Preparation of Banana Flavors

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Preparation of Banana Flavors 2 Bio 6 Ramon Asturiano, Justine Baquiran, Nathan Batungbacal*, Carmela Bulang Bs Biology, Department of Science, University of Sto. Tomas, Sampaloc Manila Abstract This experiment was conducted to exhibit the sythesis of banana flavoring in the laboratory through the esterification of isoamyl alcohol and acetic anhydride with the use of the Fischer-Speier reaction. The set-up used was the reflux modified with a water bath at the constant temperature between 75-80o
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  Preparation of Banana Flavors 2 Bio 6Ramon Asturiano, Justine Baquiran, Nathan Batungbacal*, Carmela Bulang Bs Biology, Department of Science, University of Sto. Tomas, Sampaloc Manila Abstract This experiment was conducted to exhibit the sythesis of banana flavoring inthe laboratory through the esterification of isoamyl alcohol and acetic anhydridewith the use of the Fischer-Speier reaction. The set-up used was the reflux modifiedwith a water bath at the constant temperature between 75-80 o Celsius. The actualyield that was attained was 0.6005 grams of banana essence (Isoacetate). The theorecialyield, on the other hand, was computed to be 2.99 grams. The percent yield wasdertermined to be 20.08%. IntroductionFood chemistry plays an important role in culinary enterprises nowadays. It deals with the biological and non-biological components of food and its chemicalprocesses. As businesses heighten in the food industry, there is a need to developnewer and cheaper ways of incorporating flavoring in snacks or beverages without decreasing the quality of flavor of the food. Using artificial flavoring may bring manybenefits such as prolonging the shelf life or simply enhancing the tastiness of food.[4]Esters are organic compounds that have a distinct scent or flavor to them.They can easily be synthesized in the laboratory through the utilization of theFischer-Speier reaction. Any compound that has the functional group ester wouldinclude the structure . This would then enable the compound to H O H| || |H-C — C — O — C-H| |H H  have a certain aroma or flavor that could then be added to food after it has been wellor properly purified. The [3] Fischer-Speier reaction is a type of esterificationtechnique that requires refluxing a carboxylic acid and an alcohol with the aid of anacid catalyst. In the reaction, the carboxylic acid and the alcohol reactants are inequilibrium with the ester product. The Fischer-Speier reaction is also considered asan example of a nucleophilic acyl stubstitution when based on the electrophilicity of the carbonyl carbons and the nucleophilicity of the alcohol reagents within thechemical equation and the experiment.Despite to its simplicity, the Fischer-Speier reaction also holds somedisadvantages in esterification. One example of its disadvantage is the in thethermodynamic flow in the aspect that it is reversible. Another disadvantage wouldbe its slow reaction rates. This could pose as a problem especially when thereactants that are being used are compounds that are sensitive to strong acids.   Coupling the Fischer-Speier reaction would be the use of the reflux set-up.The reflux set-up allow for reactions that require heat to take place with minimalloss of reactants that have high volatility such as alcohol. The reflux set-up hasseveral crucial components that allow it to be efficient. The distilling flask is thecontainer where the reactants of the Fischer-Speier reaction will usually be placed.The flask is attached to the condenser that has a constant flow of cooling waterflowing through it. This cools the interior of the tube of the condenser condensingand hindering the alcohol or highly volatile liquids from escaping. The condenserhas an incurrent passage and an excurrent passage to expel the water.Another aspect the experiment has aimed to tackle is to display a specificfiltration method called extraction. This method is only efficient for liquid-liquidisolation. It is usually done with the help of a separation funnel. The funnel isshaped like a water droplet with the topside globular and the bottom side funnelshaped. The top end has a small opening for the entry of reagents or liquids withdifferent densities while the opposite end has a valve to allow and segregate theliquids.  Results and Discussion The chemical formula in preparing a banana essence ester is:Isoamyl Alcohol (Ialc*) + Acetic Anhydride (AA*) => Isoacetate (Ia*) + Acetic Acid(Aa*) * For convenience’s sake, we will use these abbreviations in parentheses () in computationsBeing that this reaction is a sythesis of esters, the reagents are in equilibriumwitht the products. The chemical formula therefore, depicts 1:1 ratios among thereagents and the products. Given that there is an availability of 2.5 ml isoamylalcohol and 2.6 ml of acetic anhydride, it is possible to determine the limitingreagent and the theoretical yield. Once the theoretical yield is known and theexperiment has been conducted with the weighed product, the percent yield canthen be computed for.The given densities and molecular weight for:Isoamyl alcohol is:0.8092 g/ml 88.2 g/molAcetic anhydride is:2.8132 g/ml 102.1 g/molWith the desities given, the mass of the reactants can now be calculated asfollows:2.5 ml isoamyl alcohol x 0.8092 g/ml = 2.023 g2.6 ml acetic anhydride x 1.0820 g/ml = 2.8132 g  These values are the grams of isoamyl alcohol and acetic anhydride given forthe experiment. With these, we can now find out the limiting reagent.2.8132 g AA x 1 mol AA x 1 mol Ialc x 88.2 g Ialc =102.1 g AA 1 mol AA 1 mol IalcBecause only 2.023 grams of isoamyl alcohol is given when the equationrequires 2.430 g, isoamyl alcohol is therefore the limiting reagent as 2.430 g(theoretical computation) > 2.023 g (amount given).2.023 g Ialc x 1 mol Ialc x 1 mol AA x 102.1 g AA =88.2 g Ialc 1 mol Ialc 1 mol AAThe required amount for acetic anhydrate is only 2.34 grams when 2.8132grams is available. This means that acetic anhydrate is the excess reagent.To find the theoretical yield, one must use the mass of the limiting reagent because the amount of product produced is directly proportional to the limitingreagent available. In an analogy, no matter how may tires a car company has, if onlythree chassis are available then only three cars can be produced.2.023 g Ialc x 1 mol Ialc x 1 mol Ia x 130.2 g Ia =88.2 g Ialc 1 mol Ialc 1 mol Ia2.430 g Ialc2.34 g AA2.99 g Ia
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