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EUGENE GARFIELD INSTITUTE FOR SCIENTIFIC 350 MARKET ST, PHILADELPHIA, PA 904 The 983 Articles Most Cited in the SSCZ, Part. From Anthropology to Urban Studies: A Second Group of Papers
EUGENE GARFIELD INSTITUTE FOR SCIENTIFIC 350 MARKET ST, PHILADELPHIA, PA 904 The 983 Articles Most Cited in the SSCZ, Part. From Anthropology to Urban Studies: A Second Group of Papers Represents 30 of the 54 SSCJ Subject Categories, Includhg sociology, Education, and Public Health Number 44 In the first part of this essay we presented a Bibliography of highly cited 983 papers based on data from the Social Sciences Citation Indexm (SSCP ). As noted, articles from psychology and psychiatry journals dominated that first list. In this second part, we decided to obtain a broader representation of subject fields from the SSCI. To do this, we used the subject categories in the SSCI. These subject categories organize rdl of the fully covered SSCI journals into disciplinary and subdisciplinary categories. We examined the list of 983 S,SC]articles ranked by citations and selected the top-cited article from each of the subject categories. The list contained items cited at least 0 times; our initial selection of highly cited articles represented 30 subject categories. Because of the citation threshold, 3 other categories were not represented. To round out the list, we went through the categories again, searching each for a second highly cited paper. In of the 30 categories, there was at least one additional paper cited at a level above the threshold. In all, the selection procedure prcduced a total of 5 papers. In Table we list the 54 SSCl subject categories. Twelve of these categories were represented by the papers in Part of this study. As mentioned above, 30 categories are represented in this second part. Asterisks in Table mark the 3 categories with papers that were cited below the threshold for inclusion in this study. The Bibliography The 5 papers appear in the accompanying Bibliography. They are listed in alphabetic order by first author. The highest num- November, 987 ber of citations is 4, the lowest is 0, and the average, 5.4. Twenty-seven of the papers are core to Science Citation Irsdex (SCF )/ SSCI research fronts. These fronts, as I ve explained, are subject-related clusters of papers that develop as authors collectively cite or co-cite a group of previous papers, which become the core documents for those fronts. Table is a list of 985 research fronts whose cores contain at least two papers from the Bibliography. Twenty-five of the papers in the Bibliography do not appear in the core of any research fronts. These papers, although highly cited, were not co-cited with other papers frequently enough to be identified as core documents. Any well-citai paper may represent a putative research front, but each case needs to & examined separately. Included in Table is a front deahng with Foraging behavior and prey seleztion in various species (#85-864). Sixty papers are core to this 985 front, which has more than 580 citing items. The size of a front is determined by the number of published papers that cite into it. Two of the core dcwuments to research front # are in the Bibliography: Toward the identification of formation processes, by Michael B. Schiffer, Department of Anthropology, University of Arizona, Tucson; and Anthropological applications of optimal foraging theory: a critical review, by Eric Alden Smith, assistant professor of anthropology, University of Washington, Seattle. Those interested in online searching of fronts, incidentally, can turn to the Data-Star database. Data-Star is an online vendor whose software permits users to identifi pertinent research fronts by name 39 and number. You can also search by research-front weight. The weight is determined by the number of the research front s core documents cited among an article s references. The higher the weight, the more core documents cited and the stronger the relevance to the research-front subject. Relevance weight allows you to rank order the papers retrieved in a search and is useful when a large number of papers is involved. Jowmals The papers in the Bibliography appeared in 43 journals, which are listed in Table 3 along with their 985 impact factors. The top nine journals listed account for about 34.6 percent of the articles in the study. There are 94 unique authors in the Bibliography, with an average of.9 authors per paper. Three authors appear twice. Fifty-one institutions are represented. Thirty-eight of them appear once, twice, and, the University of California, appears six times. In Table 4 we present a listing of geographical locations of the institutional affiliations, showing the five countries represented in the Bibliography. A Selection of Papers The papers in the Bibliography cover a range of topics, including business, environmental studies, demography, international relations, archaeology, urban studies, and information and library science, among many others. Below we discuss a few of the papers that were identified as most cited out of all the highly cited papers in this Bibliography. With each we include mention of the SSCjourrtal category in which the paper was identified. One of these papers is The iron cage revisited: institutional isomotphlsm and collective rationality in organizational fields, by Paul J. DiMaggio and Waker W. Powell, School of Organization and Management, Yrde University, New Haven, Comecticut. Discussing structural change in organizations, the authors contend that bureaucratization and other forms of organizational change occur as a result of processes that make organizations more similar without making them more efficient. They identify three processes by which these changes take place and also discuss implications for theories of organizations and smial change. This paper was cited in 4 publications between 983and 985 and was the most-cited paper in the SSCl sociology category. A study of marriage and the family, by Stephen A. Anderson, Human Development and Family Relations, University of Connecticut, Storrs, and Candyce S. Russell and Waker R. Schurnm, both of the Department of Family and Child Development, Kansas State University, Manhattan, was the second highest cited paper in the sociology category (and was also among the most-cited papers in the Bibliography). Perceived marital quality and family life-cycle categories: a further anrdysis ap~ared in thejournal of Marriage and the Family. This study examines the utility of the family life cycle, a categorical series of stages in the life of a family, in predicting various aspects of perceived marital quality. Anderson and colleagues noted, among other findings, that family life cycle and total number of children were significant predictors of marital quality. This paper was cited in 3 publications. The most-cited paper in the category of public health is Measuring severity of illness: comparisons across institutions, an article from the American Journal of Public Health by Susan Dadakis Horn, Department of Health Services Administration, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland. This paper discusses a severity-of-illness index designed to improve allocation of healthcare resources. As the author notes, conventional methods of classi&ng patients admitted to hospitals are based primarily on diagnostic criteria. These methods do not take into account the great range of severity of illness that exists within each diagnostic category and hence may not reflect a patient s use of expensive care modalities. An index based on severity of illness, she notes, is one step towards improving the analysis and alhxation of health-care funds. This paper was cited in 4 publications between 983 and 985. Another of these highly cited articles, lie the Horn paper above, came from the category of public herdth and appeared in the herican Journal of Public Health. This paper, by Herbert J. Schlesinger and colleagues, University of Colorado School of 30 Table : The SSCF subject categories in alphabetic order. Asterisks (*) indkate categories not represented in either of the two parta of this study. Anthropology Management Archaeology *Nursing *Ara Studies *Philosophy Business Planning & Development Business, Finance Politicat Science *Communication Psychiatry *Criminology & Penology Psychology Demography Psychology, Applied Drugs & ArMction Psychology, Clinical Economics Psychology, Developmental Education & Educational Research Psychology, Educational Education, Special Psychology, Experimental Environmental Studies Psychology, Mathematics Ergonomics Psychology, Sccial *Ethnic Studies Public Administration Farrrity Studies Public Health *Geography *Rehabilitation Geriatrics & Gerontology *Religion Health Policy & Services Histnry WrcialIssues Social Sciences, Biomedical Histnry & Philosophy of Science Social Sciences, Interdisciplinary *History of Social Sciences *Sncial Sciences, Mathematical Methcds Industrial Relations & LAnr *Sncird Work Information Science & Library Science.%ciology International Relations Transpnrrarion Language & Linguistics Urban SNdleS Law Women s Studies Table : llre 985SCP /SSCP research fronts that includeat least two of the papm intlw Bibliography as core dncurrwnta.a=number of papsra in the Bbfingraphyincluded in the cnre of each reaearcb fmrrt. B=total numb-m of core documents. C= total number of 985 citing documents. Nrrmber Name ABC Effects nf confrwative learning on student achievements and other research on effective school methods g5-g64 Foraging behavior and prey selection in various spies Evaluating scientific research performarrcc Arratvaesof negotiations and mediation in management, rrranagement-labnrrelations, 6 7 u:ons, and ;otlective bargaining Medicine, Denver, discusses outpatient mental-health treatment following the onset of a chronic disease in a fee-for-service system. Assessing costs for medical services incurred by patients diagnosed with chronic disease, the authors compared patients who received mental-health treatment with patients who did not. Their restiits showed that the persons who received mental-health treatment had lower medicai charges than thoss who did not. The authors note that outpatient mental-health treatment can be a means of improving the quality and lowering the cost of fee-for-setwice medical care. The category of education and educational research prcduced Research on effective schools: a cautionary note, by Brian Rowan and CO~CX3gUeS,Far West hboratory for Educational Research and Development, San Francisco, California. This paper reviews research on school effectiveness. According to the authors, such research has suffered from consistent problems in design and execution. As such, it provides a poor model of how to assess school effectiveness. The authors offer an agenda for future research, noting that future research should test explanations for why schools have effects on student achievement and arrive at a richer understanding of the school as a formal organization. This paper, also cited 4 times, is of 39 core documents for a 985 research front included in Table, Effects of cooperative learning on student achievements and other research on effective school methods (#85-080). 3 Table 3: The 43 journals that published the articles in the Bibliography. The numbers in parentheses arethe impact factors for the joumats. (The 985 impact factor equals the number of 985 citations received by tbe articles in a jnurnat divided by the number of ar-riclespublishedby thejnumaf during the same perind.) The 985immedmcyindexiacakldated by dividingthe number of 985citations to a joumaj s 985articles by tbe total number of source items the journal published in 985. Data were taken from the 985 Number of hmnedfacy Jourmif Papera Index Amer. Antiq. (.0) Amer. J. Public Health (.3) Amer. Polit. Sci. Rev. (.0) Commentary (0.8) Gerontologist (.) Ind. Labor Relat. Rev. (.) Linguist. Inq. (.3) Signs (.4) SW..%i. Med. (0.6) Addict. Behav. (0.7) Admin. Sci. Quart. (.9) Amer. J. Mere. Defic. (.0) Amer. J. Phys. Arrthropol. (.4) Amer. Suciol. Rev. (.9) Artif. Intell. (3.9) Curr. Anthropcd. (.) Demography (. ) Educ. Researcher (N/A) Elem. Sch. J. (.) Environ. Plan. A (.0) Environ. Plan. D SUC. Srrace (.0) Farm Planning Perspect. (0.9) Farm Precess (0.5) Foreign Aff. (.) Int. J. Addict. (0.4) Irrt. J. Urban Reg. Res. (0.9) J. Amer. SW. Inform. Sci. (.) J. Conflict Rescdut. (0.9) J. Crmaum. Res. (.8) J. Finarr. (.0) J. Marriage Fare. (.0) J. Morwy Cre&I Banking (0.9) Manage. Sci. (0.9) Merit. Retard. (0.8) Milbarrk Mere. Fund Q. (.4) ONLJNE (.) Oper. Res. (0.8) Pop. Stud.-J. Demogr. (.3) Publ. Admin. Rev. (0.7) Res. Policy (,3) Res. Organ. Behav. (N/A) SW. Stud. Sci. (.) Trarrsp. Res. Pt. B Method. (0,6) I I NIA 0, N/A Two more of the highly cited papers in this study were coauthored by Ben R. Martin and John Irvine, Science Policy Research Unit, University of Sussex, UK. A paper from Social Studies of Science, Assessing basic research: the case of the Isaac Newton telescope, cited times, was the mostcited paper in the SSChistory and philowphy of science category. Their other paper, Assessing basic research: some partird indicators of scientific progress in radio astronomy, from Research Policy, was the most-cited paper in the planning and development category, with 5 citations. Irvine and Martin have developed a methodology for assessing basic research that includes, among other indicators, the use of citation analysis. This methodology and the authors conclusions regarding research at various institutions have engendered considerable discussion. A 985 issue of Social Studies of Science, for example, featured a series of critiques of Irvine and Martin s evaluative methods, along with a response from the authors. z-s It was interesting to discover that one of the most-cited papers in the SSCI category for information and library science for 983 was written by two Scolleagues, Catheryne Stout and Thomas Marcinko. Their paper, which appeared in ONLINE, discusses SCI-MAl 7&, S ssotlware package for text and data management and online searching. This paper received citations from 983 to 985 and was cited 6 more times in 986. Cited Books by These Authors Several of the authors in this study have written highly cited books. For example, E.A. Wrigley, asseciate director, and R.S. Schofield, director, ScteialScience Research Council, Cambridge Group for the History of Population and Social Structure, UK, authors of English population history from family reconstitution: summary results , wrote the 98 book 7he Population History of England, This book has received approximately 70 citations since publication. Schiffer, whose paper Toward the identification of formation pmeesses was discussed earlier in connection with research front #85-864, is the author of Behavioral Archeology. E This 976 book has been cited in about 0 publications. Catharine A. MacKinnon, author of Feminism, Marxism, method, and the 3 state: toward feministjurisprudence, wrote the 979 book Sexual Harassment of Working Women.9 This book has been citedapproximately 0 times. Sandra Lipsitz Bern, Department of Psychology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, author of Gender schema theory and its implications for child development: raising gender-aschematic children in a genderschematic society, is also the author of a highly cited 974 paper, The measurement of psychological androgyny, which appeared in the Journal of Consulting arsa Clinical Psychology. 0 This paper, which was the subject of a 98 Citation Cbsic commentary, II introduced a new masculinity-femininity scale that treated masculinity and femininity as two independent dimensions. The scale made it possible to categorize individuals as androgynous thatis, having both masculine and feminine characteristics, This paper has been cited over 500 times. It was cited in Alice i?rrough the Microscope, a 980 book discussing various aspects of women and science. SSCZ Coverage As I mentioned in the first part of this essay, there is some overlap in coverage of items in the SSCI and in S sother indexes, including the SCI and the Arts & Humanities Ci/ation Indexm (A&HC~). Figure is a flowchart illustrating the process by which Potential SSCI articles are selected. As the flowchart demonstrates, items from journals that are fully covered in the SSCZhave a direct path to the SSCI database. Some items, however, appear in SCI journals that are selectively covered in the SSCZ. Selective coverage means that these items undergo various evaluations to decide if they are to be processed for the SSCI. A selection algorithm, for example, is employed to examine the source item s references. The aigorithm establishes a ratio of SSCZjournal references to the total number of references in an article to decide if it should be included in the SSCZ.In other words, if a certain percentage of an item s references were pub lished in SSCZjournals., that is one factor that can warrant inclusion in the SSC. The references are also examined by S strained indexers, who determine their relevance to the social sciences. Talrfe4: fwmsai locationsof the institutionalaffdiations listed by authors in the Bibliography,accordingto total apwrances (column A). B =number of papers coauthored with researchers affiiated with institutions in other counties. C= mtiorud locationsof institutions listed by coauthors. Country ABC us 45 Chile New York California 0 Connecticut 3 hdana 3 Kansas 3 Maryland 3 Colorado Massachusetts Minnesota Pennsylvania Wisctinsin Arizoua Delaware Illinois Iowa Michigan Missouri New Jersey Ohio Oklahoma Texas Washington Washington, DC UK Australia Chile France I 40 0 lius 0 At this juncture in the flowchart, items from selectively covered journals are either pocessed for the SSCI or excluded. All the Items, however, whether processed for the SSCI or not, are potential source items for he A&HCI, for the Compuhfath Citation Inkxm, or for both. Therefore, items from lelectively covered journals undergo another kcision procedure. A further illustration of the overlap in covxage (journal coverage, in this case) is profided in Figure. In addition to showing low many journals each index fully covers, he figure shows the overlap Lxmveenthe in- ~exesregarding the journals that they selectively cover, The SSCI, for example, fully :overs approximately,4(k)journals. As the irrow denotes, the SSCI also draws on the SCIfor potential items. Over 3,300 journals were covered. In 986 the SSC select- XIarticles fkom,375 additionaljournrds iniexed in the SC.As in the process described lbove, SCI items are scrutinized to gauge heir appropriateness for inclusion in the 33 Fii I: Processingsequenceforticks thatare poterrriafsscp sourceiternaandits relationto thescf, CA4CW, kda&hci, - - # EsiNo m CitationIndex (Sscf) asocialsciences myaal m [- + lajrs&hijrng I,---, J Flowchart Key. Journaf determination: ardclea from fidly covered SSCI journals are directly input 0the S.SC/ databa=. Articles from journals in the SCl database tie examined individually for selective coverage.. Articles covered in the SCf are anafyzed in a variety of ways prior to selection for rhe SSC/ A. The selection algorithm employs an article s references to establish whether the ratio of SSCI journal references to tie total number of references warrants inclusion in tfre SSCI B. Knowledgeable indexers examine articles for their relevance to the social sciences. C. A list of keywords signals a sncitd-sciences item.. Articles from fully covered SSCI journals and the articles chosen from the selectively covered journals are processed for the SSC, Any other SCI source items are ~t processed in the SSCf. IV, All source items from both the SC and the SSCdatabases undergn further analysis as pntential source items for the,4&hci and CMCI. These undergo the same decision processes as those described in step II. V. Any single snurce item nray appear in one or more source indexes, All references from that snurce item will be indexed in the cor respmrdingcitation index. SSCZ. Similarly, CompuM
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