Surface Waves

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a reference about rayleigh wave
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  GNH7/GG09/GEOL4002 EARTHQUAKE SEISMOLOGY AND EARTHQUAKE HAZARD Observational Seismology Lecture 4Surface Waves and Dispersion  GNH7/GG09/GEOL4002 EARTHQUAKE SEISMOLOGY AND EARTHQUAKE HAZARD Surface Wave Dispersion  GNH7/GG09/GEOL4002 EARTHQUAKE SEISMOLOGY AND EARTHQUAKE HAZARD Observations stretchedstretcheddispersed PSSSSSSsurface waveswave packet Body waves Impulsive, short period (but later arrivals are stretched out due to attenuation). Higher frequencies make waves “sharper”. Surface waves Dispersed, arrive in wave packets. But note a wave  packet might be a single wavelet (oceanic arrivals).  GNH7/GG09/GEOL4002 EARTHQUAKE SEISMOLOGY AND EARTHQUAKE HAZARD Reminder  Phase velocity v = f λ AmptPeriod Tf –frequency = 1/T (s -1 ) λ -wavelength (m)But a whole spectrum of different period or frequency waves are emitted from an earthquake because earthquake rupture is a complex fracture  process.
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