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What Is This Module About? Have you been to a place as beautiful as the one in the picture above? How wonderful it is to see such beauty! Look closely at the picture. Do you often see this kind of environment
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What Is This Module About? Have you been to a place as beautiful as the one in the picture above? How wonderful it is to see such beauty! Look closely at the picture. Do you often see this kind of environment around you? Look at the picture below. Is this what you often see? The trees in the picture have been cut down. Cans, bottles, plastics, and even dead animals float in the river. Do you want to live in this kind of environment? This module will make you more aware of the importance of the environment by providing you with the information about ecosystems. This module is divided into two lessons. These are: Lesson 1 Ecosystems and Their Components Lesson 2 Natural and Man-Made Ecosystems 1 What Will You Learn From This Module? After studying this module, you should be able to: explain what an ecosystem is; identify the components of an ecosystem; describe the role of the components of an ecosystem; and differentiate natural ecosystem from man-made ecosystem. Let s See What You Already Know Before you start studying this module, take the following test first to find out how much you already know about this topic. Encircle the letter of your choice. 1. Which is an example of an ecosystem? a. river c. dumpsite b. flowerpot d. all of the above 2. Which of the following is not an organism? a. man c. banana b. air d. cockroach 3. Orchids live and grow on tree trunks. This means that a tree trunk is the of an orchid. a. niche c. ecosystem b. community d. habitat 4. Which of the following make up a community? a. a group of people, plants, and animals in a house b. a herd of horses c. a plot of soil d. a school of milkfish 5. Which of the following is an abiotic component of an ecosystem? a. light c. tree b. worm d. bird 2 6. What do you call the process of food making in plants? a. electrolysis c. photosynthesis b. phytosynthesis d. thermosynthesis 7. When you eat both plants and animals, you are called a/an. a. autotroph c. herbivore b. decomposer d. omnivore 8. Given the food chain below, which part of the chain is the primary consumer? kangkong insect bird human a b c d 9. is a measure of stability in an ecosystem. a. Biodiversity c. Food chain b. Evolution d. Energy flow 10. A is a coastal ecosystem that is made up of layers of skeletons of a type of marine organism. a. coral reef c. bay b. forest d. coastal zone Well, how was it? Do you think you fared well? Compare your answers with those in the Answer Key on page 28 to find out. If all your answers are correct, very good! This shows that you already know much about the topic. You may still study the module to review what you already know. Who knows, you might learn a few more new things as well. If you got a low score, don t feel bad. This means that this module is for you. It will help you understand some important concepts that you can apply in your daily life. If you study this module carefully you will learn the answers to all the items in the test and a lot more! Are you ready? You may now go to the next page to begin Lesson 1. 3 LESSON 1 Ecosystems and Their Components There is a saying that no man is an island. It means nobody can live alone. Everyone needs people and other living and nonliving things in order to survive. Look at the picture above. It shows a man who is alone on his flying carpet. He is isolated from other people and things on earth. He does not eat nor drink. His nose is even clipped to keep him from breathing the air. Will he survive under these conditions? This lesson is about the interaction between living and nonliving things around you. After studying this lesson, you should be able to: differentiate among population, community, and ecosystem; identify the components of an ecosystem; and differentiate biotic components from abiotic components of an ecosystem. Let s Read What Is an Ecosystem? The word ecosystem is split into two parts: ecological and system. Ecological refers to the relationship between a living thing and where it lives. For example, a monkey lives on a tree for protection. It lives in the forest because the forest provides all the food that the monkey needs. A system is something that you do over and over. It is similar to your daily routine (waking up, going to work, going home, etc.). When you combine the two words you come up with ecosystem. This is what a living thing usually does with its surroundings, over and over again. 4 Let s Think About This Based on what you read above, can you name some ecosystems? You can compare your answers with some possible answers in the Answer Key on page 28. _ Let s Learn Look at the picture above. They show different environments. What do you mean by environment? Everything around you makes up your environment. Your immediate surroundings is your environment. For example, in your home your parents, brothers, sisters, friends, and relatives are the people in your environment. Dogs, cats, lizards, ants, and plants are other living things in your environment. Buildings, parks, churches, roads, gardens, and the community center are also part of your environment. Your environment is made up of all the people, things, plants, and animals around you. 5 What do you find in an environment? From the time you wake up in the morning until you sleep at night you see many things. You see the things inside your house, the sun as it rises and sets, and some plants and animals. Your friends, family, and pets are living components of your environment. The living part of your environment also includes things that you do not see such as bacteria and fungi. All these living things are part of the biotic environment. The living things in the biotic environment are also called organisms. Other than living things, do you also see nonliving things in your environment? Can you name a few of these? You probably see the water in a river, creek, or from the faucet. You see stones and rocks on the ground. You see the soil on the road you walk on. They are all nonliving things. They are called the abiotic components of the environment. The biotic and abiotic components of the environment interact constantly with each other. A stable environment where the living and nonliving things interact with one another is called an ecosystem. The branch of science that studies the relationship between organisms and their environment is called ecology. An ecosystem may be small such as a plant in a pot, an aquarium, an orchid on a tree, or even a drop of pond water. The plant in a pot interacts with ants, worms, and other organisms in the soil. It also interacts with the soil, water, and air which help it grow. A drop of pond water has very tiny organisms that interact with the water. 6 An ecosystem may be large such as a river, forest, rice field, lake, swamp, desert, island, or even a barrio or town. A small ecosystem: plant in a pot A large ecosystem: a farm Let s Try This Look at the picture above. It shows an ecosystem. Can you identify the biotic and abiotic components of this ecosystem? List them under the appropriate headings. Biotic Components Abiotic Components Compare your answers with those found in the Answer Key on page 28. Organisms can be divided into smaller groups. The smallest group an organism belongs to is called species. Species is a group of organisms that can, and normally do, produce offsprings that are capable of reproducing. We humans belong to the species Homo sapiens. Each species occupies a specific area and plays a particular role in an ecosystem. The place where species live and grow is called its habitat. For example, the sea serves as the habitat of oysters. 7 Let s Try This Do you know the answers to the following questions? 1. What is the habitat of orchids? 2. What is the habitat of birds? 3. What is the habitat of earthworms? 4. What is the habitat of water lilies? 5. What is your habitat? Compare your answers with those in the Answer Key found on page 28. Let s Learn Different species often share the same habitat. For example, a bird and a monkey may live in the same tree in a forest. Yet these animals have different roles within their habitats.the role or function of species in its habitat is called its niche. For example, the niche a snail occupies in an aquarium is eating the waste of the fish and hence, keeping its habitat clean. Organisms of the same species that live together and reproduce in a particular area at a given time is referred to as population. Ants that live in crevices in the foot of a tree, a school of catfish in a pond, a group of banana trees in a plantations, and even a group of people living together in a barrio or city are all examples of population. Groups of different populations that live together in the same area and depend on each other for food is called a community. For example, in an aquarium you will find a community of fish, snails, and plants. species population community ecosystem Different levels in an ecosystem A community in an aquarium interacts with the water, air, and sunlight thus forming an ecosystem. Refer to the picture above to see how an ecosystem is formed from different levels of organization. 8 In an ecosystem, there is a relationship among different organisms. There is also interaction between the organisms and their environment. Look again at the ecosystem in the picture on page 8. Even if you do not feed the fish they will survive. They can eat the leaves of the plants. The snails eat the waste of the fish. The plants provide the oxygen needed by the fish. The fish give off carbon dioxide that is used up by the plants. The water provides the fish a place to swim and live. Oxygen is dissolved in water for the fish to breathe. The different processes and interactions that continuously take place render stability to the ecosystem. Let s Try This 1. Visit a forest, farm, or subdivision. 2. On a sheet of paper, describe the interactions of the organisms and their environment. Compare your work with those provided in the Answer Key on page 29. Let s Learn The survival of an organism in an ecosystem depends on the delicate balance of energy, food, and other factors. For example, the production of food by green plants gives off oxygen as a by-product. Oxygen is a gas that is needed by animals to live. Another example is the role of water-dwelling decomposers or bacteria that break down dead plants and animals. They make rivers and lakes clean. Other processes that take place in the soil help in plant growth. Each species depends on another in several ways. Animals depend on plants for food and oxygen. Plants depend on bacteria in soil. Bacteria depend on decaying bodies of plants and animals. The different interactions in an ecosystem are shown in the picture below. animals plants soil Biotic and abiotic interactions 9 Let s Try This 1. Examine the picture on page 9. Then interpret it by answering the questions below. a. What does the soil do for the plants? b. What do the plants give the animals? c. How do plants and animals keep the soil fertile? d. Can an organism survive without other organisms? Why? Check your answers with those found in the Answer Key on page 29. Let s Learn The Abiotic Components of an Ecosystem. Abiotic or nonliving components include light, water, air, and temperature. These factors determine the growth and survival of organisms. They limit or control populations and stimulate organisms to adapt to their environment. Look closely at the abiotic factors in the ecosystem below. Can you name the abiotic factors in this ecosystem? 10 Light or Solar Energy Nearly all the energy on earth comes from the sun. The sun gives off solar or light energy. Solar energy warms the earth, evaporates water that falls as rain, and produces wind. The more important role of light energy from the sun is in the production of food by plants. The food-making process is called photosynthesis. Plants containing chlorophyll, a green pigment, convert light or solar energy into chemical energy in the form of food. This process takes place in the presence of water and carbon dioxide. The reaction is represented in the equation below. sunlight carbon dioxide + water simple sugar + oxygen Water Have you tried not drinking water for a day or two? You may survive without water for only a few days. Water is very important to all living things. Plants need it for making food. Animals need to drink water in order to survive. We humans use water for various activities. The earth s surface is composed of 70% water. However, 97% of this is salt water and is therefore not suitable for drinking. Only a small part (about 0.1%) of the water on earth is freshwater which can be accessed in lakes, rivers, deep wells, and the atmosphere. Let s Think About This How is water used? Compare your answer with that in the Answer Key on page Air Air is a mixture of gases. The chart below shows the average composition of air: 20.1% oxygen 78.1% nitrogen water vapor : % carbon dioxide : approx % helium, neon, krypton, argon, hydrogen, ozone, xenon: less than 1% Composition of Air Nitrogen is the most abundant gas in the atmosphere. It is an important component of many organic molecules such as proteins. Oxygen is the second most abundant gas in the atmosphere. It plays a vital role in life processes plants and animals need oxygen for respiration. Respiration is the process of combining oxygen with food molecules to produce energy for the organism to survive and grow. Another important gas is carbon dioxide. Can you recall the role of carbon dioxide in photosynthesis? The amount of water vapor in the air varies from place to place. This gas plays an important role in the water cycle. Temperature Would strawberry farms in Baguio grow well in Bulacan? Baguio has a cool temperature while Bulacan has a warm temperature. Temperature affects organisms. The activities of some organisms depend on changes in their environment s temperature. Each organism has a specific temperature requirement in order to survive. Strawberries, for instance, grow only in cool climates. Cacti, on the other hand, thrive in hot places. Each organism can only survive within a specific temperature range. If the temperature turns higher or lower than the required range, the organism will die. Soil Can trees grow without soil? Most organisms, except fishes, need a substrate (surface) on which to live. Soil provides the substrate for most of these organisms. It contains minerals, nutrients, and organic materials needed to support life. The Biotic Components of an Ecosystem The biotic components are classified as follows: Producers also called autotrophs. They are mostly green plants that make food from simple substances like air, water, and light energy. 12 Consumers also called heterotrophs. They are the macroconsumers (large or big consumers) in an ecosystem. These are the animals that feed on plants and/or other animals. a. Herbivores are consumers that eat only plants. Examples are horses, goats, and cows. b. Carnivores are consumers that eat only other animals. Examples are lions, tigers, and eagles. c. Omnivores are consumers that eat both plant and animals. Dogs, cats, and people are omnivores. Decomposers also called saprophytes. They are microconsumers. These are bacteria and fungi such as molds. They break down the complex compounds in the tissues of dead plants and animals. They absorb some of the decomposition products and release simple substances which in turn are used by plants. Let s See What You Have Learned Match the items in Column A with those in Column B. Write the letters only. A 1. The immediate surroundings of an individual 2. A group of organisms of the same species living in a certain area at a given time 3. Refers to all the populations occupying a given area 4. The interaction of a community and its nonliving environment 5. Component of an ecosystem that includes air, water, soil, and temperature 6. Component of an ecosystem that includes animals, plants, and microorganisms 7. Refers to all living things 13 B a. abiotic b. environment c. community d. ecosystem e. population f. consumers g. biotic h. decomposers i. producers j. organisms 8. Also known as autotrophs 9. Organisms that depend on plants and other animals for food 10. A group of organisms including bacteria and fungi Compare your answers with those in the Answer Key on page 30. Did you get a perfect score? If you did, that s very good! Keep up the good work. If you missed some items, study the lesson again before moving on to the next lesson. Let s Remember The environment refers to everything that surrounds an organism. The environment has both biotic and abiotic components. The biotic part of the environment is made up of all living things in the environment whereas the abiotic part is made up of all nonliving things in the environment. An ecosystem is made up of a community of organisms that are in constant interaction with their environment. Species is a group of organisms that can and normally reproduce offsprings that are themselves capable of reproduction. The place where species lives and grows is its habitat. The role that species play in its habitat is its niche. A group of organisms of the same species living together in a particular area make up a population. A community is made up of several populations that live together in the same area and depend on each other for food. The sun is the main source of energy in any ecosystem. It gives off light energy which is utilized by plants in the food-making process called photosynthesis. The abiotic components of an ecosystem includes water, soil, and air. The presence or absence, as well as quantity and quality of these components affect the living components of an ecosystem. The biotic components of an ecosystem can be grouped into producers, macroconsumers, and microconsumers. Macroconsumers are further grouped into herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores. 14 Natural and Man-Made Ecosystems LESSON 2 Do you often see the ecosystems shown in the upper pictures? They are natural ecosystems. Rivers, forests, and coastal areas have existed before you, your parents, or your great-grandparents were even born. The lower pictures show ecosystems created by people for their convenience. These are what we call man-made ecosystems. In this lesson you will find out about the different kinds of natural and man-made ecosystems. After studying this lesson, you should be able to: differentiate the kinds of natural and man-made ecosystems; describe some natural ecosystems in the Philippines; and tell the ecological importance of each ecosystem. 15 Let s Read Biodiversity Biodiversity is used to define the variety of living things in an ecosystem. This includes plants, animals, and bacteria. Biodiversity is very important to humans and the overall health of the world for three reasons. First, different species of plants, animals, and other living things have very complex interactions which scientists are just beginning to understand. Second, many of the plants and animals of the world hold the cure to diseases. Third, the variety of plants and animals creates many diverse and unique places which are pleasing to the eyes, and offer an escape from our modernized world. The amount of diversity of the world s mammal species is generally known. However, the exact numbers of other living creatures such as insects have yet to be discovered. It is this unknown which keeps scientists guessing at the total number of species that the world contains. Some put the estimate at 10 million species; others as high as 100 million. One thing is certain though: Humans are changing the various natural ecosystems in many regions. As a result, humans are accelerating the extinction of species of plants, animals and, other living things at an alarming rate. This accelerated extinction is occurring before we are even able to discover the potential and importance of these various and unknown species. Man
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