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to Fausto de SANTIS (President of the CEPEJ from 2007 to 2010) Contents Chapter 1. The evaluation process of the CEPEJ ........................................................................... 5 1.1 The European Commission for the Efficiency of Justice ............................................................ 5 1.2 The Scheme for evaluating judicial systems .............................................................................. 5 1.3 Data collection, validation and analysis ......
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    to Fausto de SANTIS (President of the CEPEJ from 2007 to 2010)  2 Contents Chapter 1.   The evaluation process of the CEPEJ ........................................................................... 5   1.1   The European Commission for the Efficiency of Justice ............................................................ 5   1.2   The Scheme for evaluating judicial systems .............................................................................. 5   1.3   Data collection, validation and analysis ...................................................................................... 6   1.4   General methodological issues .................................................................................................. 7   1.5   General economic and demographic figures ............................................................................ 11   1.6    Analysing the findings of the report .......................................................................................... 13   Chapter 2.   Public Expenditures: courts, prosecution system and legal aid .............................. 17   2.1   Public expenditure on the operation of judicial system: overview ............................................ 17   2.2   Public budget allocated to the courts........................................................................................ 27   2.3   Public budget allocated to the public prosecution services ...................................................... 41   2.4   Public budget allocated to the legal aid system ....................................................................... 45   2.5   Public budget allocated to all courts and public prosecution (without legal aid) ...................... 48   2.6   Public budget allocated to all courts and legal aid (excluding prosecution services) ............... 50   2.7   Public budget allocated to all courts, public prosecution services and legal aid ...................... 53   2.8   Trends and conclusions ............................................................................................................ 60   Chapter 3.   Access to justice ............................................................................................................ 62   3.1   Various types of legal aid ......................................................................................................... 62   3.2   The budget for legal aid ............................................................................................................ 66   3.3   Conditions for granting legal aid ............................................................................................... 70   3.4   Court fees, taxes and reimbursement ...................................................................................... 73   3.5   The revenues of the judicial system ......................................................................................... 76   3.6   Trends and conclusions ............................................................................................................ 81   Chapter 4. Users of the courts: rights and public confidence ........................................................ 83   4.1   Provisions regarding supply of information to the court users ................................................. 83   4.2   Protection of vulnerable persons .............................................................................................. 85   4.3   Role of the public prosecutor in protecting the rights or assisting the victims of crimes .......... 88   4.4   Compensation procedures ....................................................................................................... 89   4.5   Compensation of the users for dysfunction of the judicial system and complaints .................. 90   4.6    Assessment of the satisfaction of users ................................................................................... 93   4.7   Trends and conclusions ............................................................................................................ 96   Chapter 5.   Courts .............................................................................................................................. 97   5.1   Court organisation .................................................................................................................... 97   5.2   Budgetary powers within courts .............................................................................................. 108   5.3   Information and communication technology (ICT) in the courts (e-justice and e-courts) ....... 109   5.4   Quality and performance of the courts  –  Evaluation .............................................................. 118   5.5   Trends and conclusions .......................................................................................................... 128   Chapter 6.   Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) ....................................................................... 129   6.1   Different forms of ADR............................................................................................................ 129   6.2   Mediation ................................................................................................................................ 132   6.3    Arbitration, conciliation and other forms of ADR .................................................................... 141   6.4   Trends and conclusions .......................................................................................................... 142   Chapter 7.   Judges ........................................................................................................................... 143   7.1   Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 143   7.2   Professional judges ................................................................................................................ 145   7.3   Professional judges sitting occasionally ................................................................................. 151   7.4   Non-professional judges ......................................................................................................... 151   7.5   Trial by jury and participation of citizens................................................................................. 154   7.6   Trends and conclusions .......................................................................................................... 156   Chapter 8.   Non-judge staff ............................................................................................................. 157   8.1   Non-judge staff: number and distribution ............................................................................... 157   8.2   Rechtspfleger .......................................................................................................................... 165   8.3   Trends and conclusions .......................................................................................................... 167   Chapter 9.   Fair trial and court activity .......................................................................................... 168   9.1   Legal representation in court .................................................................................................. 169    3 9.2   Possibility to challenge a judge .............................................................................................. 170   9.3   Cases related to Article 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights ............................ 171   9.4   Civil (and commercial) litigious and non-litigious cases in first instance courts ..................... 175   9.5   Land register cases ................................................................................................................ 186   9.6   Business register cases .......................................................................................................... 189   9.7   Enforcement cases (non-criminal litigious cases) .................................................................. 191   9.8    Administrative law cases ........................................................................................................ 194   9.9   Clearance rate for the total number of civil, commercial and administrative law cases ......... 196   9.10   Criminal law cases (severe criminal offences) and misdemeanour cases (minor offences) in 1 st  instance courts ................................................................................................................... 198   9.11   Comparing case categories: procedure and length ................................................................ 207   9.12   Measures to increase the efficiency of judicial proceedings .................................................. 226   9.13   Trends and conclusions .......................................................................................................... 229   Chapter 10.   Prosecutors .............................................................................................................. 231   10.1   Number of public prosecutors, persons with similar duties and staff ..................................... 232   10.2   Role and powers of public prosecutors .................................................................................. 237   10.3   Case proceedings managed by public prosecutors ............................................................... 239   10.4   Trends and conclusions .......................................................................................................... 246   Chapter 11.   Status and career of judges and prosecutors ...................................................... 247   11.1   Recruitment and nomination ................................................................................................... 247   11.2 Status of prosecutors ............................................................................................................... 250   11.3   Training ................................................................................................................................... 251   11.4   Salaries of judges and prosecutors ........................................................................................ 260   11.5   Bonuses and other profits for judges and prosecutors ........................................................... 272   11.6   Career of judges and prosecutors .......................................................................................... 274   11.7   Responsibility of judges and prosecutors ............................................................................... 288   11.8   Trends and conclusions .......................................................................................................... 306   Chapter 12.   Lawyers .................................................................................................................... 307   12.1   Number of lawyers .................................................................................................................. 308   12.2   Organisation of the profession and training ............................................................................ 311   12.3   Practice of the profession ....................................................................................................... 315   12.4   Trends and conclusions .......................................................................................................... 327   Chapter 13.   Execution of court decisions ................................................................................. 328   13.1   Enforcement of court decisions in civil, commercial and administrative law .......................... 328   13.2   Execution of court decisions in criminal matters .................................................................... 348   13.3   Trends and conclusions .......................................................................................................... 351   Chapter 14.   The notaries ............................................................................................................. 352   14.1   Status, number and functions ................................................................................................. 352   14.2   Supervision of the profession of notary .................................................................................. 356   14.3   Trends and conclusions .......................................................................................................... 358   Chapter 15.   Judicial experts........................................................................................................ 359   15.1   Different kinds of judicial experts ............................................................................................ 359   15.2   Selection of judicial experts .................................................................................................... 361   15.3   Number of judicial experts (technical experts) ....................................................................... 363   15.4   Quality of judicial experts and protection of the title and the function of judicial expert ......... 365   15.5   Trends and conclusions .......................................................................................................... 367   Chapter 16.   Court interpreters .................................................................................................... 368   16.1.   Number of court interpreters ................................................................................................... 368   16.2   Title and function of court interpreters .................................................................................... 370   16.3   Selection of court interpreters by the courts ........................................................................... 372   16.4   Trends and conclusions .......................................................................................................... 374   Chapter 17.   Judicial Reforms ...................................................................................................... 375   Chapter 18.   Towards more efficiency and quality in the European judicial systems ........... 384   18.1    Access to justice ..................................................................................................................... 384   18.2   Effective functioning of the judicial systems ........................................................................... 386   18.3   Quality of the public service of justice delivered to the users ................................................. 387   18.4   Protection of the independence of the judiciary and the statute of judges and prosecutors .. 389    4 Appendix ............................................................................................................................................ 390    Additional tables ............................................................................................................................... 390   Scheme for evaluating judicial systems ......................................................................................... 392   Explanatory note to the scheme for evaluating judicial systems ................................................ 422  
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