The Tudor Monarchs

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1534 - 1603. The Tudor Monarchs. and the Reformation in England. The Tudor Dynasty. In 1485, Henry Tudor defeated Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field to become King Henry VII. Several months later he married Princess Elizabeth of York, Richard’s niece
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1534 - 1603The Tudor Monarchsand the Reformation in EnglandThe Tudor Dynasty
  • In 1485, Henry Tudor defeated Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field to become King Henry VII.
  • Several months later he married Princess Elizabeth of York, Richard’s niece
  • This ended the Wars of the Roses
  • Henry and Elizabeth had four children:
  • Arthur, the Prince of Wales
  • Henry, Duke of York (later Henry VIII)
  • Margaret (later Queen of Scotland)
  • Mary (briefly Queen of France, then Duchess of Suffolk)
  • In 1501, Henry made an alliance with Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain. As part of the alliance, Henry’s son Arthur married Ferdinand and Isabella’s third daughter, Catherine of AragonSix months later, Arthur suddenly died
  • Catherine insisted that their marriage had never been consummated
  • Henry VII proposed marrying Catherine to young Henry to keep the Spanish alliance
  • Pope Julius II issued a dispensation to allow Henry to marry his brother’s widow
  • Henry VIIIRoyal Wedding
  • Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon married in 1509, shortly after the death of Henry VII
  • Henry was 18; Catherine was nearly 25
  • The young Henry VIII:
  • Had a Humanist education and patronized the English humanists
  • Patronized Polydore Vergil, author of the first modern history (Historia Angliae)
  • Devout Catholic – went to Mass daily
  • Athletic
  • Musically gifted – wrote both poetry and music
  • War Against France
  • 1513
  • Henry led troops into France, allied with Ferdinand of Aragon and the HRE Maximilian. Left Catherine as regent
  • James of Scotland took the opportunity to attack England
  • Battle of Flodden – James and much of Scots nobility were killed
  • Greater victory than anything Henry had in France!
  • “Defender of the Faith”
  • In 1517, Luther wrote his 95 Theses
  • Henry wrote the “In Defense of the Seven Sacraments” refuting Luther’s teachings
  • The Pope gave Henry the title “Defensor Fidei”
  • Questions about the Marriage
  • In twenty years of marriage, only one of Henry and Catherine's children survived infancy – a daughter named Mary
  • During the mid-1520’s, Henry had two accidents that nearly caused his death – he began to be very concerned about the Succession
  • Henry needed a son to succeed to the throne when he died – there was fear that without a legitimate son to succeed, the Civil Wars would begin again
  • By 1522, Henry had begun to wonder if God was punishing him for marrying his brother’s widow (Leviticus 20:21) by denying him a legitimate son
  • Henry asked his Chancellor, Cardinal Wolsey, to investigate and see if there were any grounds for an annulment of his marriage to CatherineAnne Boleyn
  • The daughter of Sir Thomas Boleyn and Elizabeth Howard (sister to the Duke of Norfolk)
  • Raised at the French court where her father was a diplomat
  • A Lady-in-Waiting to Queen Catherine
  • Henry first noticed Anne in 1526 and wanted to make her his mistress – Anne refused
  • “The King’s Great Matter”
  • Henry petitioned the Pope for an annulment of his marriage to Catherine
  • Catherine insisted the marriage was valid and that she had never been a “true wife” to Arthur
  • Catherine’s nephew Charles V, King of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor, put pressure on the Pope not to annul the marriage
  • The Pope sent Cardinal Campeggio to England with orders to stall the case
  • Catherine appealed the case to Rome
  • Henry banished Wolsey in 1529 – he believed that Wolsey secretly favored Catherine. (Wolsey would die the next year)
  • The Spanish ambassador Chapuys said of Wolsey, “There never was nor will be a chancellor as honest or so thoroughly accomplished as he is.”
  • A Solution?
  • A strong Lutheran faction at court included Anne Boleyn and a university professor named Thomas Cranmer
  • Cranmer suggested to Henry that the Pope does not need to give the annulment; that English clergy could do it
  • The SplitIn 1534 Parliament passed:
  • The Act of Supremacy– said the monarch, not the pope, is the head the English Church
  • The Act of Succession– any children Henry has by Anne are the heirs to the throne (made Mary, his daughter by Catherine, illegitimate)
  • The English Church gave Henry his annulment; the Princess Mary was declared illegitimate Cranmer is named Archbishop of CanterburyPrincess Mary TudorQueen Anne Boleyn
  • In May of 1534, Anne was crowned Queen of England
  • The common people called her “The Great Whore”
  • In September, she gave birth to her daughter Elizabeth
  • Henry’s Church of England:
  • Catholic in doctrine
  • Clergy required to be celibate
  • Mass remained the same
  • Only two sacraments
  • Henry allowed an English translation of the Bible
  • Catholics were arrested as traitors; Lutherans were arrested as heretics
  • In 1535, Parliament ordered the execution of Sir Thomas More for refusing to sign the Act of Supremacy. More had been Henry’s close friend, Chancellor of England, and was a well known humanist and author of Utopia. The Catholic Church canonized him. Between 1535 and 1536, Anne had two miscarriages
  • Henry’s Chancellor, Thomas Cromwell, saw Anne and her supporters as a threat to his power with the king
  • He “found” evidence to accuse her of adultery with six men of the court, including her brother
  • Henry believed the evidence
  • In 1536, Anne was accused of adultery and executed on Tower GreenTen days later, Henry married the Lady Jane Seymour
  • A year later, Jane gave birth to a son, Edward
  • Jane died two weeks later of childbed fever
  • Henry would always consider Jane to be his “true” wife and her picture would appear in all “family” portraitsDissolution of the Monasteries
  • Henry began closing monasteries in 1536
  • By 1540, 563 had been closed
  • Most of the land was sold to nobility and gentry
  • This gained their support for the Reformation
  • The Pilgrimage of Grace
  • Led by Northern Catholics
  • Goal was to re-establish the Catholic Church
  • Was violently put down and its leaders executed as traitors
  • By 1537 the Reformation was accepted by most of the English
  • Cromwell’s Governmental Reforms
  • Privy Council – limited to 19 of the monarch’s closet advisors. Membership to depend on merit, not birth. Origin of the Cabinet.
  • Monarch’s proclamations are to have the same effect as an Act of Parliament
  • Protestant Alliances
  • Cromwell convinced Henry that he needed to make an alliance with the Lutherans in Europe
  • A marriage was arranged between Henry and the younger sister of the Duke of Cleves, Anna
  • The marriage did not work out and was annulled within six months
  • Wife Number 5!
  • The main reason why Henry’s marriage to Anna of Cleves didn’t work out is that Henry was “in love” with someone else
  • In 1540 he married Catherine Howard – a cousin of Anne Boleyn
  • She’s 18; he’s 49
  • A year later Catherine was accused of committing adultery with younger members of Henry’s court and was executed for treason
  • Catherine Howard and Henry VIIIProtestant Reforms
  • “The Great Bible” – English translation. Henry mandates that every church should have a copy that anyone can read.
  • “The King’s Book” – defines Anglican doctrine and practice
  • In 1544, Henry asked Archbishop Cranmer to prepare an English worship service – this will become the Book of Common Prayer
  • Catherine Parr
  • A widow
  • Exceptionally well educated
  • Protestant leanings
  • Had written a book of prayers and meditations
  • Henry died in 1547
  • He was survived by his three children:
  • ElizabethMaryKing Edward VIAccomplishments of Henry VIII
  • Founder of Church of England
  • Promoted Parliament as the lawmaking body of England
  • Patronized the arts and literature
  • Updated many governmental institutions
  • Promoted men of ability
  • “Father of the English Navy”
  • Henry’s Act of Succession
  • Edward inherits the throne
  • If Edward dies without children, then Mary inherits
  • If Mary dies without children, Elizabeth inherits
  • If Elizabeth dies without children, then the children of Henry’s daughter Mary (Francis Brandon and her daughters) inherit
  • Edward VIEdward was nine years old when Henry VIII died; a Council of Regency was established by Henry’s Will, headed by Edward’s uncle, Edward Seymour, Duke of Somerset
  • By March 1547, Seymour was ruling without the Council
  • Seymour committed England to a disastrous war against Scotland
  • In 1549, Seymour was overthrown by John Dudley, the Earl of Warwick
  • Dudley allowed Edward, who was in his early teens, some power, especially in the area of religionEdward was a Protestant and influenced by the teachings of John CalvinAct of Uniformity of 1549
  • Established a Protestant Church in England
  • All religious services were to be held in English
  • Archbishop Cranmer’s accomplishments:
  • The Book of Common Prayer 1552 – Protestant worship
  • 42 Articles of Faith – no Mass, 2 sacraments, Protestant doctrine, non-celibate clergy
  • The result – a “moderate Protestantism”Edward’s Death
  • In the winter of 1552 – 1553, Edward became ill
  • Although he recovered somewhat, the illness progressed quickly
  • It may have been tuberculosis or some other disease of the lungs
  • In the summer of 1553, Edward died
  • Before his death he changed his father’s Act of Succession to make his Protestant cousin Jane Grey, the grand-daughter of Henry’s sister Mary, heir to the throneThe people of England did not accept Jane as Queen
  • Mary, the daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon, was much beloved, even though she was Catholic
  • The pro-Jane rebellion was put down; Jane was arrested and sent to the Tower where she was executed (even though she was only 16!)
  • Mary was crowned Queen Mary I
  • Mary IImmediately passed laws which reinstated the Catholic Church
  • Persecuted Protestants – many fled to Switzerland or the Netherlands
  • Executed many Protestant bishops, including Archbishop Thomas Cranmer
  • The execution of over 300 Protestants during her reign earned Mary the title ofBloody Mary However, she executed many fewer religious dissenters than were regularly being killed on the ContinentMary married her cousin Philip II of Spain
  • Involved England in Spain’s wars
  • Last English possessions on the continent were lost as a result of Philip’s wars’ - including Calais
  • This was very unpopular with the English people who began to see being Protestant as being anti-Spain
  • Mary died in 1558 and Elizabeth, the daughter of Anne Boleyn, became Queen
  • Mary had not wanted to leave the throne to her Protestant sister and attempted to persuade Elizabeth to maintain the Catholic faith – but Elizabeth refused
  • Elizabeth IElizabeth and Religion
  • It is not known what Elizabeth’s personal religious views were
  • The Catholic Church considered the marriage of Elizabeth’s parents invalid and Elizabeth to be illegitimate
  • She was raised a Protestant
  • She liked the ritual of the Catholic Church
  • Elizabeth was first and foremost aPolitique A ruler who put good government and peace in the realm above personal religious beliefs and national religious conformityThe Elizabethan Settlement
  • Act of Supremacy of 1559 – re-established the Church of England and said the monarch is the Supreme Governor of the Church
  • Act of Uniformity – everyone had to worship in Anglican churches
  • Elizabeth allowed some Catholic practices to continue – vestments, Real Presence, Elevation of the Consecrated Host, music, candles on the altar
  • Puritans disapproved of these “Catholic” practices, but in the shires most people approved of them
  • “I will make no windows into men’s souls” – people could believe what they wanted in private“Regnans in Excelsis”
  • Papal Bull in 1570 that excommunicated Elizabeth
  • Encouraged her Catholic subjects to rebel against her
  • Led to Catholicism being declared illegal in England and practicing Catholics considered as traitors
  • In general, Elizabeth was able to steer a middle course between Catholics and Protestants
  • Fewer people were executed for religious reasons in England than on the Continent
  • The English Reformation
  • Established the Anglican Church – a via media (middle way) between Catholicism and Protestantism
  • Was relatively peaceful and well accepted by the English people
  • Did not lead to Civil War
  • England was largely uninvolved in the religious wars that took place on the European continent
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