REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND SUSTAINABILITY Cultural Tourism in the Southern Region of Jalisco

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This study aims to propose a normative model to determine the potential of cultural tourism in the municipalities that comprise the region 6 of the State of Jalisco, territorially delimited in the South of Jalisco. First of all, an anlaysis is
  SECTION I SUSTAINABLE ANDRESPONSIBLE TOURISM  3 CHAPTER 1 REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT ANDSUSTAINABILITY Cultural Tourism in theSouthern Region of Jalisco 1.1ABSTRACT This study aims to propose a normative model to determine the potential of cultural tourismin the municipalities that comprise the region 6 of the State of Jalisco, territorially delimitedin the South of Jalisco. First of all, an anlaysis is conducted to determine the demand forcultural tourism to draw the cultural tourist profile under the assumptions that the tourists,motivated by culture tend to travel longer distances than other tourists. The study discussesthe motivations and satisfactions of cultural tourists to establish the potential market inaccordance with the characteristics of the target market in the Southern region of Jalisco. Anyoperation of cultural tourism companies should make the strategic diagnosis. This explains theuse of SWOT analysis as a tool for strategic planning of cultural tourism enterprises. Finally,we propose development strategies for cultural tourism in the region of Southern Jalisco. K EYWORDS : regional development, tourism companies, Southern Jalisco, cultural tourism 1.2INTRODUCTION There is an increasing awareness of culture, arts, festivals, heritage sites (natural and cultural),and folklore. Cultural diversity is the base of cultural and heritage tourism. Cultural tourism—D R . J OSE  G. V ARGAS -H ERNANDEZ  4   S USTAINABLE    AND  R  ESPONSIBLE  T OURISM : T RENDS , P RACTICES    AND  C  ASES has been at the centre of the tourism industry in Europe and now other countries are alsotaking steps to develop their own activities (Nzama, Magi and Ngcobo, 2005). Culturaltourism is a tourism product by itself and can make significant contributions to the regionaleconomic development. Development implies the design, marketing and promotion of newcultural and heritage tourism products and activities while creating a safe and user-friendlyatmosphere for visitors and local communities.Despite that the Southern region of the State of Jalisco in México is considered oneof the most culturally rich in manifestations and expressions. In Latin American literature,painting, etc., cultural tourism is almost non-existent. Local communities tend not to beactively interested in cultural tourism related issues and do not understand what the benefitscould be. Besides, there is absence of reliable data on cultural tourism for the Southern regionof Jalisco.Cultural tourism is neither common nor universal. It may not be considered as part of the core interests of an organization, government or community, but they appreciate andunderstand the consequences and possibilities of tourism (Jamieson, 1998). There is alsoscarce data and information on practice of cultural tourism activities. Social dynamic changesoccurring in the Southern Region of Jalisco make it difficult to obtain useful information tobe used a reliable input for the design, implementation and effectiveness of cultural tourismpolicies.The objective of this study is to address the lack of cultural tourism activities andinfrastructure in the Southern Region of Jalisco. One of the aims of this exploratory study isto collect inputs on whether the Southern Region of Jalisco can be transformed into a culturaltourism destination. The concept of cultural tourism can be formulated after understandingthe cultural activities offered by a community and considered as an asset to the regionaleconomic development. Cultural tourism is an option to create employment, to improve thequality of life and to eradicate poverty.As a marketing strategy, cultural tourism is one of the latest buzzwords to attract visitorsto cultural sites. Cultural tourism destinations offering cultural products and services linked bygeography, townships, folklore, history, celebrations, art experiences and performance can bemarketed to local and foreign visitors. Cultural tourism in the Southern Region of Jalisco canoffer potential benefits to the regional economic development and to visitors as well, becauseit has got the resources. The approach involving all stakeholders must be inclusive andparticipative to ensure sustainable, holistic and efficient cultural tourism ventures.The term ‘cultural tourism’ is heavily influenced by professional approaches to bereferred more as a concept than as a particular set of objects, articles or products. The WorldTourism Organization (WTO) defines tourism as comprising the activities of personstravelling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than oneconsecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes (WTO, 2000:4). Cultural tourism isdefined as the movements of persons for essentially cultural motivations, which includesstudy tours, performing arts, cultural tours, travel to festivals, visits to historic sites andmonuments, folklore and pilgrimages (WTO, 1985).The concept of cultural tourism encompasses a wide range of views embracing a fullrange of human expressions and manifestations that visitors undertake to experience theheritages, arts, lifestyles, etc. from people living in cultural destinations. Heritage tourism isusually considered to be cultural tourism. Heritage tourism refers to tourists visiting places of   Chapter 1R  EGIONAL  D EVELOPMENT    AND  S USTAINABILITY : C ULTURAL  T OURISM ...   5 traditional, historical and cultural significance with the aim of learning, paying respect torecreational purposes (Nzama et al., 2005).The term ‘cultural tourism’ encompasses historical sites, arts and craft fairs andfestivals, museums of all kinds, the performing arts and the visual arts and other heritage siteswhich tourists enjoy to visit in pursuit of cultural experiences (Tighe, 1985). Heritage tourism,as a synonymous of cultural tourism, is an experiential tourism related to visiting preferredlandscape, historic sites, buildings or monuments and seeking an encounter, involvement andstimulation with nature or feeling part of the history of a place (Hall and Zeppel, 1990).A cultural tourist is a person who stays more than 40 kilometres away from home forat least one night and has attended a cultural venue, which will include visiting an art gallery,museum, library, music concert, opera and a cinema (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 1997).Hall (1998) defines cultural tourism as tourism that focuses on the culture of a destination, thelifestyle, heritage, arts industries and leisure pursuits of the local population.Cultural tourism is related to the cultural aspects that include the customs and traditionsof people, their heritage, history and way of life. The International Council of Monumentsand Sites (ICOMOS) defines cultural tourism as “a name that means many things to manypeople and herein lies its strength and its weakness” (McKercher and Cros, 2002:24). Culturaltourism theory is only beginning to debate issues of gender specialization (Aitchson, 2003).Cultural tourism refers to travel that is directed towards providing opportunities andaccess to visitors to experiencing the arts and crafts, museums, heritage, festivals, music,dance, theatres, literature, historic sites and buildings, landscapes, neighbourhoods and specialcharacter of local communities. Cultural tourism relates to the temporary short-term move-ment of people to cultural destinations outside the place of residence and work, and wheretheir activities at these destinations or facilities cater for their recreation needs (Keyser, 2002).Cultural tourism associates the word “tourist and cultural attraction” with the tangible andintangible cultural heritage. Cultural tourism is the attendance by inbound visitors to one ormore cultural attractions such as festivals, fairs, museums, art galleries, history buildings andcraft workshops (Bureau of Tourism Research, 2004).Ivanovic (2008) and Cooper et al. (2008) maintain that the greatest motivator for travelis to understand culture and heritage, both emerging as contributing to economic develop-ment. Ivanovic (2008) argues that cultural and heritage tourism is a recent development in thetourism activities, and with ecotourism are emerging as the predominant forms of tourism andreplacing sun-lust mass tourism. Cultural attractions and events play a key role in culturaltourism and hospitality destinations to entice visitors (George, 2001). Cultural tourism istravelling to experience and to participate in vanishing lifestyles that lie within humanmemory (Goeldner and Ritchie, 2009).The aim of cultural tourism policy is to influence and attract visitors (Williams andShaw, 1991:263). Tourists with special interest in culture belong to the segment of ‘culturaltourism’, i.e. size and value are directly attributable to the country’s cultural values thatencourage tourists to take a trip. Tourists with occasional interest in culture belong to othertourism segments (CESTUR). A special programme of incentives for tourism related toculture or values must recognize contributions that tourism can have for culture and viceversa, to capitalize on the positive and generate synergies for the development of both sectors.Within the designing and developing process, cultural tourism may take many forms.Sharma (2004) adds to the cultural resources debate advocating the economic benefits of 
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