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THEORIES OF MOBILE LEARNING. Nadiah Khalid Tan Shir Ley. Behaviourism. Learning- best facilitated through the reinforcement of an association (stimulus –response) Learning context- stimulus- response is always known as drill- feedback.
THEORIES OF MOBILE LEARNINGNadiah KhalidTan Shir LeyBehaviourism
  • Learning- best facilitated through the reinforcement of an association (stimulus –response)
  • Learning context- stimulus- response is always known as drill- feedback.
  • Mobile devices can enhance the behaviourist learning process
  • (Taylor and Sharples, 2006) Behaviourism
  • Teaching materials/ content specific questions : stimulus;
  • Responses from the learners: feedback
  • Fulfils the ‘drill and feedback’ requirement of a behaviourist learning paradigm.
  • Ketkin and Metcalf (2011)- information and content delivery takes place in various forms- (test, practices, quiz, listening-practice speaking)
  • Done through text messages (SMS), multimedia messages (MMS) and even voice recorder software.
  • Constructivism
  • Vygotsky
  • Child development- social negotiation and appropriation process
  • Criticised the dominant learning practices of schools (irrelevant, memorisation)
  • (Pachler, B Bachmair, Cook and Kress, 2010) Constructivism
  • Essential features of learning
  • a) creates the zone of proximal developmentb)learning awakens a variety of internal developmental processes (interaction, cooperation)
  • After internalisation, they form part of the child’s independent developmental achievement
  • Implication- phases within a student’s development are important to a child’s learning
  • Cook (2011)Constructivism
  • Knowledge construction -learners act within an environment and reflect
  • Learn skills and theories in the context which they are used
  • Mobile technologies can support social constructivist approaches to learning
  • Able to expand discussion and provide new ways for students to collaborate and communicate
  • (Cobcroft, Towers, Smith & Bruns, 2006) Constructivismii. Bruner
  • Learning- association of current and past knowledge.
  • Encourages self-discovery of principles
  • Instructors/ teachers- provide a conducive environment and effective tools
  • Mobile devices- provide opportunities for learners to embed in a realistic context and to access supporting tools.
  • (Taylor and Sharples, 2006; Ketkin and Metcalf, 2011)Situated Learning
  • Learning is not merely the acquisition of knowledge by individuals, but instead a process of social participation
  • cognitive apprenticeship- teacher (expert) vs students( apprentices)
  • Knowledge- authentic contexts; learners- participate within a community of practice.
  • E.g: PDA -observational note-taking, photo-taking and networked database inquiry.
  • (Taylor and Sharples, 2006; Ketkin and Metcalf, 2011)Situated Learning
  • Problem-based learning
  • develop students’ critical thinking skills
  • ill-defined problem that is reflective of what they would encounter as a practicing professional.
  • identify the areas of knowledge that they need to understand the problem
  • Situated Learning
  • Context awareness learning
  • gathering information from the environment to provide a measure of what is currently going on around the user and the device.
  • mobile devices- easily available in different contexts, able to facilitate the learning activity
  • E.g: multimedia museum and gallery, additional information about exhibits and displays can be provided based on the visitor’s location within them.
  • Socio-cultural theory
  • learning takes place in a social context (Rogers, 2002)
  • usually occurs first through interpersonal (interaction with social environment)
  • content and communication (teachers, experts, experienced colleagues, workmates, friends and family) are perceived to be equally important
  • mobile devices- facilitate the rapid access to other users anytime and anywhere.
  • (Taylor and Sharples, 2006; Ketkin and Metcalf, 2011)Socio-cultural theory
  • Collaborative learning
  • promote, facilitate and enhance interactions and collaborations between students
  • keep in touch with other students, share data, files and messages, connect to a shared data network
  • Socio-cultural theory
  • Conversational learning
  • learning is in terms of conversations between different systems of knowledge
  • mobile technology- provide a shared conversation space for students to interrogate and share their descriptions of the world
  • E.g: electronic measuring instruments, maps, and reference guides.
  • Informal and Life-long Learning
  • Informal- acquiring information through conversations, TV and newspapers, observing the world etc.
  • technology - support learning; seamlessly and unobtrusively blended into everyday life.
  • Mobile technology- reduced size, ease of use, personal, portable
  • Informal and Life-long Learning
  • lifelong learning- a means of providing people with crucial knowledge and skills
  • based on the belief that it is not practical to learn all the knowledge and skills they need solely from school, college or university.
  • need to enhance their knowledge and skills continually
  • E.g: students record their own reflections on activities or events, and share with other students via podcasting
  • Connectivism
  • Learning has moved in to an informal, networked, technology-enabled arena.
  • Appropriate learning theory for the digital age
  • Integration of principles explored by chaos, network, and complexity and self-organization theories
  • Connectivism
  • Learning- process of connecting specialised nodes or information sources
  • Learners improve their own learning by plugging into an existing network.
  • Learn through communities of practice, personal networks and through completion of work-related tasks.
  • Effective learning environment: the “know-how and know-what is supplemented with know-where
  • (Ozam &Kesim, 2011;Ketkin & Metcalf ,2011).
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