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Higher education exerts considerable influence on the larger society. Besides the utility idea liberal cultural ideals and research play a significant role in shaping human minds. In western Europe systems of higher education assumed the level of dealing with mass higher education around the year 1970’s. The event was realized nearly three decades earlier in the U.S. and e...
TranscriptIT!-E U#ATION-$O%-Ar&tio'&() +or pri,&ti&tio' o+ )dc&tio' b(ish)d i' U'i,)rsit0 Tod&0%OE AN I1A#T O$ HIHE% E U#ATION V..3AIN 4   HIGHER EDUCATION AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE . Much of the discussion over the part hiher education is to p!a is in the conte#t of industria! chane and !o$a!isation and is do%inated $ &hat %iht $e ca!!ed a'technocratic i%perative. The issue can $e ta(en up at t&o !eve!s.A.Response to ro&th in socia! de%and for hiher education &hich econo%ic chaneand heihtened aspirations has created.).The current industria! revo!ution ter%ed as the technica!*scientific revo!ution has pushed up de%and for inte!!ectua! !a$our. Thus a rea! !a$our %ar(et for universit raduates has deve!oped. If the universit is to fu!fi!! the function of trainin thespecia!ists needed $ the corporate &or!d+ hiher education %ust $e refor%ed in afunctiona! direction. Gro&th in the tertiar or service sector for instance+ can $eeffective! %et $ ,uantitative e#pansion in the no of students proceedin a!onesta$!ished curricu!u% !in(aes and path&a s fro% hiher education to !a$our force.This can $e acco%p!ished $ orientin the content of stud to&ards interdiscip!inar &or( or %ore vocationa!! $iased courses. The tas( can $e acco%p!ished &ithout an structura! chane.-.The %ore for%ida$!e tas( that hiher education is $ein as(ed to fu!fi!! &ithin theovera!! conte#t of industria! chane especia!! + the infor%ation techno!o revo!ution+is a %ore co%p!e# one. Universities are a!so cast as enines of socio*econo%ic andtechno!oica! chane+ the $asic o$ective of hiher education $ein to c!ose thetechno!o ap $et&een the deve!oped and the under deve!oped &or!d. This tas( can $e acco%p!ished on! $ re*enineerin the universit structure as current! constituted to foster a %ore sti%u!atin research environ%ent conducive for innovation. /.T&o additiona! issues need to $e ta(en note of0 t pes of o$s that &i!! e%ere and thet pe of s(i!!s thouht to $e re,uired.).There is !itt!e aree%ent reardin the occupationa! profi!e that %a e%ere fro% theinfor%ation techno!o revo!ution. 1o%e anticipate %u!tip!ication of e#ecutive an 2 Depart%ent of Econo%ics+ ã Associate 3rof. 4Retd.51choo! of Open Learnin+ Universit of De!hi.)  %anaeria! positions &hi!e others thin( that the o$s &i!! $e created in the %arina!service sector. /ut the i%portant aspect is not the accurac $ut the unsta$!e nature of an prediction that can $e %ade. Hiher education operates on a certain deree of  prediction to cover the '!ead ti%e6 $et&een the entr of one cohort+ its ,ua!ificationand its e%erence on to the %ar(et p!ace often resu!tin in a %is%atch $et&eensupp! and de%and.-.There is !itt!e aree%ent $et&een industr and hiher education on the t pe of ,ua!ifications needed. 7or instance+ there is a consensus on the desira$i!it of increasin co%puter !iterac . /ut this shou!d not $e %isconstrued as havin each%an $ein his o&n prora%%er. It shou!d $e ta(en as a device to faci!itateacceptance of techno!oica! chane. /ut+ then this is+ o$vious! not the tas( of theuniversities. Ho&ever+ the %ain area of disaree%ent appears to $e in the deree of  o$ specific s(i!!s to $e incorporated into hiher education Courses. Moreover+ it is pertinent to under!ine that the vie& co%%on to %an fir%s is that the t pe of s(i!!sre,uired are enera! rather than specific a$i!it to ana! 8e+ to co%%unicate+ to adaptto chane+ and capacit for hard &or(. 1OCIAL DI9I1ION O7 LA/OR  In pre*capita!ist societies+ direct inheritance of occupationa! position &asco%%on. In these societies the $asic productive unit &as the fa%i! . Trans%ittin thenecessar production s(i!!s to the chi!dren as the re& up &as a si%p!e tas(. Even inthe ear! capita!ist econo% + the c!ass structure &as reproduced throuh theinheritance of ph sica! capita! $ the offsprin. The Indian socia! division of !a$our 4the varna s ste%5 is a c!assic e#a%p!e &hich &as reproduced eneration after eneration si%p! throuh the ac,uisition of s(i!!s and education &ithin the fa%i! ./ut such a rep!ication has $eco%e %ore co%p!e# and intricate in the present da industria! societ as the socia! division of !a$our has co%e to $e differentiated $ the t pes of co%petence and educationa! credentia!s as &e!! as o&nership of capita!. The pro$!e% of inheritance is no& not so si%p!e. The para%eters of inheritance have chaned. The crucia! co%p!ication arises $ecause education andhiher !eve! s(i!!s are e%$edded in hu%an $eins and un!i(e ph sica! capita!+ theseassets cannot $e passed on to the offsprin at death. In the conte%porar societ &hich has co%e to the ter%ed as a technocratic societ + education and hiher order s(i!!s p!a a do%inant ro!e in the hierarch of production. As noted $ 3rof.Ga!$raith the contro! over production has a!read passed on to the technocrats fro%the o&ners of capita!. The situation can $e saved in favour of the do%inant c!ass on! if the s(i!!s and educationa! credentia!s can so%eho& $e passed on &ithin thefa%i! . The universities are therefore ca!!ed upon to :refor%; the%se!ves. Thereare t&o trends discerna$!e a!read &hich see( to reinforce the e#istin ine,ua!ities.).The eco!oica! niche6 of hiher education in ovt. e#penditure is no& no !oner secure as is evident fro% the ovt. refusa! to under&rite socia! de%and for Hiher education an %ore. -  -.The ne& po!ic $ased on privati8ation see(s to fortif socia! division of !a$our+a!!a in the fears of the ru!in c!asses &hich appears threatened $ %ass hiher education. The po!ic see(s to achieve this o$ective $ introducin a s ste% of radation $ den in a !eve! p!a in fie!d.<.It %ust $e $orn in %ind that the $est universities in the U1 !i(e Harvard are private! funded+ $ut the donors have a$so!ute! no sa in %anain the universit . The haveno ro!e in either in the ad%ission of the students or the appoint%ent of the facu!t or for that %atter in the cu!tura! !ife of the universit . In India+ privati8ation %eansrunnin 'dip!o%a %i!!s6 !i(e an other co%%ercia! esta$!ish%ent so!e! &ith the%otive of %a(in %one . The pri%ar tas( of education is to deve!op critica! facu!t &hich is anathe%a to education %anaers as po!ic %a(ers+ not even their !ast priorit . HIGHER EDUCATION AND E=ELLENCE Hiher education e#erts considera$!e inf!uence on the !arer societ . /esides theuti!it idea !i$era! cu!tura! idea!s and research p!a a sinificant ro!e in shapinhu%an %inds. In &estern Europe s ste%s of hiher education assu%ed the !eve! of dea!in &ith %ass hiher education around the ear )>?@6s. The event &as rea!i8ednear! three decades ear!ier in the U.1. and erst&hi!e 1oviet Union. hat does%ass hiher education %ean B Even thouh the tippin point is not si%p! statistica!+the statistica! di%ension is of vita! sinificance. The &ho!e concept of '%ass6 asopposed to 'e!ite6 hiher education depends on it. uantitative! spea(in+ the $order!ine $et&een the t&o is crossed &hen ) of the re!evant ae cohort 4)*-5attend such institutions. 4Tro&+ ?F5.The s ste% of Hiher Education %ust first co%p!ete the ,uantitativerevo!utions $ attainin this critica! %ass. The ,ua!it &i!! e%ere fro% the phasetransfor%ation &hich &i!! e%ere as a %eta%orphoses. In India+ on!  of there!evant ae cohort are enro!!ed in the institutions of hiher !earnin. /ut there isneed for caution. Hiher education needs to $e defined proper! . Accordin toO.E.C.D. the usua! criteria in these %atters identifies hiher education as consistinof those courses of a nature and standard that !ead direct! to post*raduate stud .The e#a%p!e of De!hi Universit is var revea!in. De!hi Universit has a student popu!ation a$out - !a(hs. The %aorit of the students $e!on to &hat is (no&n as/.Co%.43ass5 and /.A.43ass5. Accordin to the definition these students do noteven ,ua!if to $e inc!uded as part of Hiher education. These and %an other courses are for a!! practica! purposes ter%ina! courses. If the definition is strict! app!ied the students participation rate of  &hich is ridicu!ous! !o& &ou!d $econsidera$! sca!ed do&n. In contrast hiher education in the deve!oped countrieshas a!! the potentia! to %ove on to &hat has $een ca!!ed the 'universa! stae6 of itsevo!ution &hen enro!!%ent !eve! attains -*< of the re!evant ae roup. In India+ <   panic has a!read ripped the po!ic %a(ers and a!! atte%pts see( to restrict theevo!ution rather than enhance it. The reatest da%ae that the po!ic prescriptionentai!s is the riid criteria for success. It stif!es innovation and prevents universitiesfro% adaptin to ne& cha!!enes. Co!!ees and universities can succeed in %an different &a s. Universities serve the function of preservin and trans%ission of (no&!ede. E#tension of (no&!ede ta(es p!ace throuh orani8ed research.Hiher education a!so fu!fi!!s the ro!e of socia!i8ation. The !arer socia!i8ationfunction of shapin the %ora!s and character of students+ &hich has !are! $eenshe!ved needs to $e resurrected. Most of a!! the s ste% of hiher education %ustaddress the ,uestion of e%po&er%ent of the disadvantaed section of the societ .These are the ,uestion of not %eans $ut of ends+ not of techni,ues $ut of va!ues.These are the ,uestions that re,uire direct dia!oue $et&een hiher education andits pu$!ic+ not  par administration   interposee .  F
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