The Effect of Elevated Temperature on Compressive Strength of Waste Glass Powder and Metakaolin Concrete

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This paper presents the results of the investigation into the effect of Elevated Temperature of 200⁰ C, 400⁰ C, 600⁰ C, 800⁰ C and 1000⁰ C on the compressive strength of Waste Glass Powder (WGP) and Metakaolin (MK) concrete. Plain, binary (containing 10% WGP only) and ternary concretes (containing 10% WGP with 5, 10, 15 and 20% MK) were produced and cured for 90days. The results showed that generally strengths decrease with increase in temperature and MK content up to 200⁰ C. Concrete cubes made with (5- 15) % MK achieved the 28days target strength of 25N/mm2 even at 600⁰ C. The optimum replacement level observed was M10%W10% at 400⁰ C with compressive strength increase of 18.3% compared to the control samples at the same temperature. The data obtained were subjected to regression analysis and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) in the MINITAB 16 statistical software. The model developed to predict compressive strength with MK and Temperature as predictors was highly significant at 5% level. The coefficients of determination, R2 of 95.8% for the model is reasonably high, indicating a good correlation between the response and the predictor variables.
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   American Journal of Engineering Research (AJER) 2017 American Journal of Engineering Research (AJER) e-ISSN: 2320-0847 p-ISSN : 2320-0936 Volume-6, Issue-2, pp-63-69 www.ajer.org  Research Paper Open Access   www.ajer.org Page 63 The Effect of Elevated Temperature on Compressive Strength of Waste Glass Powder and Metakaolin Concrete Musa, Abdullahi* 1 , Duna, Samson 2 and Mohammed, Abba-Gana 3   * 1 Graduate student, Department of Civil Engineering, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria 2  Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria 3  Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria ABSTRACT:    This paper presents the results of the investigation into the effect of Elevated Temperature of 200 ⁰    C, 400 ⁰    C, 600 ⁰    C, 800 ⁰    C and 1000 ⁰    C on the compressive strength of Waste Glass Powder (WGP) and  Metakaolin (MK) concrete. Plain, binary (containing 10% WGP only) and ternary concretes (containing 10% WGP with 5, 10, 15 and 20% MK) were produced and cured for 90days. The results showed that generally  strengths decrease with increase in temperature and MK content up to 200 ⁰    C. Concrete cubes made with (5-15) % MK achieved the 28days target strength of 25N/mm 2  even at 600 ⁰    C. The optimum replacement level observed was M10%W10% at 400 ⁰    C with compressive strength increase of 18.3% compared to the control  samples at the same temperature. The data obtained were subjected to regression analysis and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) in the MINITAB 16 statistical software. The model developed to predict compressive  strength with MK and Temperature as predictors was highly significant at 5% level. The coefficients of determination, R 2  of 95.8% for the model is reasonably high, indicating a good correlation between the response and the predictor variables. Keywords:    Compressive strength, Elevated temperature, Metakaolin, Regression and Waste glass powder. I.   INTRODUCTION The risk of fire outbreak increases with modernization, and this is because modern surroundings are full with objects made from highly flammable materials, which are potential ignition sources. All over the world, concrete structures are exposed to high risk of fire and hazards daily, resulting in human and materials losses [1]. High temperature have negative effects on concrete because it causes the decomposition of hardened cement paste and aggregate, it decreases the stiffness of concrete and increases irrecoverable deformation [1]. Reference [2] reported that the fire resistance of concrete can be improved by partial replacement of cement with pozzolanic materials such as (Rice Husk Ash, Fly Ash, and Saw dust ash, Metakaolin (MK), Waste Glass Powder (WGP)) just to mention a few. Glass is a unique inert material that has similar oxide composition to that of Portland cement and could  be recycled many times without changing its chemical properties [2]. Waste glass is readily available in most  part of the world. There is no clear information about the total amount (quantity) of waste glass generated in the whole world, due to poor documentation in the Middle East and African countries including Nigeria [2]. However, according to the United Nation, the estimation of solid waste in 2004 is about 200 million tones, out of which seven (7%) is waste from glass which is equivalent to about 14 million tones [2]. The non- biodegradable nature of waste glass makes its disposal to landfills a problem, while cement and concrete industries can provide an environmentally friendly means of disposing it. Use of WGP in concrete not only helps in reducing the cost of cement in concrete production, but also has numerous other benefits such as reduction in landfill cost, saving in energy, and protecting the environment form possible pollution effects. Incorporation of WGP in concrete brings additional advantage such as increased workability, reduced drying shrinkage and increased resistance to chloride ion penetration [3]. However, the major disadvantage of WGP in concrete is the reduction in strength due to weak bonding between the smooth glass particles and the cement especially at temperatures of 300 ⁰ C and above [3]. Hence, there is a need to incorporate additional pozzolanic material such as metakaolin to modify the properties of WGP concrete at elevated temperature. Metakaolin (MK) is a resultant product of calcined kaolin at 600-900 ⁰ C. It improves strength and concrete durability through the acceleration of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) hydration and the pozzolanic reaction with calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH) 2 ) and had proven to have good fire resistance when blended with cement in concrete up to 400 ⁰ C [4, 5]. Human safety in the case of fire is one of the major considerations in  American Journal of Engineering Research (AJER) 2017 www.ajer.org Page 64 cooperated in the design of buildings. It’s therefore, extremely necessary to have a complete knowledge about the behavior of all construction materials at elevated temperature before using them as structural element. Therefore, this study is geared towards assessing the effect of elevated temperature on the strength of concrete containing waste glass powder and metakaolin. II.   MATERIALS AND METHODS Materials:  The waste glass or discarded glass bottles were collected from coca-cola depot in Bauchi state  Northeast Nigeria. It was sorted out, washed and sun dried before crushing it by a mechanical crusher to smallest possible size, and then sieved using 75µm British Standard sieve size. The kaolin was obtained from Alkaleri Local Government Area of Bauchi State Northeast Nigeria. After air drying, it was calcined at 700 ⁰ C to produce metakaolin (MK). After cooling the resultant MK was grinded using pestle and mortar and then sieved using 75µm British Standard sieve size. Ashaka brand of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) was used for this study, and the properties of the cement conform to BS EN 197 (1992)-part 1 specification. The coarse aggregates used for the study was normal weight dry aggregates from an igneous rock source with a maximum size of 20mm, the coarse aggregates was procured from Triacta quarry site in Bauchi state Northeast Nigeria. The dry fine aggregates used for the study was obtained from a stream at Bayara town along Bauchi-Dass road,  Northeast Nigeria. The aggregates were tested in accordance with BS 882: (1983) specification. The water used for the study was from tap source which is free from impurities and almost fit for drinking. 2.1   Characterisation of waste glass powder (WGP) and metakaolin (MK) Chemical analysis of the representative samples of waste glass powder and metakaolin were carried out using XRF spectrometer to ascertain the oxide constituents. The test was conducted at the quality control laboratory of Ashaka Cement Factory Gombe, North Eastern Nigeria. The result of the oxide composition of WGP, MK and Ashaka cement is presented in table 2. 2.2   Slump Test Slump test of the freshly prepared concrete was carried out to determine the effect of WGP/MK cement replacement on the workability of concrete. The test was conducted in accordance with BS EN 12350: Part 2 (1999) specifications. 2.3 Production of concrete using constituent materials Concrete cubes of size 100mm x 100mm x 100mm were produced using the six (6) mix proportion as  presented in table 1, and cured for 90days to determine the compressive strength of the concrete before and after heating. The water-cement used was 0.48 by weight of cement. The cured concrete cubes were heated at 200 ⁰ C, 400 ⁰ C, 600 ⁰ C, 800 ⁰ C and 1000 ⁰ C, the temperature was maintain for a period of one hour to achieve the thermal steady state, the heating was conducted in accordance with BS 8110 Part 1: (1997) specification. The study focused on concrete strength of grade 25N/mm 2 . MK and WGP were used as cement replacement in concrete production. The levels of replacement for cement with MK were at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 percent while the WGP was kept constant at 10% cement replacement in line with [6-9] recommendations. A total of one hundred and eight (108) samples of concrete cubes were cast, cured, heated and tested. For each temperature, three (3) cubes were produced and the average of the three results was recorded and used. 2.4   Compressive strength test The compressive strength test was carried out on the hardened concrete before and after heating the samples. The samples were tested using the ELE motorized compression machine. The test was conducted in accordance with BS EN 12390, Part 4 (2000) specifications. The compressive strength of the concrete cubes was determined using equation (1). . . . (1) Table 1:  Mix proportions of constituent materials used for MK/WGP concrete production MIX ID Constituents Materials (Kg/m 3 ) Binders Aggregates WGP (Kg/m) MK (Kg/m) Cement (Kg/m) Coarse (Kg/m) Fine (Kg/m) Water (Kg/m) M0W0 0 0 385 1170 663 185 M0W10 32 0 346 1170 663 185 M5W10 32 14 329 1170 663 185 M10W10 32 27 311 1170 663 185 M15W10 32 41 294 1170 663 185 M20W10 32 55 277 1170 663 185  American Journal of Engineering Research (AJER) 2017 www.ajer.org Page 65 III.   RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 3.1 Oxide Composition and Physical Properties of Waste Glass Powder (WGP) The result of chemical analysis conducted on WGP reveals the presence of similar oxides to those of cement as shown in table 2, which implies that it can be used as cement replacement materials. The sum of oxides of Silicon, Iron and Aluminium is 75.43% exceeds the 70% minimum specified by ASTM C618 (2012) for raw or calcined pozzolana (class N). The combined alkalis (N 2 O + K  2 O) percentage of 13.41% is high and thus increases the possibility of the destructive aggregate alkali reaction which causes disintegration of concrete [7]. Another interesting oxide present is sulphur trioxide (SO 3 ) which is 0.1% and is below the maximum of 4% specified by ASTM C618 (2012) which shows the tendency for improved durability and prevent unsoundness of the paste [8]. The result of some physical properties of WGP is presented in table 3. The loss on ignition (LOI) which is a measure of organic and carbonate content and sediment in WGP is 3.53% which is below the maximum of 10% specified by ASTM C618 (2012). The low LOI of WGP indicates its high reactivity when  blended in concrete [9]. The specific gravity of WGP is 2.61, while that of Ashaka cement is 3.15. This indicates that WGP is lighter than cement and more volume of WGP will be required to replace equal weight of cement in concrete. The pH of WGP is 7.8, this value shows that WGP is neither acidic (pH<7.0) nor alkaline (pH>11.0) but neutral (pH between7-11). This implies that WGP can be used in concrete without much concern for durability related problem [9]. 3.2 Oxide Composition and Physical Properties of Metakaolin(MK) The result of chemical analysis conducted on MK reveals the presence of similar oxides to those of cement as shown in table 2, which implies that it can be used as cement replacement materials. The sum of oxides of Silicon, Iron and Aluminium is 95.99% exceeds the 70% minimum specified by ASTM C618 (2012) for raw or calcined pozzolana (class N). The combined alkalis (N 2 O + K  2 O) percentage of 1.43% is low and thus reduces the possibility of the destructive aggregate alkali reaction which causes disintegration of concrete [10]. Another interesting oxide present is sulphur trioxide (SO 3 ) which is 0.02% and is below 4% maximum specified  by ASTM C618 (2012) which shows the tendency for improved durability and prevent unsoundness of the paste [10]. The result of some physical properties of MK is presented in table 3. The loss on ignition (LOI) which is a measure of organic and carbonate content and sediment in MK is 1.76% which is below 10%, the maximum specified by ASTM C618 (2012). The low LOI of MK indicates its high reactivity when blended in concrete [11]. The specific gravity of MK is 2.50, while that of Ashaka cement is 3.15. This indicates that MK is lighter than cement and more volume of MK will be required to replace equal weight of cement in concrete. The pH of MK is 9.5, this value shows that MK is neither acidic (pH<7.0) nor alkaline (pH>11.0) but neutral (pH  between7-11). This implies that MK can also be used in concrete without much concern for durability related  problem [11]. Table 2:  Chemical Composition of Waste Glass Powder (WGP) and Metakaolin (MK) Oxide Waste Glass Powder (%) Metakaolin (%) Ashaka Cement (%) S i O 2  69.40 52.67 19.68 Al 2 O 3  3.81 41.96 6.44 Fe 2 O 3  2.58 1.37 3.32 CaO 11.54 1.23 60.92 MgO 0.67 0.26 0.97 SO 3  0.10 0.02 2.28 K  2 O 0.43 1.34 0.85  Na 2 O 12.98 0.09 0.12 Table 3:  Some Physical Properties of Cement, WGP, MK, Fine Aggregate and Coarse Aggregate Property Cement WGP MK Fine Aggregate Coarse Aggregate Specific Gravity 3.15 2.61 2.50 2.62 2.66 Bulk Density (Kg/m) - - - 1530 1415  pH - 7.8 9.5 - - Loss on Ignition 1.0 3.53 1.76 - - Blaines Fineness (m 2 /Kg) 370 305 367 - - Aggregate Crushing value (%) - - - - 22.33 3.3 Workability of WGP/MK-OPC Blended Concrete The results of the slump test carried out on the concrete with varying percentage of metakaolin (MK) as cement replacement are presented in table 4 while figure 1 shows the plot of slump versus MK in percentage. All the slumps values obtained were the true type of slump which is suitable for most concrete works. The results also shows that the slump decreases with increase in the amount of MK, which indicates that more water  American Journal of Engineering Research (AJER) 2017 www.ajer.org Page 66 is required to maintain the same consistency as the MK content increases. For instance, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% MK content decrease slump by 19.05%, 33.33%, 42.86% and 52.38% respectively. This implies that MK absorbs more water than Portland cement in concrete. All the values of slump obtained falls within the limit for class S1 (10mm-40mm) specified by BS-EN 206-part 1: (2000). Table 4:  Slump test result of OPC-MK/WGP blended concrete Mix-ID Slump(mm) M0W0 26 M0W10 21 M5W10 17 M10W10 14 M15W10 12 M20W10 10 Figure 1:  plot of slump versus metakaolin (MK) content in concrete 3.4 Compressive strength test result The result of compressive strength test on OPC-MK/WGP concrete is presented in table 5 and shown in figure 2. The result reveals that the compressive strength decreases as the MK content increases from the ambient temperature (25 ⁰ C) up to 200 ⁰ C. At temperatures of 400 ⁰ C and above, the compressive strength of M0%W10%, M5%W10% and M10%W10% increased with increase in temperature.   For instance, at (M0%W10%) replacement, there was a strength decrease of 1.69%, 1.10% with an increase of 14.53%, 20.20%, 45.56% and 12.73% when compared to the strength of control specimen at temperatures of 25 ⁰ C, 200 ⁰ C, 400 ⁰ C, 600 ⁰ C, 800 ⁰ C and 1000 ⁰ C respectively. Similarly, (M5%W10%) exhibited strength decrease of 3.28%, 2.52% with an increase of 15.96%, 67.14%, 134.57% and 29.10% at temperatures of 25 ⁰ C, 200 ⁰ C, 400 ⁰ C, 600 ⁰ C, 800 ⁰ C and 1000 ⁰ C respectively, when compared to the strength of control specimen. Concrete containing (M10%W10%) exhibited strength decrease of 4.21%, 3.28% with an increase of 18.30%, 75.81%, 218.26% and 148.73% at temperatures of 25 ⁰ C, 200 ⁰ C, 400 ⁰ C, 600 ⁰ C, 800 ⁰ C and 1000 ⁰ C respectively, when compared to the strength of control specimen. In a similar manner, concrete containing (M15%W10%) exhibited strength decrease of 6.27%, 6.00% with an increase of 15.28%, 73.69%, 182.56% and 125.09% at temperatures of 25 ⁰ C, 200 ⁰ C, 400 ⁰ C, 600 ⁰ C, 800 ⁰ C and 1000 ⁰ C respectively, also when compared to the strength of control specimen. Concrete containing (M20%W10%) exhibited strength decrease of 9.80%, 11.63% with an increase of 7.70%, 54.24%, 125.36% and 95.27% at temperatures of 25 ⁰ C, 200 ⁰ C, 400 ⁰ C, 600 ⁰ C, 800 ⁰ C and 1000 ⁰ C respectively, when compared to the strength of control specimen. From all the results  presented, it can be observed that higher MK content results in greater reduction of Compressive strength. This  behavior may be attributed to the replacement of cement with MK in concrete, results in the reduction of tri-calcium silicates (C 3 S) which is a main strength contributing compound, hence the reduction in the compressive strength of the concrete [12]. At temperatures of 400 ⁰ C and above the increase in compressive strength recorded may be attributed to dense concrete formed as a result of hydrothermal interaction between the cement  particles and MK/WGP incoporated due to the rise in temperature with the liberated free lime during hydration reaction [12]. These are all strong indication of the ability of pozzolanic material to improve strength of concrete with increase in temperature [13]. Table 5:  Compressive strength test results for OPC-MK/WGP blended concrete Mix ID Compressive Strength(N/mm 2 ) 25C 200C 400C 600C 800C 1000C M0W0 32.05 31.73 25.19 16.04 6.19 2.75 M0W10 31.50 31.38 28.85 19.28 9.01 3.10 M5W10 31.00 30.93 29.21 26.81 14.52 3.55 M10W10 30.70 30.69 29.80 28.20 19.70 6.84
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