The Wing Institute Summit 2007

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The Wing Institute Summit 2007. Is RtI Evidence-based?. What Would Confirm RtI As An Evidence-based Process?. Hierarchies of Evidence Confirmation through Randomized Clinical Trials that RtI is effective Efficacy studies - research settings Effectiveness studies - field based settings
The Wing InstituteSummit 2007Is RtI Evidence-based?What Would Confirm RtI As An Evidence-based Process?Hierarchies of Evidence
  • Confirmation through Randomized Clinical Trials that RtI is effective
  • Efficacy studies - research settings
  • Effectiveness studies - field based settings
  • Meets the What Works and The Campbell Collaborative standards
  • Rigorous research supporting comparable models (models that are comprised of all RtI components)
  • Confirmation of RtI effectiveness through rigorous research of RtI components
  • Progress monitoring
  • Evidence based selection of interventions
  • Tiered intervention model (public health model)
  • What is the Current Evidence Supporting RtI?
  • Efficacy Research: RtI studies in research settings
  • Randomized Clinical Trials completed?
  • None
  • Quasi-experimental studies completed
  • Minimal
  • Effectiveness Evidence: RtI studies in field settings
  • Randomized Clinical Trials Completed?
  • None
  • Quasi-experimental studies completed
  • MinimalWhat is the Evidence Supporting RtI Components?
  • Research on the components of RtI
  • Progress monitoring
  • Extensive
  • Evidence-based selection
  • Extensive
  • Public Health - tiered (intensity level) intervention (prevention) model
  • ExtensiveWhat is the Evidence Supporting RtI Comparable Models?Evidence of rigorous research of similar approaches built around the Public Health Tiered Prevention Model
  • Positive Behavior Supports - Behavior
  • Randomized Clinical Trials in process
  • Project Target - Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
  • 90 School Study - University of Oregon
  • Direct Instruction - Academics
  • American Institute for Research, CSRQ Report on Elementary School Comprehensive School Reform Models - 56 studies & 12 met rigorous standards for research - November 2005
  • When Designing an Experimental StudyWhat Do We Compare RtI To?
  • Compare RtI to Current Practices
  • Student Progress: Pre And Post RtI Implementation
  • How Do We Know If RtI Works?General Education
  • Progress Monitoring
  • Academic Progress
  • Report Cards
  • Attendance
  • High Stakes Testing: National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP)
  • Behavioral Progress
  • Expulsion
  • Detention
  • Arrest
  • Office referrals
  • How Do We Know If RtI Works?Special Education:
  • Eligibility
  • Learning Disabilities (LD)
  • Special Education Referrals
  • Student Progress Monitoring
  • Report Cards & High Stakes Testing
  • Standardized Test: Brigance, Woodcock Johnson , etc.
  • Developmental Standards
  • Curriculum based measures
  • IEP Progress
  • Systems Monitoring
  • Early Intervention
  • Time in Special Education
  • Review of the Research
  • “Meta-analytic Review of Responsiveness-to-Intervention Research: Examining Field-based and Research Implemented Models” - Matthew K. Burns, James J. Appleton and Jonathan D. Stehouer - Journal of Psycho-educational Assessment 2005; 23; 381
  • Study Design
  • A Review of four large scale RtI models: Heartland Agency (Iowa Model), Ohio’s Intervention Based Assessment, Pennsylvania’s Instructional Support Teams, and Minneapolis Public Schools Problem Solving Model
  • The study compared field-based and research based models
  • 21 studies met criteria to be included in the study
  • All studies were quasi-experimental in design
  • The Study examined two categories of Outcomes Measures:
  • Student Outcomes: Academic skill assessments, time on task, task completion, and growth in skill acquisition
  • Systemic Outcomes: Special Education referrals, placements, Time in services, and # students retained in grade
  • Results of the Study
  • Results of the Study - Both field based and research based RtI models demonstrated significantly strong effects
  • UEE = a weighted estimator of effect incorporating sample size of each studyResults of the Study
  • Results of the Study: Outcome comparison of field based and research based models
  • The Unbiased Estimates of Effect (UEE) was larger for systemic outcomes in RtI field based models
  • The Unbiased Estimates of Effect (UEE) was larger for student outcomes in RtI Research based models
  • Study Conclusions
  • The study found ample evidence that field based RtI models consistently produced strong effects
  • Both RtI models demonstrated improvement in student as well as systemic outcomes
  • Large scale RtI models led to fewer LD students being identified
  • On average less than 2% of students were identified as LD in the field models as compared to the US Dept of Ed national rate of 5.7%
  • RtI early identification of reading did not increase the number of students identified for special education, but indicated that it reduced the numbers. Note: reduction in identification alone is not sufficient to make claims of effectiveness!
  • Study Recommendations
  • Randomized Clinical Trials should be conducted to definitively answer questions of causation.
  • Further research should be conducted on implementation fidelity
  • Further development of special education outcome measures should be conducted to include; referrals and placement, time spent in special education, and grade retention.
  • Further research should be conducted to identify the discrepancy in results observed between field based and research based implementation.
  • Challenges to Building the RtI Evidence Base
  • Substantial impediments to randomized clinical trials
  • Identification of measurable RtI outcomes
  • Maintenance of control groups throughout the study period
  • Resources limitations
  • Time required to complete studies
  • Obstacles hinder adoption
  • Limitations to training opportunities
  • Compromises to implementation fidelity
  • Conclusion
  • Although much research remains to be conducted on RtI, current evidence holds great promise for RtI offering:
  • Delivery of more effective services than the current problem solving model(s)
  • Delivery of services earlier than current practices
  • Recommendations
  • Conduct randomized clinical trials on RtI as a system
  • Efficacy studies - research settings
  • Effectiveness studies - field based settings
  • Organize the RtI component research data to make it more accessible to educators
  • RtI is reviewed by What Works Clearinghouse and The Campbell Collaboration and meets standards of evidence of these organizations
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