5'yJLGL EF{lTS 5IF"JZ6GL ,F1Fl6STF VM S[ H[GM p5IMU DFGJJ:TL SZ[ K[P T[G[ G{;lU"Sv ;\5l¿ SC[ K[P5IF"JZ6GF lJEFU5IF"JZ6GF lJEFU5IF"JZ6GF lJEFUJFTFJZ6H,FJZ6D'NFJZ6H{JFJZ6;D]N=4GNLVMDCF;FUZ4 lCDGNLVM H,FJZ6 lGDF"6 SZ[ K[PB0SM VG[ HDLG 5'yJLG]\ p5ZL :TZ lGDF"6 SZ[ K[P T[ D'NFJZ6 K[PVF +6[I :TZ DF\ ;HLJM J;[ K[PT[G[ H{JFJZ6 SC[ K[5'yJLGL OZT[ VFJ[,F JFI] GF100 lSPDL G]\ VFJZ6 K[PG{;lU"S ;\5l¿VB]8B]8L HFI T[JL;F{ZéHF"45JGéHF"4 H/éHF"4 NlZIF. DMHF\GL éHF"5]Go5|F%I5]GoV5|F%IHDLG4 5F6L ;HLJMBGLHSM,;M4BGLHT[,4 S]NZTL JFI]JFTFJZ6GF :TZMJFTFJZ6GF D]bI :TZMDF\ 8=M5Ml:OIZ4 :8=[8Ml:OIZ4 D[;Ml:OIZ VG[ YDM"l:OIZGM ;DFJ[X YFI K[P JFTFJZ6GL CJFDF\ N278% 4O221% 4 CO2 0.003% 4 V<55|DF6DF\ CO4 He4 Ar4H2 CMI K[P 8=M5Ml:OIZDF\ JFTFJZ6GL DM8FEFUGL CJF CMI K[4 H[ O2 4CO24N2WZFJTL CMJFYL ;HLJM DF8[ DCtJGL K[P:8=[8Ml:OIZDF\ VFJ[,]\ VMhMGG]\ :TZ ;}I"GF\ 5FZHF\A,L lJlSZ6M XMQFL ,> 5'yJL 5ZGF ;HLJMG]\ Z1F6 SZ K[[PJFTFJZ6GF :TZMé0TF 5|F6LVM DF8[ T[DH 5ZFUZH4 ALHF6]VM4 ALH VG[ O/GF lJlSZ6 DF8[ CJF VUtIG]\ DFwID K[P;HLJMDF\ éHF" D[/JJF u,]SMhGF NCG DF8[ H~ZL O2JFTFJZ6GL CJFDF\YL 5|F%T YFI K[P ClZT§jI WZFJTF ;HLJMDF\ 5|SFX;\`,[QF6 DF8[ H~ZL CO2 5]ZM 5F0[ K[PNlZIF> 5|F6LVM T[DGF SJRvlGDF6"DF\ 5F6LDF\ §FjI SFAM"G[8;GM p5IMU SZ[ K[P CJFDFGGF lGI\+6DF\ JFTFJZ6GM OF/MJFTFJZ6GF JFI]VM pQDFGF D\NJFCS CMJFYL JFTFJZ6 5'yJLGF ;Z[ZFX TF5DFGG[ lNJ; NZlDIFG l:YZ ZFB[ K[PJFTFJZ6DF\ lNJ;GF ;DI[ TF5DFGDF\ YTF VRFGS JWFZMG[ V8SFJ[ VG[ ZFl+ ;DI[ pQDFGL AFæ JFTFJZ6DF\ D]É YJFGL lS|IFG[ WLDL 5F0[ K[PNFPTP45'yJLG[ R\§ ;DFG V\TZ[ CMJF KTF\ R\§GL ;5F8L 5Z JFTFJZ6 G CMJFYL R\§ TF5DFG-190oCYL-110oCJrR[ ZC[ K[PCJFDFGGF lGI\+6DF\ JFTFJZ6GM OF/M
  • JFTFJZ6DF\ U|LGCFp; JFI]GF ;\U|C YJFYL 5'yJLGF TF5GFGDF\ JWFZM YFI K[P KTF\ SFA"G VG[ DF8[ DCF;FUZM D]bI ;\U|FCS CMJFYL JFTFJZ6DF\ T[VM U|LGCFp; JFI]VMG]\ lGIDG SZ[ K[P
  • 5JGs,C[ZMfG]\ ;H"GUZD lNJ; 5KL ;F\HGF ;DI[ 5JGGL 9\0L ,C[Z VG[ UZD CJFDFGGF VD]S H lNJ;M 5KL JZ;FN VF56G[ DM8L ZFCT VF5[ K[ VF 38GFVM VF56F JFTFJZ6DF\ JFI]VMGF UZD YJFYL VG[ 5F6LGL JZF/ AGJFGL lS|IF VM YTF\ 5lZJT"GG]\ 5lZ6FD K[PHIFZ[ ;}I"GF lSZ6M 5'yJLGL ;5F8L 5Z 50[ K[ tIFZ[ T[DF\ GF VD]S lSZ6MG]\ HDLG VG[ H/FXIMG]\ XMQF6 SZFI K[P AFSLGF DM8FEFUGF lJlSZ6MG]\ 5ZFJT"G YFI K[PVF lJlSZ6M JFTFJZ6G[ UZD SZ[ T[YL CJFDF\ ,C[ZM ;HF"IP HDLG 5F6L SZTF\ h05YL UZD S[ 9\0L YFI K[PNlZIF. ,C[ZMNlZIF. ,C[ZM
  • lNJ; NZlDIFG ;D]§ 5ZGL CJF SZTF\ HDLG 5ZGL CJF JW] h05YL UZD YFI K[PVF UZD CJF p5Z TZO é9[ K[ VFYL HDLG 5Z VMKF NAF6GM lJ:TFZ pt5gG YFI K[P
  • ;D]§ 5ZGL CJF WLD[YL UZD YTL CMJFYL tIF\ JWFZ[ NAF6GM lJ:TFZ ;HF"I K[PCJFGL UlT JWFZ[ NAF6 WZFJTF lJ:TFZYL VMKF NAF6 WZFJTF lJ:TFZ TZO YFI K[P
  • lNJ; NZlDIFG VF ZLT[ ;HF"TL NlZIF. ,C[ZMs5JGfGL lNXF ;D]§YL HDLG TZO CMI K[P
  • HDLGGL ,C[ZMHDLGGL ,C[ZM
  • ZF+[ HDLG VG[ ;D]§ AG[\ XLT/ AG[ K[P 5Z\T] 5F6L SZTF HDLG JW] h05YL 9\0L YFI K[PVFYL HDLG 5ZGL CJF ;D]§GF 5F6L 5ZGL CJF SZTF\ JW] XLT/ YTF\ JWFZ[ NAF6JF/F lJ:TFZG]\ ;H"G YFI K[PVF SFZ6[ ZFl+ ;DI[ HDLGGL ,C[ZMs5JGfGL lNXF ;D]§ TZO CMI K[P
  • CJFGL UlT TF5DFG S[ NAF6GF TOFJTG[ ,LW[ pt5gG YFI K[ VG[ 5JG TZLS[ VG]EJFI K[PHIF\ A[ HuIFVM JrR[ NAF6DF\ TOFJT CMI tIF\ é\RF NAF6JF/F lJ:TFZ YL GLRF NAF6JF/F lJ:TFZ TZO UlT SZ[ K[P
  • PPPPP JZ;FNPPPPPJZ;FN
  • 5F6L JFTFJZ6 VG[ D'NFJZ6 JrR[ ;TT 5lZE|D6 SZ[ K[ T[ lS|IFG[ H,RS| SC[ K[P
  • ;}I"pQDF G[ ,LW[ DM8F EFUGF 5F6L GM ;\U|C SZTF DCF;FUZM GF\ 5F6LG]\ AFQ5LEJG YFI K[P
  • YM0FS EFUGF\ 5F6LG]\ AFQ5LEJG HDLGGL ;5F8L 5ZYL T[DH JG:5lTVM DF\YL 56 YFI K[P
  • JZ;FN
  • ;}"IpQDF YL CJF UZD YFI K[PVF UZD CJF 5F6LGL JZF/G[ ;FY[ ,. p5ZGL TZO p9[ K[ T[DH T[G]\ lJ:TZ6 YFI K[ VG[ T[ CJF 9\0L YFI K[P
  • VFD4 CJF 9\0L YJFYL CJFDF\ ZC[,L 5F6LGL AFQ5 DF\GF 5F6LG] GFGF\ lA\N]VMDF\ ~5F\TlZT YFI K[P ;\3GGGL VF 5|lS|IFYL 5F6LGF\ lA\N]VM SNDF\ JW[ K[P VF 5F6LGF lA\N]VMG]\ JHG JWJFYL HDLG 5Z VFJ[ K[ H[G[ VF56[ JZ;FN SCL V[ KLV[P5F6L5'yJLGL ;5F8LGM 3/4 EFU97%NlZIF.sBFZ]\fH/3%DL9]\ H/V5|F%I5|F%I5|F%IDM8M EFU W|]J5|N[X 5Z AZOAFSLGM DM8M EFU E}U"ELI H/ ~5[ GHLJM EFU GNL4 ;ZMJZ4 T/FJDF\;HLJM DF8[ 5F6LGL VUtITF
  • AWF H ;HLJM 5F6L 5Z VFWFZ ZFB[ K[P 5F6L SMQFGF SMQFZ; T[DH XZLZ A\WFZ6GM VUtIGM 38S K[P
  • 5F6L SMQFMDF\ ZF;FIl6S lS|IFVM DF8[G]\ DFwID 5]Z] 5F0[P
  • 5F6L p¿D §FJS CMJFYL DM8FEFU[ AWF\ H §jIM q 5NF"YM 5F6LDF\ ;C[,F.YL §FjI CMJFYL 5F6LGF DFwID §FZF XZLZGF V[SEFU DF\YL ALHFEFU ;]WL JCG YFI K[P
  • ;D]§G]\ 5F6L pQDFG[ XMQFL S[ D]ST SZL JFTFJZ6G[ 9\0] S[ UZD ZFBJFG]\ SFI" SZ[ K[P5F6L JFTFJZ6G[ lGIl+T ZFBJFDF\ VUtIGM EFU EHJ[ K[P
  • lNJ;GF ;DI[ ;}I" B0SG[ UZD SZ[ K[ H[YL B0SMG]\ lJ:TZ6 YFI K[PHIFZ[ ZFl+NZlDIFG B0SM 9\0F YFI K[ VG[ T[DG]\ ;\SMRG YFI K[P B0SMGF AWF H EFUM ;ZBF 5|DF6DF\ lJ:TZ6 5FDTF GYL VG[ 9\0F YTF GYLP 5lZ6FD[ B0SMDF\ lTZF0M 50[ K[ VG[ DM8F B0SM GFGF 8]S0FVMDF\ T}8L HFI K[PE}lD lGDF"6 DF8[ HJFANFZ 5lZA/M;}I" E}lD lGDF"6 DF8[ HJFANFZ 5lZA/M5F6L 5F6L E}lDGF\ lGDF"6DF\ A[ ZLT[ DNN~5 YFI K[P
  • 5F6L B0SMGL lTZF0MDF\ 5|J[XL T[G[ 5CM/L SZ[ K[P h05YL JC[T]\ 5F6L B0SMGF DM8F VG[ GFGF S6MG[ GLR[GL TZO ,. HFI K[P
  • VF S6M HIFZ[ ALHF B0SM ;FY[ 3;FI tIFZ[ T[ SNDF\ GFGF YTF HFI K[ VG[ K[J8[ E}lDS6MDF\ O[ZJFI K[P
  • E}lD lGDF"6 DF8[ HJFANFZ 5lZA/M
  • 5F6LGL H[D TLJ| 5JGYL 56 B0SM 3;FI K[ VG[ GFGF S6M lGDF"6 5FD[ K[P VF GFGF S6MG[ 5JG V[S HuIFV[YL ALHL HuIFV[ ,. HFI K[P
  • VF JG:5lT B0SMGL ;5F8L 5Z éU[ K[P T[VM J'lâ BZlDIFG VD]S 5NFYM"GM :+FJ SZ[ K[ H[ B0SMGL ;5F8LG[ 5Fp0Z :J~5DF\ O[ZJL GFB[ K[ VG[ E}lDG]\ V[S 5FT/]\ :TZ AGFJ[ K[P VFD4 ;HLJM 56 E}lDv lGDF"6DF\ VUtIGM EFU EHJ[ K[P 5JG,F.S[GH,RS| H,RS|
  • ;HLJM4 JFTFJZ6 VG[ 5'yJL JrR[ 5F6L VG[ E[HGF 5lZE|D6 G[ H,RS| VYJF H2ORS| SC[ K[P
  • ;}I" S[ H[ H,RS|G[ R,FJJF DF8[ HJFANFZ K[P DCF;FUZ VG[ ;D]£GF 5F6LG[ UZD SZ[ K[ H[YL 5F6L JZF/ :J~5[ CJFDF\ E/[ K[P
  • V[JL H ZLT[ AZO VG[ lCD 56 ;LWF H 5F6LGL JZF/DF\ ~5F\TZLT YFI K[P
  • H,RS|
  • JG:5lTVMDF\ pt:J[NG £FZF HDLGDF\GF 5F6LG]\ AFQ5LSZ6 YFI K[P VFD4 JFTFJZ6DF\ V[Sl+T AFQ5GF\ ;\3GGYL JZ;FN 50[ K[P
  • HDLG 5Z 50T]\ JZ;FNG]\ 5F6L TZT H 5|JFlCT Y. ;D]ãDF\ 9,JFT]\ GYLP V[DF\G]\ V]S 5F6L HDLGDF\ é\0[ éTZL DL9F 5F6L TZLS[ ;\U'CLT YFI K[P
  • ;DI HTF\ AFSLG]\ 5F6L DCF;FUZMDF\ 9,JFI K[ VG[ H,RS| OZL X~ YFI K[P
  • SFA"GRS| SFA"GRS|
  • ;HLJ XZLZGL ZRGF AGFJTF AWF\ H SFA"lGS ;\IMHGM SFAM"CF.0=[84 RZAL4 5|M8LG VG[ gI]lS,.S V¶l;0GL ZRGFDF\ SFA"G D}/ 38S K[P
  • lJlJW 5|F6LVMG]\ AFæS\SF, VG[ V\ToS\SF, SFAM"G[8 1FFZMG]\ AG[,]\ CMI K[P
  • SFA"GRS| lJX[QFTo 5}6" RS| K[ SFZ6 S[ H[8,]\ h05L SFA"GG[ V,U SZJFDF\ VFJ[ K[ T[8,]\ H h05L T[ JFTFJZ6DF\ 5FK]\ HFI K[P
  • SFA"GRS|
  • JFTFJZ6 CO2 GM D]bI ;\U|CSTF" CMJFYL SFA"GRS| V[ JFI]RS| K[P
  • ,L,L JG:5lT 5|SFX;\`,[QF6 NZlDIFG JFTFJZ6DF\ ZC[,F CO2VG[ 5F6LGM p5IMU SZL SFAM"CF.0=[8 su,]SMhfG]\ lGDF"6 SZ[ K[P VF 5|lS|IF NZlDIFG VMlS;HG D]ST YFI K[P
  • JG:5lTVM VG[ 5|F6LVMGF `J;G £FZF CO2 JFTFJZ6 DF\ 5FKM VFJ[ K[P
  • SFA"GRS|
  • D'TN[CGF lJ38GYL 56 CO2JFTFJZ6DF\ D]ST YFI K[P
  • VH{lJS 5|lS|IFVM H[JL S[ VlxD A/T64 ,FS0]\4 SM,;M JU[Z[ GF NCGYL CO2 JFTFJZ6DF\ 9,JFI K[P
  • VF{nMlUS S|F\lT VFJJFYL DFGJLV[ DM8F 5|DF6DF\ VlxD A/T6G]\ NCG X~ SI]" tIFZYL VFH ;]WL JFTFJZ6DF\ CO2G]\ 5|DF6 A[U6]\ YI]\ K[P VF AFAT Z;5|N ZLT[ GM\WJF H[JL K[P
  • U|LGCFp; V;ZCO2U|LGCFp; V;Z ;}I"5|SFX 5'yJLGL VF;5F; VFJ[,F JFTFJZ6 DF\YL 5;FZ Y. 5'yJLGL ;5F8L 5Z 5CM\R[ K[PVF 5|SFXGL V;Z C[9/ JFTFJZ6 VG[ 5'yJLGL ;5F8L UZD YFI K[P5'yJLGL ;5F8L 5ZYL 5ZFJT"G 5FDTF\ lSZ6M VF JFTFJZ6 DF\YL 5;FZ Y. VJSFX TZO 5|;Z[ K[PJFTFJZ6DF\ ZC[,M CO2JFI] ,F\AL TZ\U,\AF. WZFJTF\ >gO|FZ[0 lSZ6MG[ XMQF[ K[ VG[ 5'yJL TZO 5FKF\ 5ZFJ"lTT SZ[ K[PVF SFZ6;Z 5'yJLGL VF;5F; JFTFJZ6G]\ TF5DFG pQ6 ZC[ K[ H[G[ U|LGCFp; V;Z SC[ K[ U|LGCFp; V;Z U|LGCFp; V;Z 5|[ZTF\ JFI]G[ U|LGCFp; JFI] SC[ K[P U|LGCFp; JFI] TZLS[ CO2p5ZF\T CH44 N2O4 CFC,HFC4 K[PVF AWF JFI]VMGF JFTFJZ6DF\ JWTF 5|DF6YL 5'yJLGF ;Z[ZFX TF5DFGDF\ JWFZM YX[4 H[ J{l`JS TF5DFG DF8[ HJFANFZ AGX[PVMlS;HGRS|VMlS;HGRS|VMlS;HG HLJGG[ VFWFZ VF5TM 5'yJLGF JFTFJZ6GM EFU K[P T[ JFTFJZ6GF S], JFI]VMGM 21% EFU K[P VMlS;HG ACM/F 5|DF6DF\ lDz :J~5[ E}lDDF\ VG[ CO2 :J~5[ CJFDF\ CMI K[P SFAM"CF.0=[8 RZAL45|M8LG VG[ gI]lS,.S V[l;0 H[JF SFA"lGS 5NFYM"G]\ D}/E}T A\WFZ6LI TtJ K[PVMlS;HG RS| B}A H Hl8, RS| K[P CO2GF 38S TZLS[ VMlS;HG D]ST ZLT[ H{JFJZ6DF\ 5lZE|D6 SZ[ K[P GF.8=MHG ;\IMHGM ;FY[ HM0F. T[ GF.8=[8 AGFJ[ K[PVMlS;HGRS|HIFZ[ lJlJW WFT]VM ;FY[ ;\IMHF. VMS;F.0G]\ lGDF"6 SZ[ K[PJFTFJZ6DF\GM VMlS;HG NCG4`J;G VG[ VMS;F.0 GF lGDF"6DF\ 5|lS|IFVMDF\ J5ZFI K[P 5|SFX;\`,[QF6 5|lS|IF DFZOT[ VMlS;HG JFTFJZ6DF\ 5FKM 9,JFI K[P`J;GGL 5|lS|IF DF8[ VMlS;HG H~ZL K[P 5Z\T] S[8,FS A[S8[lZIF DF8[ TtJLI VMlS;HG CFlGSFZS K[PVMhMG:TZ
  • JFTFJZ6GF p5ZGF EFUDF\ VMlS;HGGF +6 5ZDF6] VM WZFJTM V6] D/[ K[ H[G[ VMhMG(O3) V6] SC[ K[P
  • JFTFJZ6DF\ VFJ[,]\ VMhMGG]\ :TZ ;}I"DF\YL GLS/TF\ 5FZHF\A,L lJlSZ6MG[ XMQF6 SZL4 ,[ K[ VG[ 5'yJL 5ZGF ;HLJMG]\ Z1F6 SZ[ K[P
  • VMhMG :TZGL HF0F. T[GL CFlGSFZS lSZ6M XMQFJFGL 1FDTF GSSL SZ[ K[P VF :TZ H[8,]\ JW] HF0]\ T[8,L T[GL VF 1FDTF JW]P VMhMG :TZ W|]J5|N[X 5F;[ HF0]\ K[ VG[ lJQF'JJ'T 5|N[X TZO HTF\ T[ 5FT/]\ AG[ K[P
  • TFH[TZDF\ VF VMhMG :TZDF\ lJ38G GM\WFI]\ K[P lO|H VG[ V[ZSlg0XGZDF\ p5IMUDF\ ,[JFT]\ CFC JFTFJZ6DF\ D]ST Y. VMhMG :TZ ;]WL 5CM\R[ K[ tIFZ[ T[ VMhMGGF V6]VM ;FY[ lS|IF SZL VMhMG :TZG]\ lJ38G SZ[ K[PVMhMG:TZVMhMG:TZGF 38F0FYL YTL CFGLSFZS V;ZM
  • RFD0LGF S[g;ZGF AGFJMDF\ JWFZMP
  • VF\BGF DMlTIFDF\ T[DH ;}I"5|SFXYL A/TZFDF\ DM8F 5FI[ JWFZMP
  • ;HLJMDF\ ZMU5|lTSFZS T\+ lGlQS|I YJ]\P
  • WFgI VG[ 5|F6LVM 5Z lJ5ZLT V;ZMP
  • 5'yJLGF DCF;FUZMDF\ ZC[,F OFI8M %,[gS8MGGL J'lâDF\ 38F0MP
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