WHOWILL SAVE THEWORLD? Climate protection and climate policy in Germany and worldwide

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WHOWILL SAVE THEWORLD? Climate protection and climate policy in Germany and worldwide Worksheet 1 Side 1/1 BACK TO THE FUTURE Craaaassssshhhh! The time machine comes to a standstill. Fiona is rubbing her
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WHOWILL SAVE THEWORLD? Climate protection and climate policy in Germany and worldwide Worksheet 1 Side 1/1 BACK TO THE FUTURE Craaaassssshhhh! The time machine comes to a standstill. Fiona is rubbing her behind and pulling a face. Felix, are you a crash-happy pilot or what? she asks. She never was all that convinced of the vehicle s comfort, and they have had a number of experiences during their flight through the millennia. But this really takes the biscuit! We are back in the year 2005, says Felix. Reality usually is a bit harder, my little cousin. Aysha and Manuel also still seem somewhat bemused by their landing in the future. Or are they feeling nostalgic? Is this the end of our lovely trip?, Aysha wants to know. Felix smiles in a superior fashion. Once again, he knows more than the others. No, he says. The trip is only just beginning. Aysha doesn t get it. I think the futurometer is pointing to zero? This gets Manuel s attention. He peers at the display. Zero! Big fat zero! There is no power left for travelling into the future. From now on, time travel will take place in real time: That s another 25 years until the year 2030! He won t be seeing Saranchimeg for another 25 years. By then, he will be 40 and Saranchimeg years isn't that long, old friend, says Felix. Can the guy read people s minds too? Manuel wipes a silly tear from his cheek when he looks at his friend. He s always got this superior smirk on his face. It even seems to be getting on Fiona s nerves now. Not when you compare it to the age of a dinosaur fossil, she snaps back. Felix gets serious then: Can you remember our station in the year 1979? That was 26 years ago. That was when scientists first warned us that climate change was imminent. And what has happened since then? Fiona unbuckles her safety belt and opens the door. She s had enough of the hard seats, and her bottom is still sore. Still, she grimaces with pain when she tries to jump suddenly out of the machine. The others look at her, part questioningly, part sympathetically. Stop staring, Fiona presses on. I m off to save the world. She s right, asserts Felix. We all need to grit our teeth in future. But do you believe Saranchimeg, Sergio and all the others in the year 2030 would be where they are today if we hadn t got the ball rolling? Smarty pants, thinks Aysha. Saranchimeg, whispers Manuel. Covering the time machine with a tarpaulin, Aysha asks: What now? The world is vast. Where do we start? Each of them looks undecidedly at the corner of the tarpaulin they are holding. What we need is a plan, asserts Felix. A map or something. Or something is about right, mimics Fiona. What do you think, Manuel?! He looks up, startled: Who? What? You daydreamer! I had my mind on other things , Manuel defends himself, and unwittingly gives Felix the word he is looking for. That s what we need a mind map! What s that? TASK: Do you know? What could Felix have meant with a mind map ? Worksheet 2 Side 1/1 WHO WILL SAVE THE WORLD? WHO WILL SAVE THE WORLD? Felix and Fiona have got into a fight! They are arguing over who can do something about climate protection, something effective. Felix believes it is down to each individual. You can t change anything except your own life, he says. Will you never shut up with your pearls of wisdom, counters Fiona. Should each of the 80 million people in Germany draw up their own personal climate protection programme? Ideally in the form of a mind map? Why not? But many of them can t even read and write! Or don t want to, interjects Manuel. Exactly. That s why the government needs to take care of it, Fiona feels vindicated. But that is not what Manuel meant. The brainiest people need to come up with something, he says the scientists. This makes Aysha laugh. What do you expect them to do? she says. It s industry which needs to do something. The large conglomerates. They re the ones responsible for most of the pollution. CLIMATE PROTECTION Once again, Felix gives a superior smile, but says nothing. Not yet, because before he can do so, Fiona explodes and attacks Aysha. Yes, sweetheart, and who do you think will persuade the conglomerates to stop emitting so much pollution? This is of course a rhetorical question: The government! Fiona looks at everyone triumphantly. Felix waits until her gaze alights on him, then says: The big companies are all multinationals. They operate worldwide! And the pollution doesn t just call a halt at the border! What can one government do alone? Well, really, my old friend, exclaims Manuel. First you want to make every individual person responsible, and now you don t trust an individual government! What s your problem?, counters Felix. Individuals can join forces, for example in NGOs. Engious? Yes, Fiona, NGOs non-government organisations. There is silence. After a while, Aysha says: Don t all of the players we have mentioned influence climate protection? Each in their own way? But Fiona is still unwilling to compromise. I suppose you'll be expecting us to set up a work group next?! Or an international climate conference, says Felix, who once again has the last word. TASK: 1. Who are the key players in climate protection, i.e. who is capable of influencing the climate? Write the terms on the spaces in the mind-map! 2. Explain the terms and give brief definitions of the individual players! CLIMATE CONFERENCE: THE WORLD AT ONE TABLE Worksheet 3 Side 1/2 Fiona, Aysha, Manuel and Felix want to try out a climate conference. They have agreed that for reasons of simplicity, only government representatives should participate, and not all the other players. But perhaps simplicity is the wrong word There are more than 200 countries, which need to be combined into groups. But which criteria should they use? Geographical, according to location? North, south, east and west? According to climatic zones? Or religions? Perhaps according to economic systems? The friends finally agree on six groups of countries. What could they be? Aysha has drawn them on a map of the world, like this: TASK: 1. Give suitable titles to the six groups of countries! Which countries belong to which groups? What do the countries have in common what links them? Enter the relationships in the boxes, and transfer them into the table on the next page. CLIMATE CONFERENCE: THE WORLD AT ONE TABLE Worksheet 3 Side 2/2 USA, Canada, Japan... Germany, France, Poland, Italy Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Qatar, Nigeria India, China, Brazil, Mexico Ethiopia, Congo, Peru, Cambodia Group of countries Share of the world s surface area in % Share of the world s population in % Economic power (GDP per capita) CO 2 - emissions (total) CO 2 - emissions (per capita) Number of votes at the climate conference TASK: 2. Calculate the share of the earth s surface area and the world population held by each group of countries. Find out the figures for economic power and CO2 emissions. You can use reference books, atlases or the Internet, e.g. climate and atmosphere. Write the results in the table. 3. Working in pairs or small groups, discuss how the votes at the conference could be shared out between the countries. Should distribution be based on surface area, population share, economic power or CO2 emissions? Enter your result in the table. 4. Agree rules of conduct for the participants at an international conference! 5. The whole class should work together and evaluate the results! Worksheet 4 Side 1/2 SOS CLIMATE: THE KYOTO PROTOCOL Kyoto Protocol on the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change: ARTICLE 2 (1) Each Party in order to promote sustainable development, shall: a) Implement and/or further elaborate policies and measures in accordance with its national circumstances, such as: i) Enhancement of energy efficiency in relevant sectors of the national economy;... iv) Research on, and promotion, development and increased use of, new and renewable forms of energy, of carbon dioxide sequestration technologies and of advanced and innovative environmentally sound technologies; v) Progressive reduction or phasing out of market imperfections, fiscal incentives, tax and duty exemptions and subsidies... that run counter to the objective of the Convention...; vi) Encouragement of appropriate reforms aimed at promoting policies and measures which limit or reduce emissions ; vii) Measures to limit and/or reduce emissions of... greenhouse gases in the transport sector; ARTICLE 3 (1) The Parties shall, individually or jointly, ensure that their aggregate anthropogenic emissions of the greenhouse gases listed in Annex A do not exceed their assigned amounts with a view to reducing their overall emissions of such gases by at least 5 percent below 1990 levels in the commitment period 2008 to This is an excerpt from Articles 2 and 3 of the Kyoto Protocol. It was drafted at the 1997 Climate Conference in the Japanese city of Kyoto, and aims to reduce greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. This primarily relates to carbon dioxide (CO2). The Protocol is probably the best-known document on climate protection. One reason for this is that it took nearly eight years (1997 to 2005) before it was able to enter into force. As such, the words Kyoto Protocol have often been mentioned in the news. But as is so often the case, although everyone is familiar with the name, few people know what the Protocol actually says, even though it is just 20 pages of text. ARBEITSAUFTRAG: 1. What is the Kyoto Protocol's goal? 2. What is the current state of affairs, how many countries have acceded to the Protocol? Which countries have not acceded? 3. Why has it taken almost eight years for entry into force to be possible? Which provisions were agreed on for this in the Protocol? Worksheet 4 Side 2/2 SOS CLIMATE: THE KYOTO PROTOCOL In the Kyoto Protocol, the world's industrialised countries undertake to reduce their total emissions of greenhouse gases by 5 percent by 2012 compared with 1990 levels. There is no requirement on developing and newly industrialising countries to make a similar commitment. But hang on: If overall emissions are to be reduced by 5 percent, does that mean that each individual industrialised country is required to cut its emissions by 5 percent, or are there variations? In fact, some countries are required to make greater savings than others; some are even allowed to increase their consumption levels compared with For the European Union, for example, a savings target of 8 percent has been set compared with 1990 levels. However, this does not mean that each of the (then) 15 EU states is required to save 8 percent. For example, some of these countries have been set the following targets: Denmark -21,0 % France 0 % Greece 25,0 % Germany -21,0 % Finland 0 % Portugal 27,0 % United Kingdom -12,5 % Sweden 4 % Ireland 13,0 % Source: UBA In 1990, Germany was responsible for the emission of a total of 1,251,723 million tonnes of greenhouse gases, the bulk of which were CO2. By 2002, this quantity had been reduced to 991,421 million tonnes. As such, Germany has made excellent progress en route to achieving its climate target. However, not all sectors have been equally successful. The following chart shows the development of selected sectors in the area of energy consumption and hence also emissions of greenhouse gases in Germany since 1990: TREND: VARIED Sector share of final energy consumption (percent) Other mining and manufacturing industry Transport Households Trade, commerce, services TASK: Source: Arbeitsgemeinschaft Energiebilanzen Why did only the industrialised countries make commitments in the Kyoto Protocol? 2. What could be the reasons behind the differing savings commitments of the EU countries? 3. How far has Germany got with its savings target? 4. Which areas in Germany have reduced their share of energy consumption, and which ones haven t? What reasons could there be for this? 5. In future, where could greater progress be made with saving greenhouse gases? Make suggestions on how this could be achieved! Worksheet 5 Side 1/2 BAN OR REWARD? TOOLS IN ENVIRONMENTAL AND CLIMATE POLICY Fiona is beaming. She seems convinced that the reality backs up her argument. The Kyoto Protocol puts the onus primarily on governments to ensure that emissions of greenhouse gases are reduced. But Felix will not give up. The government itself is not at fault it is not the main polluter, he says. How can it persuade the general public and companies to emit less carbon dioxide and such like? Well, Fiona replies hesitantly, it could just ban it. Manuel laughs out loud. Ban it? Ban carbon dioxide? He can t stop laughing. Well, stop talking, then you won t need to breathe so much! But CFCs were banned too, retorts Fiona. The only thing which emits CFCs will be your old fridge when you chuck it away. It s still working OK, thank you, she retorts, and then actually shuts up. OK, so bans are difficult, says Felix, summarising their conclusions. What about strict rules? Or rewards!, exclaims Aysha. Three faces regard her questioningly. For example, someone who invents machines which emit fewer harmful gases could be subsidised by the state. And where will the money come from? Manuel wants to know. That s obvious, grins Felix, from those who emit the most. THIS IS HOW THE ECOTAX WORKS FUELS ELECTRICITY High level of consumption, lots of CO 2 HEATING (OIL, GAS) Becomes more expensive Consumption falls, less CO 2 Ecotax Additional revenues Labour costs are reduced Renewable energy sources are promoted Jobs are created Emissions are reduced Worksheet 5 Side 2/2 BAN OR REWARD? Government tools in environmental policy Ban Strict rules (e.g. limits) Financial incentive Ecotax Deposit on cans Ban on CFCs Energy Saving Ordinance Soot particle limits TASK: 1. The ecotax has been introduced in Germany to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. To which group of environmental policy instruments does the ecotax belong: is it a ban, a strict rule, or a financial incentive (reward)? 2. Classify the other instruments mentioned! Find other examples and classify them as well. 3. Working in pairs, discuss the pros and cons of bans, strict rules and financial incentives, bearing in mind the economic, social and ecological correlations. Worksheet 6 Side 1/1 PRESS AND PUBLIC RELATIONS OFFICE At a climate conference, negotiations and discussions can last for hours, often continuing well into the night. Even if the sessions are broadcasted live on television, few of us are able to sit and watch for that length of time. This is where the press comes in, to report on the conference. The journalists gather information, sort through the facts, and then write articles or produce pieces for TV and radio. The politicians would prefer the press to only publish what it has officially been told in written press statements or at press conferences. However, journalists ask questions and these can sometimes be uncomfortable for the politicians, as they are forced to explain their decisions. Sometimes they have to admit that things have gone wrong and explain why, even though they would rather sweep the problem under the carpet. Of course, journalists also have their own views. But they do not hide them in their newspaper articles, or in the headlines. If they want to put their views across and make readers think, they will write a comment, which is specially labelled as such. Surprising breakthrough at the Bonn Climate Summit. Shabby compromise at the eleventh hour Marathon negotiations culminate in great success Climate protection is as full of holes as Swiss cheese The UN Climate Conference in Bonn has approved a compromise agreed with Japan, which clears the way for implementation of the Kyoto Protocol to reduce greenhouse gases. The breakthrough only came after a night-time marathon of negotiations. The German Government hailed the outcome a great success. The alternative to the compromise would have been indefinite postponement, said Deputy Government Spokesman Bèla Anda. The rules for a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by industrialised countries were agreed in Bonn. Some countries, particularly Japan, have been generously allowed to offset their forests. The environmental organisation Greenpeace spoke of a historical step, but called for the rapid development of effective measures to protect the world climate. Greenpeace criticised Canada, Japan and Australia for endeavouring to block an agreement for ratification of the Kyoto Protocol right up to the end. As a result, it argued, the Kyoto Protocol now has more holes than a Swiss cheese. (From: Die Welt, 24 July 2001) TASK: 1. How does the general public find out what is discussed at a climate conference and which results are agreed? 2. How do journalists get hold of the information? 3. Which of the four suggested titles best matches this article? Discuss in class and hold a vote! Perhaps you could invent your own headline? WHO KNOWS ABOUT CLIMATE PROTECTION? - THE QUIZ Worksheet 7 Side 1/1? Who are leading players in the field of climate? A B Manufacturers of air-conditioning units Non-government organisations (NGOs) Question 1? China, India and Brazil are A Newly industrialising countries B Developing countries Question 2? A In which year was the Kyoto Protocol adopted? 1985 B 1992 C 1997 Which conditions must be met for the Kyoto Protocol to enter into force? Question 3 A? C? A? A What kind of climate policy instrument is the ecotax? One regulation on climate protection in Germany is The ecotax The solidarity surcharge C 55 percent of the world s countries must have signed it The countries who ratify the Convention must cover at least 55 percent of the earth s surface A ban The tobacco tax B B A strict rule (limit) B D It must be ratified by 55 countries who in 1990 were responsible in total for at least 55 percent of the greenhouse gas emissions emitted by industrialised countries C An economic incentive The 1516 purity regulations Question 6 Question 5 Question 4 SHOULD WE BE PUTTING THE CLIMATE AT RISK?! Worksheet 8 Side 1/1 All correct!, shouts Felix, irritating Fiona yet again with his superior smirk. We wouldn t have expected anything less from our smarty pants, she says, also grinning. But I got everything right too. So did I, exclaim Aysha and Manuel simultaneously. However, Felix refuses to let them wind him up, and says dryly, Keep cool! The same words are also written in large letters on the box Felix lifts out from under the table with panache. The other three are astonished. Fiona lifts the lid curiously, then exclaims outraged: A game? Haven t we got anything better to do? Don t we want to save the world? I thought we could practice a bit with this first, says Felix. That s what the game is about. Aysha is already reading the instructions on how to play the game. Cool, building factories, that s great. Show me!, demands Fiona, trying to snatch the booklet out of the other girl s hand. Felix gives her her own copy. He also has one for Manuel. Whilst the other three are reading, Felix starts preparing the materials. In the silence, Manuel suddenly exclaims: If only Sergio and Saranchimeg were here now. Then we would... have six players!, Fiona interrupts him, irritatedly. Can t you think of anything else? We can play the game with four, you know! I was just saying, says Manuel defensively. But Felix has another variant in mind anyway. It would be really good if the whole class were to play. That would create a proper conference feel! How is that supposed to work? Aysha wants to know. Felix explains: We simply split up the class into delegation leaders, members of the delegations, members of the press, and if the class is large enough interested members of the general public Delegation leaders They move the game pieces after discussion with their delegation. They can also negotiate with delegations from the other country groups. They should also provide the press with information. Del
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